This Unit is about Accidents and First Aid

An accident is a sudden happening that causes harm to the body.

Dangers or effects of accidents to the body

  1. It leads to pain.
  2. It can lead to death.
  3. Accidents can damage some body organs, e.g. skin, brain, e.g.


Examples of common accidents

  • Cuts
  • Burns
  • Scalds
  • Bruises
  • Strains
  • Sprains
  • Animal bites
  • Fractures
  • Drowning / near drowning.
  • Poisoning

Common accidents at home and schools

  1. Fractures
  2. Scalds
  3. Strains
  4. Sprains
  5. Burns
  6. Cuts
  7. Animal bites
  8. Bruises

Road accidents

  • Being knocked by cars, bicycles, motorcycles.
  • Head on collision by two cars.
  • Overturning of speeding cars.

Causes of road accidents

  • Over speeding.
  • Over loading.
  • Driving cars in Dangerous Mechanical Conditions (DMC).
  • Careless driving.
  • Children playing on roads.
  • Roads in poor conditions.
  • Overtaking around sharp corners.
  • Driving under the influence of alcohol.
  • Carelessness as people cross the road.

How to control road accidents

  1. Avoid over speeding.
  2. Avoid over loading.
  3. Avoid overtaking in sharp corners.
  4. Follow road signs
  5. Cross a busy road at a zebra crossing.
  6. Avoid driving cars in dangerous mechanical conditions.
  7. Children should not play on roads.


Poisoning is the taking in of substances that can be harmful to the body.


A poison is any substance that can cause harm when taken into the body.

Examples of poisons

Corrosive poisons:

  • Petrol
  • Paraffin
  • Jim
  • Acid

Non corrosive poisons:

  1. Rat poison
  2. Insecticides
  3. Over dose of medical drugs
  4. DDT

Causes of poisoning

  1. Keeping poison under the reach of children.
  2. Keeping poison in soda or juice bottles.

First aid for corrosive poisons e.g. paraffin and jik

  1. Give the person plenty of milk, water or juice to dilute the concentration of the poison.
  2. Do not make a person who has taken corrosive person to vomit. This is because it could damage the lungs and throat.

First aid for non-corrosive poison e.g. overdose  

  1. Make the person vomit.
  2. Let the person drink a lot of milk, water with soap or salt in it to induce vomiting.

Prevention of poisoning

  1. Keep all poisons out of the reach of children.
  2. Do not keep poisons in soft drink bottles.

First aid

  1. First aid is the first help given to a casualty before being taken to the hospital.
  2. The first help given to an injured person before being taken to the hospital.

N.B.    A casualty is a person who has been injured in an accident.

A first aider is a person who gives first aid to a casualty.

Qualities of a good first aider

  1. Should be kind.
  2. Should be confident.
  3. Should be sympathetic.
  4. Should be empathetic.
  5. Should be knowledgeable.
  6. Should be clean.
  7. Should have common sense.
  8. Should be tactful.
  9. Should be quick.

Reasons for giving first aid

  1. To save life or to sustain life.
  2. To reduce pain.
  3. To promote quick recovery.
  4. To prevent further injuries.

A first aid box

It is a container in which items used for giving first aid are kept.


Items found in a first aid box

  • Bandage
  • Razor blade
  • Pain killers
  • Cotton wool
  • Safety pins
  • Pair of scissors
  • Plaster
  • Thermometer
  • Gauze
  • Spirit / iodine solution


N.B.    A first aid kit is a set of items used to give first aid.

Uses of the components of a first aid kit:

  1. Bandage is used for tying the injured part.
  2. Cotton wool is used for cleaning cuts and wounds.
  3. Plaster is used for covering open cuts.
  4. Spirit/iodine solution is used for killing germs on an open cut.
  5. Pain killers are used to reduce pain.
  6. Razor blade is used for cutting gauze, plaster, e.g.
  7. Safety pins are used for keeping the bandage in one position.
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