An accident is a sudden happening that causes harm to the body.
Dangers or effects of accidents to the body
- It leads to pain.
- It can lead to death.
- Accidents can damage some body organs, e.g. skin, brain, e.g.
COMMON HOME ACCIDENTS AND HOW TO AVOID THEM
Examples of common accidents
- Animal bites
- Drowning / near drowning.
Common accidents at home and schools
- Animal bites
- Being knocked by cars, bicycles, motorcycles.
- Head on collision by two cars.
- Overturning of speeding cars.
Causes of road accidents
- Over speeding.
- Over loading.
- Driving cars in Dangerous Mechanical Conditions (DMC).
- Careless driving.
- Children playing on roads.
- Roads in poor conditions.
- Overtaking around sharp corners.
- Driving under the influence of alcohol.
- Carelessness as people cross the road.
How to control road accidents
- Avoid over speeding.
- Avoid over loading.
- Avoid overtaking in sharp corners.
- Follow road signs
- Cross a busy road at a zebra crossing.
- Avoid driving cars in dangerous mechanical conditions.
- Children should not play on roads.
Poisoning is the taking in of substances that can be harmful to the body.
A poison is any substance that can cause harm when taken into the body.
Examples of poisons
Non corrosive poisons:
- Rat poison
- Over dose of medical drugs
Causes of poisoning
- Keeping poison under the reach of children.
- Keeping poison in soda or juice bottles.
First aid for corrosive poisons e.g. paraffin and jik
- Give the person plenty of milk, water or juice to dilute the concentration of the poison.
- Do not make a person who has taken corrosive person to vomit. This is because it could damage the lungs and throat.
First aid for non-corrosive poison e.g. overdose
- Make the person vomit.
- Let the person drink a lot of milk, water with soap or salt in it to induce vomiting.
Prevention of poisoning
- Keep all poisons out of the reach of children.
- Do not keep poisons in soft drink bottles.
- First aid is the first help given to a casualty before being taken to the hospital.
- The first help given to an injured person before being taken to the hospital.
N.B. A casualty is a person who has been injured in an accident.
A first aider is a person who gives first aid to a casualty.
Qualities of a good first aider
- Should be kind.
- Should be confident.
- Should be sympathetic.
- Should be empathetic.
- Should be knowledgeable.
- Should be clean.
- Should have common sense.
- Should be tactful.
- Should be quick.
Reasons for giving first aid
- To save life or to sustain life.
- To reduce pain.
- To promote quick recovery.
- To prevent further injuries.
A first aid box
It is a container in which items used for giving first aid are kept.
Items found in a first aid box
- Razor blade
- Pain killers
- Cotton wool
- Safety pins
- Pair of scissors
- Spirit / iodine solution
WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE IN A FIRST AID BOX VIDEO
N.B. A first aid kit is a set of items used to give first aid.
Uses of the components of a first aid kit:
- Bandage is used for tying the injured part.
- Cotton wool is used for cleaning cuts and wounds.
- Plaster is used for covering open cuts.
- Spirit/iodine solution is used for killing germs on an open cut.
- Pain killers are used to reduce pain.
- Razor blade is used for cutting gauze, plaster, e.g.
- Safety pins are used for keeping the bandage in one position.