ADJECTIVES p5

this unit helps understand how adjectives are used in English grammar

Adjectives are words which modify a noun

Examples

Young , new, old , blue, beautiful , big, tall , short, long , loud , talkative , colorful , handsome, orange, dangerous.

Forms of Adjectives

  1. Positive degree   – (one)
  2. Comparative degree – Compare two things / people

(Add –er   or more   to the adjectives)

3. Superlative degree – Compares more than two.

(Add – est, most to the adjectives)

 

  1. Add “r”   or   “st”

 

fine              finer            finest                              pure            purer           purest

safe             safer            safest                             idle              idler             idlest

wide            wider           widest                             simple          simpler        simplest

rude            ruder           rudest                             brave           braver          bravest

large            larger           largest                            wise            wiser           wisest

white           whiter                   whitest

 

 

  1. Double the last consonant

big               bigger          biggest                  hot              hotter          hottest

thin             thinner                  thinnest                glad             gladder        gladdest

wet              wetter                   wettest                 sad              sadder         saddest

fat               fatter                     fattest

 

 

  1. Add   ‘er”   or   “est”

tall                                  taller                               tallest

small                               smaller                            smallest

thick                               thicker                            thickest

high                                higher                             highest

young                                       younger                          youngest

long                                longer                                       longest

 

strong                                                                             hard

fast                                                                                 clear

new                                                                                rich

clean                                                                              poor

sweet                                                                             deep

few                                                                                 soft

cold                                                                                quick

clear                                                                               proud

near                                                                                loud

old                                                                                  short

clever

 

 

  1. Adjective which end with ‘y’ drop ‘y’   add   ‘iest’   or   ‘ ier’

 

happy                    happier                  happiest

ugly                      uglier                    ugliest

lazy                       lazier                     laziest

heavy                    heavier                  heaviest

dry                        drier                      driest

busy                      busier                    busiest

easy                      easier                    easiest

 

dirty

early

pretty

healthy

merry

THIS VIDEO SHOWS THE USE OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives that take       ‘more’       or       ‘most’

  1. beautiful                          more beautiful                          most beautiful
  2. careful                                   more careful                          most careful
  3. comfortable                  more comfortable                     most comfortable
  4. ignorant                             more ignorant                           most ignorant
  5. wonderful                      more wonderful                      most wonderful
  6. handsome                       more handsome                     most handsome
  7. interesting
  8. industrious
  9. studious
  10. dangerous
  11. difficult

 

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVE

These change the original word.

  1. bad                                           worse                worst
  2. good                                         better           best
  3. well                                          better          best
  4. far                                            further         furthest
  5. little                                          less               least
  6. much                                         more            most
  7. many                                         more            most
  8. ill                                                  worse          worst
  9. far                                                farther         farthest
  10. old                                               elder             eldest

 

EVALUATION

Use the correct degree of adjective given in the brackets to complete the sentences

  1. Micheal is the ………………………………..boy in our class. (good)
  2. Joseph is …………………………………..than Richard. (heavy)
  3. The box is ……………………………than that box. (light)
  4. My house is ……………………………than yours. (near)
  5. Which is the ………………………………. building in Nairobi? (tall)
  6. Peter is ………………………………than George. (weak)
  7. Mary is the …………………………..girl in our class. (short)
  8. Please give me …………………………..milk. (much)
  9. What is the ………………………….news? (late)
  10. I came …………………………….than you. (early)
  11. He is the …………………………..of the twins. (old)
  12. Show is the …………………………..cloth. (fine)
  13. This flower is …………………….than that flower. (beautiful)
  14. His mother is …………………………today. (well)
  15. James is the ……………………………………of the two boys. (clever)ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
    1. In the order of adjectives, the adjectives have to come before the noun they are describing while in relative pronoun and “and’ the adjectives come after the nouns they are describing.
    2. In the order of adjectives, the number or quantity adjective comes first while in relative pronoun and “and” the number of quantity adjective comes before the noun it is describing.
    3. In “relative pronoun” and “and” when the answer has poor ending (incomplete) you create your own ending to have complete meaning.
    4. In use of ‘relative pronoun” and “ad” we separate the adjectives with commas while in the order of adjective we don’t put commas. This is because the commas are used only when the last two adjectives are separated with “ and”

     

    Order of adjectives

    Number / opinion/ shape / size / age / color / origin/ material .   (NOPSHACOM)

    Examples

    1. One smart small young brown Ugandan girl.
    2. Several good wide new black Korean T.V sets.
    3. Three stubborn short horned new brown bullocks

     

    EVALUATION

    Join the following sentences in order of adjectives without using “and”

    1. I solved numbers. They were good. They were fifteen.
    2. The tree is large. It is green. It is wonderful. It was cut down.
    3. She brought children. They were young. They were black. They were ignorant. They were slim.

    They were from Uganda. They were several.

    1. My father took a man. The man was brown. The man was from India.

    The man was handsome.     The man was fat.

    1. The ladies are hard working. They are ten. They are brown.

    They are old. They are red – eyed. They are from Zaire.

    1. The priest gave him stones. They were indigo. They were gracious. They were many.
    2. He was given a shirt. It was red. It was cotton.

    It was made from India. It was new. It was big.

    The use of positive degree with

    As ………………..as,   not so ………………as

    As …………………………as 

     

    This as ……………as conjunction is used when comparing things or people in affirmative sentence.
    As ………as……… is used to illustrate the equality of the nouns being compared.

     

    Examples

    1. James is hard working. Sarah is hard working.

    James is as hard working as Sarah.

     

    1. My sister is proud. I am also proud.

    My sister is as proud as I am.

     

    1. After   as ……….as, any pronoun used should be in a nominative case. e.g.   I, they, she, he, it, you

     

    Not so …………………as

    It is used when one sentence is negative and another is am affirmative sentence.

    In negative sentences we say ……………..not so …….as…….

     

     

    Examples

    1. This room is big. That room is not big.

    That room is not as big as this one

     

    1. I am not old. He is old.

    I am not as old as he is

     

    1. My father is tall. My mother is taller.

    My father is not as tall as my mother.

     

    EVALUATION

    Re – write using…………..as…………….as   or   …………not so ……………..as

     

    1. Simiyu is very clever. Basibala is very clever.
    2. Awino is very brave. She is like a lion.
    3. Sanyu is bright. Her sister Betty is brighter.
    4. Wamanga is kind. I am also kind.
    5. Mary is ten years old. Suzan is ten years old.
    6. Wetaya is very fast. Maiso is very kind.
    7. My hen lays 5 eggs in a week. James’ hen lays 3 legs in a week.
    8. Weneloba is a cunning boy. He is like a fox.
    9. The boys were active. The girls were more active.
    10. Wesonga is tall. Wanjusi is taller.

     

    Using ……………so ………..that ………….and ……….such a ………….that.

    Join using   (a) ………..so …………..that………….

    (b) ………………..such a / an ………………that………………..

     

    Examples

    1. He was a rich man. He bought the whole village.
    2. He was so rich that he bought the whole village.
    3. He was such a rich man that he bought the whole.

     

    1. The woman was very old. She couldn’t walk on her own.
    2. The woman was so old that she couldn’t walk on her own.
    3. She was such an old woman that she couldn’t walk on her own.

     

    EVALUATION

    1. He revised very hard. He passed well.
    2. The day was very old. We couldn’t rest in the house.
    3. Peter is very tall. He can touch the ceiling.
    4. The food was very cold. Nobody could eat it.
    5. The examinations were very difficult. Most of the pupils failed them.
    6. The school is very old. It may fall down anytime.
    7. The bicycle is very cheap. Everybody can buy it.
    8. Ofwono is very tall. He cannot sleep on that bed.
    9. That novel is very difficult. Nobody can understand it.
    10. He was very intelligent. He got a bursary from the district.

    Using ……………..too………………to……………….

    The structure is used in sentence with a negative e idea.

     

    Re – write the sentences using ………………..too …………..to…………….

     Examples

    1. The lady is very fat. She cannot run.

    The lady is too fat to run

    1. It is very hot today. We cannot walk to the taxi – park.

    It is too hot today for us to walk to the taxi – park.

    1. The box is very heavy. Aidah cannot lift it.

    The box is too heavy for Aidah to lift.

     

    EVALUATION

    1. The river is very fast. We could not swim across it.
    2. Peter is very young. He cannot carry a jerry can of water.
    3. Maths is very hard. I failed to pass it.
    4. The block is very heavy. Mary couldn’t see the thief.
    5. It was very dark last night. We couldn’t see the thief.
    6. The tree is very big. Young boys can’t climb it.
    7. A hare is very fast. I can’t be caught by a dog.
    8. It is very cold at night. You can’t go out without a coat.
    9. The tea is so hot that we cannot drink it.
    10. He was very wise and he didn’t go.

     

    Using: ………………….ENOUGH TO ……………

    Enough is usually used after an adjective or adverb.

    Re – write the sentences using ……………enough to……….

     

    Examples

    1. You ran fast. You won the race.

    You ran fast enough to win the race.

    1. The shopkeeper was very foolish. He didn’t save any money.

    The shopkeeper was not wise enough to save any money.

    1. Tom is very young. He can’t go to school.

    Tom is not old enough to go to school.

     

    EVALUATION

    1. He is now strong. He can walk without help.
    2. They ran slowly. They didn’t catch the boat.
    3. She came late. She missed the first examination.
    4. The teacher explained very clearly. Everybody understood.
    5. Tina spoke Swahili very well. The soldier understood her.
    6. The tree is very big. Primary three people can’t climb it.
    7. This food id not ready. We can’t eat it.
    8. The teacher talked very quickly. The class did not understand what she was saying.
    9. The dog was very big. It frightened them.
    10. Our baby is very young. It cannot talk.
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