AGRICULTURE IN UGANDA

This Unit is about Agriculture in Uganda and the different types of Farming available.

AGRICULTURE.

Farming in Uganda 

It involves the growing of crops and rearing of animals

Cash crops in Uganda

Traditional cash crops

Non traditional cash crops

What are traditional cash crops?

These are crops which were introduced to be grown for sale e.g. cotton, tea, tobacco.

Coffee

Types of coffee

Arabica coffee

Robusta coffee

Robusta coffee

It is grown in low land e.g. Buganda

Arabica coffee

It is grown in highlands /Mountains  especially e.g. Mt. Elgon, Mt. Mufumbiro

Why is Arabica coffee grown on the slopes of Mt Elgon?

Has fertile volcanic soils which favours the growing of Arabica coffee.

Clonal coffee

It is improved Robusta

Advantages of clonal coffee

It matures faster

It gives higher yields

It is resistant to some diseases

How is coffee harvested?

By hand picking the ripe berries.

 Tea

It requires well drained fertile soils and high rainfall

It is grown in Mukono, Mubende, Kabarole, Bushenyi districts

Cotton

It was introduced in 1903 by Sir Kenneth Borup

It needs plenty of rainfall during planting and dry period towards harvesting

Areas where cotton is Kamuli, Gulu, Lira Soroti, Kumi,Pallisa,etc

It is mainly grown in Northern and Eastern parts of Uganda.

Terms used during cotton processing

Spinning is the making of threads from cotton.

Lint is the cotton wool

Weaving is the making of clothes

Ginning is the separating of seeds from cotton

Ginnery is a place where cotton is separated from the seeds

Importance of cotton

  • Source of income
  • Provide cooking oil( cotton seeds.)
  • Makes threads and clothes
  • Cotton seeds are used to animal feeds,

Problems faced by cotton farmer in Uganda

  1. Poor transport system
  2. Insecurity in cotton growing areas
  3. Cotton pests and diseases
  4. Fluctuation of prices
  5. Competition from other cotton producing countries.

Solutions to the above problems

  1. Improve on transport system
  2. Improve on security
  3. Provide cotton pesticides

Importance of cotton ginnery in an area

  • It increases chances of employment
  • Provide seeds to farmers
  • It provides market to farmers cotton

Tobacco

It is grown in West Nile especially Pakwach

Methods of processing tobacco

Flu – curing

Air – wring

Products of tobacco 

Cigarette/ Ciggars

Sugarcane

It requires plenty of rainfall

It is mainly grown in Mukono, Jinja, Kinyara in Masindi

Give any two products of sugarcane

Subsistence farming

It is the growing of crops and rearing of animals for home use and surplus for sale.

Advantages of subsistence

  • It is cheap to manage
  • It requires a small piece of land.
  • it requires little labour.

Disadvantages

Low food production.

Low production of raw material.

NON TRADITIONAL CASH CROPS

These were crops formally grown as food crops but  are also grown for sale e.g. rice, peas, beans, sorghum, banana, potatoes, cassava.

Problems faced by farmers in Uganda

  1. Poor transport.
  2. Crop pests and diseases.
  3. Price fluctuation.
  4. Long drought season.
  5. Shortage of farm inputs

Solutions to the problems

  • Improve on transport system.
  • Provide enough pesticides.
  • To stabilize the price.
  • Practice irrigation.
  • Give loans to farmers.
  • Provide enough farm inputs.

What is Irrigation?

It is the artificial supplying of crops with water in the garden.

Examples of irrigation schemes in Uganda

  • Mubuku in Kasese for cotton, maize, bananas and g.nuts.
  • Tilda – (Kibimbu) for rice.
  • Doho in Tororo for rice.
  • Kiige in Bugiri for citrus fruits.

Advantages of Irrigation

  1. Farming is carried out throughout the year.
  2. A farmer gets high yields.
  3. Crops can be grown throughout the year.

Disadvantages of Irrigation

It is expensive to manage.

Types of Irrigation

  1. Over head irrigation.
  2. Gravity flow irrigation.
  3. sprinkler.

Mixed Farming

This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land.

Advantages of mixed farming

  1. Provide more income to the farmer.
  2. Animal waste provides manure to plants.
  3. Provides food to the farmers.

Why is mixed farming not commonly practice in Uganda

  1. It is expensive to maintain.
  2. Shortage of land.
  3. Lack of skilled labour.

DAIRY FARMING

This is the keeping of cattle for milk production.

Mention  methods of keeping cattle being practiced in Uganda today

i) Paddocking

ii) Zero grazing

iii) Tethering

iv)  Free range

v)   Rotation

Name two products got from dairy farming

i) Yoghurt

ii) Cheese

iii) Butter

iv) Ghee

v) Ice-cream

Way farmers can improve on breeds of cattle

By cross breeding.

RANCHING

This is the rearing of cattle for beef (meat).

Examples of ranches include:

  1. Nyabushozi in Mbarara.
  2. Kigozi in Mpigi.
  3. Buruli in Nakasongola.

Plantation Farming

This is the growing of one perennial crop on a large scale

Crops grown on plantation include:

i) Tobacco

ii) Coffee

iii) Cotton

iv) Sugarcane

v) Tea

Advantages of plantation farming

i) Provide income to the farmers.

ii) Provide raw materials to industries (agro based industries).

iii) It crease change of employment.

Disadvantages of plantation farming

It is expensive.

Shortage of land.

 

ASSIGNMENT : AGRICULTURE IN UGANDA P.5 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 5 days

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