Farming in Uganda
It involves the growing of crops and rearing of animals
Cash crops in Uganda
Traditional cash crops
Non traditional cash crops
What are traditional cash crops?
These are crops which were introduced to be grown for sale e.g. cotton, tea, tobacco.
Types of coffee
It is grown in low land e.g. Buganda
It is grown in highlands /Mountains especially e.g. Mt. Elgon, Mt. Mufumbiro
Why is Arabica coffee grown on the slopes of Mt Elgon?
Has fertile volcanic soils which favours the growing of Arabica coffee.
It is improved Robusta
Advantages of clonal coffee
It matures faster
It gives higher yields
It is resistant to some diseases
How is coffee harvested?
By hand picking the ripe berries.
It requires well drained fertile soils and high rainfall
It is grown in Mukono, Mubende, Kabarole, Bushenyi districts
It was introduced in 1903 by Sir Kenneth Borup
It needs plenty of rainfall during planting and dry period towards harvesting
Areas where cotton is Kamuli, Gulu, Lira Soroti, Kumi,Pallisa,etc
It is mainly grown in Northern and Eastern parts of Uganda.
Terms used during cotton processing
Spinning is the making of threads from cotton.
Lint is the cotton wool
Weaving is the making of clothes
Ginning is the separating of seeds from cotton
Ginnery is a place where cotton is separated from the seeds
Importance of cotton
- Source of income
- Provide cooking oil( cotton seeds.)
- Makes threads and clothes
- Cotton seeds are used to animal feeds,
Problems faced by cotton farmer in Uganda
- Poor transport system
- Insecurity in cotton growing areas
- Cotton pests and diseases
- Fluctuation of prices
- Competition from other cotton producing countries.
Solutions to the above problems
- Improve on transport system
- Improve on security
- Provide cotton pesticides
Importance of cotton ginnery in an area
- It increases chances of employment
- Provide seeds to farmers
- It provides market to farmers cotton
It is grown in West Nile especially Pakwach
Methods of processing tobacco
Flu – curing
Air – wring
Products of tobacco
It requires plenty of rainfall
It is mainly grown in Mukono, Jinja, Kinyara in Masindi
Give any two products of sugarcane
It is the growing of crops and rearing of animals for home use and surplus for sale.
Advantages of subsistence
- It is cheap to manage
- It requires a small piece of land.
- it requires little labour.
Low food production.
Low production of raw material.
NON TRADITIONAL CASH CROPS
These were crops formally grown as food crops but are also grown for sale e.g. rice, peas, beans, sorghum, banana, potatoes, cassava.
Problems faced by farmers in Uganda
- Poor transport.
- Crop pests and diseases.
- Price fluctuation.
- Long drought season.
- Shortage of farm inputs
Solutions to the problems
- Improve on transport system.
- Provide enough pesticides.
- To stabilize the price.
- Practice irrigation.
- Give loans to farmers.
- Provide enough farm inputs.
What is Irrigation?
It is the artificial supplying of crops with water in the garden.
Examples of irrigation schemes in Uganda
- Mubuku in Kasese for cotton, maize, bananas and g.nuts.
- Tilda – (Kibimbu) for rice.
- Doho in Tororo for rice.
- Kiige in Bugiri for citrus fruits.
Advantages of Irrigation
- Farming is carried out throughout the year.
- A farmer gets high yields.
- Crops can be grown throughout the year.
Disadvantages of Irrigation
It is expensive to manage.
Types of Irrigation
- Over head irrigation.
- Gravity flow irrigation.
This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land.
Advantages of mixed farming
- Provide more income to the farmer.
- Animal waste provides manure to plants.
- Provides food to the farmers.
Why is mixed farming not commonly practice in Uganda
- It is expensive to maintain.
- Shortage of land.
- Lack of skilled labour.
This is the keeping of cattle for milk production.
Mention methods of keeping cattle being practiced in Uganda today
ii) Zero grazing
iv) Free range
Name two products got from dairy farming
Way farmers can improve on breeds of cattle
By cross breeding.
This is the rearing of cattle for beef (meat).
Examples of ranches include:
- Nyabushozi in Mbarara.
- Kigozi in Mpigi.
- Buruli in Nakasongola.
This is the growing of one perennial crop on a large scale
Crops grown on plantation include:
Advantages of plantation farming
i) Provide income to the farmers.
ii) Provide raw materials to industries (agro based industries).
iii) It crease change of employment.
Disadvantages of plantation farming
It is expensive.
Shortage of land.