ORIGINS OF BANTUSTANS
The election of 1948 which brought Dr.Malans nationalist government which championed apartheid as an electoral slogan was the first step towards not only apartheid but the Bantustans.
In 1950 those opposed to simple apartheid as a way of dealing with increasing African tension created a new ministry of native affairs headed by the academician Dr. H,F Verwoerd.
A MAP SHOWING THE HISTORICAL TERRITORY OF THE BANTUSTAN
It was Verwoerd who put up the Tomlinson commission that approved the policy of separate development as a cute strategy of preserving white privileges and black subordination.
The mine investors were also becoming nervous over the increasing violence from PAC and ANC with targeted their investments and thus the Bantustans assured them there was a credible plan to channel black opposition into safe directions.
The Bantustans were homes for Africans or black home lands.
They aimed at separating the 2 races and Africans and whites had to live sin separate areas.
In the Bantustans Africans were responsible to their leaders not to whites.
Bantustans Africans were responsible to their leaders not to whites.
Bantustans included Transkei and Ciskei for the Xhosa Gazankulu for Tsonga and Shangane, Venda for the Venda.
They were setup to promote separate development of Bantu and whites.
To prevent growth of African nationalism by dividing Africans up
They were to ensure white domination in South African over the Africans.
They were to ensure that Africans do not own good land or other important resources.
They were to weaken criticism against Afrikaners since Bantu could be seen as free in their homelands
They were to make it impossible for Africans to meet one another
They were to make it impossible for Africans to communicate with one another freely
They were to ensure African enslavement continues thus the supply of cheap labour to the whites
They were to create security to the whites by isolating Africans who were their enemies
They were to divert African attention away from Pretoria to their home affairs
They were to ensure that south Africa and all her resources were firmly controlled by the whites.
EFFECTS OF BANTUSTANS ON THE AFRICANS
- Africans were enslaved and continued being in a sorry state till 1994.
- They were military weakened and could not easily fight the whites
- Africans became poor since the Bantustans were under developed
- They suffered disunity and killed each other for example Inkhatha freedom party against ANC.
- Africans political power reduced since it was limited to the Bantustans
- Africans lost their land to the whites
- Africans suffered from the bad conditions in the homelands leading to low standards of living
- Africans were discriminated against socially, politically and economically.
- Segregation and apartheid increased
- Africans were killed during resistance towards the policy
- Other Africans were imprisoned or sent into exile.
- These ones dominated the political rights of Africans
- They became wealthy even beating many of their brothers in Europe
- The whites became the most dominant force in politics
- The whites dot the most fertile land in Africa
- The whites became hated because of their persecuting the Africans
- The whites controlled major political aspects in the Bantustans e.g. military external affairs etc.
- Whites nationalism was boosted
HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS THE BANTUSTAN POLICY BY 1970
- The whites continued dominating south Africa politics up to 1990
- Africans freely offered their labour to whites, maintaining their labour migration system
- Many of the African leaders i.e. Luthuli, Mandela, Sisulu were imprisoned reducing their hostility towards the system
- Many Africans of working age moved worth pass books
- Africans were divided and they killed each other
- The whites took over the fertile land
- Y 1960, Transkei Kwazulu etc. had been set up and the Zulu as well as Xhosa lived there.
- Homeland governments did not control their own foreign affairs defense and immigration.
- Pretoria had to approve all matters discussed in the bantu parliament
- Africans remained poor and their economic growth was frustrated
- Some Africans even supported the white government e.g. Mangusthi Buthelezi the Zulu Prime Minister then.
- Africans academic and social achievement remained poor and backward.
- Transkei was established as the first Bantustan in 1963 with a majority vote after a motion presented by pro-independence chief Matanzima
- The Bantustan became even more undemocratic reducing world pressure on the whites for example in the Transkei legislative assembly the non-elected members outnumbered the elected one by 64 to 45.
- Since the Bantustans were very small demands for more land continued to be voiced even by the supporters of the policy.
- The white government failed to attract all the Africans back to their homelands
- In addition even a substantial proportion of the resident population spent most of the time outside the Bantustans
- African nationalism grew later e.g. Chief Mtanzima of Transkei attacked the system
- Africans started escaping from the social economic conditions which were very poor
- Some whites were killed by armed Africans
- Some whites remained poor
- Africans finally got independence in 1994
- There was growth of African nationalism e.g. ANC became stronger in 1970’s.
THIS VIDEO IS ABOUT THE BANTUSTANS