Careers defined as the progression of an individual in a field of work throughout the employable years of his life.

In his own way Edwin B. Flippo defines career as a sequence of separate but related work activities that provides continuity, order and meaning in a person’s life. Two factors are common in the two definitions above.

  Classification of Career Systems 

Open and Closed Career

An open career system permits entrance at any or all grade levels (by rank or position) in the service. In some instances and places, even this entrance is limited by entry qualifications.

A closed Career System is one which utilized the device of low maximum age limit for entrance and the filling of upper level position almost entirely from within, to keep other entrants out. A closed career system does not permit entry at the middle or upper levels. Such a system is based on the concept that substantial opportunity for advancement can be ensured only if the hierarchy is refuelled in personnel from the base, preserving upper ranks for the completion of those already in the service.

Programme Careers and Organizational Careers

In a large organization with numerous activities and programmes, an employee may take a job in a section or a programme, whereas another employee may take a job that permits mobility from section to section. The former is a programme career and the latter an organization career.

Job-Oriented Careers and Rank in-the-Man

This classification also known as the position and personal rank concepts, is important but very complex under the position concept an individual career progression is a progression from one position of jobs sequentially in an organization. E.g. a stenographer whose jobs are sequenced into levels, senior and junior stenographer.

On the rank concept, people should be here on the basis of their broad qualification and their assignments worked out from time to time to suit the needs of the enterprise and the aptitudes of the individuals. Let their progress and recognitions be based on the length and overall quality of their service regardless of the significance of individual assignments which they periodically assume.


Source  National Open University of Nigeria

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