This unit is about the chartered Companies in east Africa and their roles.



Activities of Carl Peters in Buganda in 1890 worried the British consul at Zanzibar, Colonel Smith, who decided to send Captain Fredrick Lugard to sign a trety with Mwanga of Buganda. Lugard moved to Buganda accompanied by a force of 5o Sudanese and some Swahili soldiers. Lugard presented him self to Mwanga in December 1890 and signed a treaty with Mwanga at the beginning of 1891. And the following were the provisions;

  • The company offered protection to Baganda which in turn was to recognize British soverignity in the area.
  • Buganda was to allow appointment of the British resident who alone would have control over the Europeans in Buganda.
  • The resident would preside over the committee controlling finace and taxes in the Kingdom.
  • The Kabaka was not to enter into any agreement with any other European powers without prior approval of the resident representative.
  • All religious groups were allowed to work without any interference.
  • Freedom of trade provide it ddnt include slave trade
  • Supply of arms in the Kingdom was to be strictly controlled

This treaty laid a foundation for British authority in Buganda. In January 1891, Lugard was joined by Captain Williams whom he left in charge of Buganda and went to Bunyoro.

On the way to Bunyoro, Lugard passed through Ankole and signed a treaty with Omugabe Ntate V in Feb 1891.


The following were the terms;

  1. Omugabe would be given company protection against his enemies
  2. Omugabe was to stop slave trade in the Kingdom
  • Omugabe was to stop the flow of guns from Tanzania through his territories to Bunyoro.

From Ankole, Lugard moved on to Toro were he did the following;

He reinstalled Kasagama who had been chased from the Kingdom by Kabalega.

He defeated Kabalega`s forces that had been in Toro since 1876

He built a stockade on the Toro-Bunyoro borders which was the largest

He deafeated the Buganda Muslims who were on the Bunyoro border and had been a problem to Buganda`s stability.

In August 1891, he signed an agreement with Kasagama in which Kasagama would receive company protection from Bunyoro and in turn all the ivory collected in the Kingdom would be property of the company.

From Toro, Lugard threw Bunyoro into Lake Albert area, got in tourch with the Sudanese soldiers and recieted some of them under their leader Salim Bey. He left some of his soldiers to manage the ports which he had set up along Toro- Bunyoro border and some to Kampala to assist Company forces there.

In December 1891, Lugard was back in Buganda were he found that conflicts between religious groups had grown. At the same time he got a letter from the company instructing him to withdraw from Buganda due to lack of funds.

He refused he company instructions because he believed that he should firmly establish British authority in Buganda before he left the area.

After the religious wars, Lugard tried his best to ensure that Buganda remained in the British hands. Through his work, the CMS was able to donate 40,000 pounds to finance the company activities in Buganda until December 1892.

Towards the close of 1892, Lugard began a vigorous campaign in Britaion for the retention of Buganda even after the company left the area.


  1. He helped to stop slave trade in Buganda because in the treaties he made with the rulers, slave trade and slavery were prohibited.
  2. He helped to decrease ti insecurity in Buganda for the British by insisting that whoever wanted to own a gun had to have it lincenced.
  3. He put Toro, Bunyoro, and Ankole, Buganda under British rule
  4. He increased company forces in Buganda to ensure complete British authority in the area.
  5. He made the Protestants dominant in the political control of Buganda after the battle of Mengo in 1892.
  6. He led a foundation for British rule in Buganda and smoothened the way for the Buganda Agreement in 1900.
  7. He closed the trafficking of arms to Kabalega from Tanzania
  8. He made Buganda predominant in Uganda by weakening Buganda`s neighbours e.g. Bunyoro.
  9. He influenced the British to stay in Buganda for 2 more years by getting financial assistance from the CMS.


Buganda was on the head waters of the Nile and therefore control of Baganda would give the British complete control of the Suez Canal area.

The area had great potential for example dense population, frtile soil, plenty of rainfall, good climate with possibilities for cotton growing i.e. the area was commercially viable.

Humanitarian reasons;

British withdraw from buganda would place greater danger the work and lives of missionaries who had been in the area who had been in the area since 1877.

Fear of reconquest of Buganda by Muslim fanatics would ruin or destroy the chances of the spread of Christianity in the only East African state that had shown a desposition to accept Christianity.

It would lead to loss of capital already invested by the company in the area e.g. on security.

It would destroy British prestige in central and eatern Africa.

It would lead to the practical defeat of the unslavery campaign in Buganda

The area would be taken over by France, Germany or Belgium which would not be palatable to the nationalist in Britain.

Consequently the British government sent Gerald Portal in November 1893, Portal signed another treaty with Mwanga and the next year 19894, Portal published his report favouring retaintion of Buganda and building the railway from the coast.

Rose Berry who had been a foreign secretary became Prime Minister and had Uganda declared a protectorate. The British then started negotiating with the IBEA Company and the company got compassion of 250,000 pounds and surrendered its Charter and all its assets in East Africa.

Britain was to pay 50,000 pounds and the rest the Sultan to make the administration of the whole region effective a sub commissioner was appointed to subminister modern Kenya he was a representative for the British consul general at Zanzibar.

Though the British thought that the country between Uganda and the Coast was worthless, the route to Uganda had to be protected, thus on 1st July 1895, Britain declared a protectorate over the area which lay Far west end of the Rift Valley and 1896 Mombasa –Kisumu line was started.


After the partition of 1886, German like Britain decided to use Carl Peters GEACo to rule the German sphere of influence and by 1887. The company had set up ten stations in the immediate hinterland and to the coast was they established plantantions of coffee and cotton. These centres also acted as trading stations. The major base of the company was at Dar es Salaam but had its stations at Mpwampwa, Kilimanjaro, Innga and Mwanza and Bukoba.

In 1888, the German consul general at Zanzibar persuaded Sultan Saidi Khadifa to give consetion to the company to collect customs duty at Dar es Salaam and no caravans in transit from the coast, to regulate commerce and to mine minerals in the areas of operations.

In August 1888, the company began to collect hong (cuatoms duty) and to raise the company flag over the coastal towns to show the territories between the Omba and Ruvuma.

The company activities provocked Arab resentment and in 1888, the Arbas at the coast raised revoke which pegun at Pangani. The revolt had to leader’s e.g Abushiri Bin Salim of Pangani

Bwana Heri, chief of Usingowa and the coastal town of Sadami. From bangani the revolt soon spread to Kilwa, Mikindamo and by October all the coastal down especially Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were in revolts.



Lack of finance or capital e.g. the IBEA Co started with 250,000 pounds and was money which was on infrastructure such as roads, telegrams and there was no direct profit made.

External rivalry, this was common from other companies such as the GEACo under Carl Peters. This rivalry created tense competition for profits and hindered profitable trade to take place.

Lack of developed roads and railway network; this made transport expensive and difficult and for this reason the company had to spend a lot of money constructing roads and building administrative centres.

Inefficiency, corruption and mismanagement; the company lacked experienced officers and to make matters worse some officials were corrupt and this therefore led to mismanagement of funds.

Opposition and internal resistance e.g. between 1890 and 1893, the Sultan and people of Wiitu at the port of River Tana denied IBEACo to trade in this area. During the same period, the Somali resistance factured the efforts of exportation of ivory on Juba River other resistance also came from the Nandi and Banyoro.

Lack of mineral resources or exportable resources e.g. Uganda and Kenya depended on Agricultural products. This took a slow process and recquired transportation like roads and railways unlike ivory which was profitable.

There were severe restrictions in the treats or agreement were imposed in trading company and because of the severe restriction it led to the poor performance of the company for example company had no freedom of trade within the areas of operation.

Lack of geographical knowledge; the chartered company and its officials had skanty knowledge about the interior in particular for this reason they didn’t have enough information that would be of there benefit.

The trading company faced hostility and opposition especially from the slave traders and raiders. They suspected the company authority of opposition slave trade and this therefore brought the 2 parties into continuous conflicts.

Most of the company officials found it difficult to learn native landuages. It was worse to communicate with the interior tribes that had been effectively exposed to Swahili.

Harsh tropical climate; the climate conditions were a problem to the White man. Most of the officials took long to adjust to the hot sun compared to their winter kind of weather (climate).

Lack of home governments, this was so especially in finances and material assistance. It is argued that the home government like Britain was relactant to use the tax payers money on the company budget.



As the British and German tried to establish and consolidate their rule in East Africa used a variety of methods for example;

Divide and rule; the Europeans indirectly increased the hostilities between African communities by favouring some groups against other for example in the Kilimanjaro regions they favoured chief Rindi against Sina by taking away two districts from Sina to Rindi. The British also favoured Buganda against Bunyoro.

Used of force: the Europeans sent armed troops against stubborn societies and rulers. The German commander, Van Prince sent troupes against the likes of the Nyamwezi. Between 1891 and 1898 another German governor Zewelky sent troupes against the Hehe.

The British also sent troupes against Kabalega of Bunyoro and the used troupes against Nandi.

Use of collaborators; these were African individuals or chiefs who directly or indirectly provided help to the colonialists. They provided guides, agents, man power to help in the extension of colonial rule.

Use of treachery; here the colonialists pretended to be friendly they wanted to come friendly undertakings with Africans and when the Africans complied they were killed later e.g. in 1905 the nandi chief was killed by the British and this enabled the British to take over the area.

Gun-baat policy; they threatened the use of force of the Africans e.g by threatning bombardment of towns to make the local rulers give into colonialist demand. The Germans used this method against the sultan of Zanzibar 1885.

Signing treaties; these were signed agreements between themselves without inviting the Africans in such treaties. They decided on who would take which area without considerations for the rights of Africa e.g. 1886 and 1890 Angro- German Agreements between Britain and German.

Use of conferences; conferences between European powers were held to determine on who would take which area for example the Berlin conference 1884-1885

Agreement with African chiefs; Agreements with Afrivan chiefs in which they gave away their power, independence and soverignity without knowing e.g. Carl Peter`s treaties with chiefs of Uzigua, Ukami etc.

Establishment of roads and transport systems; these were used to get the good will of Africans towards colonialists. This system facilitated movement of troupes during pacification struggles.

Building of parts; e.g. Fort Portal, Edward to show their presence and protect the spheres of influence.

Missionaries preached love for eachother and encouraged Africans to be submissive to their rulers.

Carrot stick diplomacy; imperailists used gifts, building skuls, hospitals etc and this made the Africans to willing accept them.

They used chartered companies which ruled in the colonies on behalf of the respected countries.

They used of enforcing the growing of cash crops. The Africans grew cash crops in order to pay taxes and this kept the Africans to busy to revolt. The money was also used to finance colonial administration.

Mutual help and cooperation; European powers aided eachother in establishment of their rule for example the Germans agreed with the British not to sell arms to Kabalega.

Use of dethronement and reinstating of rulers; Africans rulers who opposed the colonialists were removed from their seats and those who accepted colonial rule were reinstated e.g. Kasagama of Toro (reinstated) and Kabalega of Bunyoro (dethroned).


It was signed by Sir Harry Johnson and the three regents on behalf of Buganda.


The British wanted to reduce the financial aid to Buganda which rose from 8900 pounds to 39,700 pounds in 1899 to 1900.

The British wanted to make its position more secure in Uganda by appointment of Pro-British agents.

They wanted to reward the Christian chiefs for their loyalty and cooperation.

The first agreements were not well worded and far reaching. They needed a new Agreement which could help them achieve their objectives.

The earlier Agreement to define the boundaries of Buganda

Earlier Agreements didn’t tackle the question of land. They wanted to make land reforms that would enhance cash crop production and facilitate colonial economic development and exploitation.

British government was incurring high and increasing costs in the administration of the protectorate so there was need to put in place a frame work or taxation system that would enable the protectorate government to meet the costs of administration.

The British government wanted an Agreement that would deal with the way justice would be exercised in the country.

The British wanted an Agreement to settle the confused political and administration situation in Buganda. The signing of this Agreement was seen as a means of putting an end to the religious and political quarrels and war that had brought instability to the Kingdom.

They wanted to establish their supremacy and authority in Buganda. This treaty was meant to act as a sign and symbol of Buganda`s submission to the British authority.

The British believed that this Agreement would be a foundation of extending the British rule throughout Uganda by foundation of extending the British rule throughtout Uganda by signing other similar agreements with other local rulers.


Baganda chiefs wanted prestige; it was prestigious to establish friendly relationship with a White man.

Buganda wanted protection against Bunyoro aggression which had been a problem to her for a long time.

They wanted to enhance the stand of Buganda in the protectorate. They thought that by signing the Agreement they would be at the same level as the British and therefore pause.

The chiefs were ignorant about what they were doing. They little knew of the repucutions behind the Agreement.

The Buganda Agreement had 20 articles the most important were on land, government and taxation.


The boundaries of Buganda were defined to include the former 10 counties plus the other counties taken from Bunyoro by the British including Buyaga, Bugangayizi, parts of Buruli, Northern Singo, and Rugonjo, part of Mubende and Part of Buwekula.

Buganda was to renounce her claims over other territories like Busoga.

Land in Buganda was divided into 2 types i.e. Crown and Mailo land. Mailo land was distributed to the Buganda notables’ e.g. royal families, Ministers, chiefs and it was to be held on hereditary basis. Crown land belonged to the colonial government and included all land with forests and minerals and anyother land that was regarded as an occupied by colonial government.

NB; the land settlement greatly reduced the powers of the Kabaka who originally owned all the land.


On government the following were considered;

Buganda was to be a province in the protectorate, it nolonger existed as an independent Kingdom but as part of Uganda.

The Kabaka was to get a title “His Highness” he could call upon able bodied men for military services but he could not arm them except with the approval of the British resident.

The Kabaka was to remain the link between the protectorate government and the people of Buganda.

The laws of Buganda were to remain in force as long as they didn’t conflict with those of “Her Majesty”.

Buganda was divided into 20 counties, each county was to be ruled by a chief, selected by the Kabaka`s government but approved by the British resident. The county chiefs were to earn 200 pounds a year.

The Kabaka was to rule with three native officers appointed by him but also approved by the British resident. This was the Prime Minister, treasurer and chief justice.

The Lukiiko (Legislative council) to remain the highest court of appeal for the kingdom and the highest political institution comprising of 3 Ministers, 20 county chiefs, 6 nominees of the Kabaka and 60 notables.

The Kabaka could not dismise any member from the Lukiiko without prior consultation of majesty`s representative in Buganda.


The chiefs and ministers in Buganda would be responsible for the collection of tax for the Kingdom. But the revenue collected was to be merged with that of the protectorate government.

A hut tax of three rupees or four shillings was to be paid per hut / house. A gun tax of three shilling or two rupees was to be paid by those who wanted to be allowed to carry guns.

No further taxes were to be imposed on the Baganda without the concent of the Kabaka and Lukiiko.

Exemption from taxes could only be got from the principle British official representing her majesty`s government in Buganda.


It undermined the powers of the traditional chiefs (Bataka) who nolonger had a right to tax their tendants because the Busuulu and Envujjo had been abolished.

It initated Anglo- Buganda co-operation in later years with Buganda helping the British in extending British colonial rule over the rest of the protectorate

It set the base of British administration in Uganda and Buganda particular on a firm stand.

It led to the creation of a land owning class and an impoverished non-land owning class who had to be tenants and squatters paying an annual rent of three rupees to the Land lords.

There was revolutionalized land communications because it facilitated the introduction of railway transport to add on to the road transport and this helped to transport cash crops to the coast.

It gave Buganda a high status and dominous in the protectorate which no other Kingdom had and these cuased problems later on.

It gave new power and influence to the Christian chiefs and leading Ministers who had helped the British against the tragitional and Bataka chiefs.

It reduced the importance of the Kabaka and Bataka chiefs who lost their power and role in land distribution. The Kabaka could no longer dismiss the members of the Lukiiko at which no could he reward loyal subjects with land.

The kabaka lost his power as the last court of appeal. The Lukiiko became the decision maker and the King a “rubber stamp”.

In addition the Kabaka seized to appoint chiefs and lost their loyalty and respect since they became paid public servants in the protectorate.

It made the new Lukiiko the focus of Buganda Political activity and this later made the task of making a legislative assembly for the whole protectorate difficult.

The Agreement increased the hostility between Buganda and its neighbours especially Bunyoro because Buganda had been allowed to annex the 2 territories of Buyaga and Bugangaizi.

The Buganda Agreement of 1900 acted as a spring boat for signing other treaties which led to the full colonization of Buganda e.g. the Toro Agreement, June 1900 and Ankole Agreement of 1901.

A cash crop economy was encouraged in order to pay taxes to maintain the colonial government.

Payment of hut tax led to social problems as people started conjesting in one hut to avoid tax while the gun manufucturers abandoned the skill.

The Agreement introducec a new element of money economy / cash and the Baganda had to look for jobs to pay for hut and gun taxes, which was collected by revenue for the British administration.

The Agreement accelerated religious conflicts as the Protestants were favored and were being appointed as chiefs while other religious were neglected.


In this Agreement the following were considered;

The Omukama was recognized as the ruler of Toro but his position was subject to the good will of the British.

The people of Toro were to pay a hut and gun tax which would be collected by the local chiefs but its use was to be determined by the central government.

Toro was to be incorporated in the protectorate of Uganda

All uncultivated land including land with mineral wealth was to be crown land but” free hold” grants were to be the Omukama and his chiefs.

The Agreement confirmed Toro`s freedom from Bunyoro but the King / Omukama had to rely on the british to keep away the Bunyoro threat.


The following were looked at;

The Omugabe who was Kahaya I at the time was recognized as the local ruler of his people.

The boundaries of Ankole were enlarged to include Buhweju, Bunyaruguru, Kajara adding to Kashari, Rwampara and Nyabushozi who were the company counties of the Kingdom.


There was no formal Agreement with Bunyoro cause Bunyoro had become a conquered territory and wasn’t regarded important, however later a formal Agreement was reached between Bunyoro and the protectorate government around 1933.


At the beginning European colonial rule was spear headed by the trading companies but with time the colonial government took over the task of administration and development directly or indirectly. This forced the Africans either to resist or collaborate or both.


These were Africans who willingly collaborated with colaborators making it easy for them to establish and spead their administration in East Africa. Individual collaborators included Nowa Mboguta, Apollo Kaggwa, Laibon Lenaa, and Nabongo Momia of Wanga of Western Kenya. Societies which collaborated included Buganda, Toro, Ankole, Masai, Chagga etc


Prestige; those who collaborated thought that their association with the British or other European colonialists would raise their stand in politics e.g. Apollo Kaggwa collaborated to raise his prestige in Buganda`s politics.

Desire for personal wealth; some of the collaborators hoped to get rewards form Europeans for their co-operation e.g. Semei Kakungulu.

Some societies collaborated because they wanted the Europeans to help them against their enemies e.g. Kasagama of Toro, collaborated because he wanted support against Kabalega whose expansion was a threat to Toro`s existence.

Some collaborated because they wanted to safe guard the well fare of their people e.g. Ntare X of Ankole decided to cooperate with the British to safe guard the welfare of his people and to avoid being treated harshly like the Banyoro.

Some collaborated because their enemies had resisted e.g. Nabongo Mumia of Wanga in West Kenya collaborated with the British because his neighbours had resisted, Buganda collaborated because Bunyoro had resisted.

Some collaborated to make their political position secure e.g. Laibom Lenana fo the Masai co-operated with British becuae he wanted help against his brother Sendeyo, so he could become the paramount chief of the Masai.

Some cosieties collaborated because they were too weak to resist e.g Lenana decided to co-operate with the British because the Masi had experienced a lot of problems e.g. outbreak of Rinderpest which had killed cattle. This was followed by drought and a locust invasion which had weakened the society. The Ankole King collaborated because just before 1900, an outbreak of Jiggers had weakened them.

Some collaborated because of earlier contacts with the Europeans e.g. the Buganda collaborated because of the Influence of missionaries who persuaded them to welcome strangers in their land.

Some societies had been weakened by slave trade especially in Tanganyika as they were too weak to resist.

Some societies collaborated out of ignorance. They were not aware of the fact they were being tricked by the Europeans.

Some of the collaborators desired to acquire some of the goods which the colonialists were using so as to improve their standards of living.


Resistors were individuals or societies who responded negatively and picked up arms to defend the independence against the invading colonialists e.g. Kabalega of Bunyoro, Mkwawa of Hehe, the Nandi, and Mwanga etc

Resistance was categorized into;

  1. Active resistance; where Africans picked up arms to fight colonialists e.g Hehe, Banyoro, Acholi etc.
  2. Passive resistance; where Africans had to accept the Whites, because they had no choice because of famine, drought, and diseases etc. but remained uncoperated to the Whites. It was characterized by unarmed resistance, silence and non co-operatin e.g Banyankole, Chagga, Shamba etc.
  3. Primary resistance; this is when Africans picked up arms immediately they saw the Whites i.e. they don’t give chance to the Whites to settle at first.
  4. Secondary resistance; those who at first collaborated who had thought that the Whites were friends but on realizing that they were enemies they resisted e.g. Baganda.


Some societies resisted because they were sure of their military strength and their ability to fight the Europeans.

Some resisted because of the policies of the colonialists e.g. they didn’t want to pay taxes, adopt Christianity and to give their land away to colonialists.

Some societies resisted because their traditional enemies had collaborated with colonialists. The only option that remained for them was resistance, so they engaged the colonialists in both open wars and guerilla war fares

Some resisted due to the economic reasons e.g. they didn’t want to live slave trade which was their main source of income, while othera were against European traders who wanted to establish their monopoly in the area.

Decentralized societies which were not used to the idea of Central control and arbitrary rule and law usually resisted when they were ordered around which wasn’t the case with centralized societies

Some resisted because they didn’t know anything about the European military mighty e.g Abarusula. They were finally shocked when they found that the Europeans were stronger than them.

Some groups and chiefs resisted because the arogancy of the colonialists for example chief Mkwawa of the Hehe in South Tanzania resisted because when he sent gifts to the colonialists they didn’t give him others in retuen and used to order him around.

They resisted because they desired to keep their freedom and independence as an African race.

Some societies were naturally hostile hence they turned aggressive against the establishment of colonial rule in their areas.

Some tribes resisted because of religious propaganda and prophesies e.g the Majimaji fighters were misled by Prophet Kinjitile who had accured them protection by mere sprinkling of water.

Some societies had a traditional belief that the presence of Whites in their land would bring bad omen (dome) so they had to be resistant.

Some tribes resisted because the Whites had out numbered them in oil sectors e.g military power and on finding that the Whites had taken over control they choose to resist fore example the Chagga.

Colonial rule had checked territorial expansion of some tribes and in such places they clashed e.g. kabalega had wanted to extend Toro, Buganda, lango, Ankole etc.

Some resisted because the Whites and their agents where abusing their culture e.g. the Wamatumbi and Wangedo resisted the raping of their women by the German agents like Akidas and Jumbes. On the other hand, the Arabs and Swahili wanted to defend Islam against the German pegants.



He was a Muganda born in 1869 in Kooki on the Uganda- Tanzania border. He grew up in the Kings court as a page. Later he joined the royal army were he demonstrated his ability as a military genious and promoted to rank of General.

When missionaries came he got saved and was baptized as Semei. During the 1880-1890, religious wars in Buganda he joined heads with the Christians to overthrow kalema and the Muslims who had taken over Mengo. He was rewarded with the past of subcounty chief of Kyagwe.

From 1890 on wards, he decided to become a British ally for personal gains especially to build his own empire that is why he helped them a lot to extend their rule in Eastern Uganda.

In the same year he was placed in charge of the Northern conquest which Buganda had got from Bunyoro and he succeeded in convicing fellow Baganda to ally with the British in order to fight Bunyoro.

In 1893, he was instrumental in the British campaigns and Kabalega in particular that had become a problem to Buganda and Toro.

In 1893, Semei with the British defeated the Ganda Muslims and their Sudanese who wanted to bring chaos in Buganda.

Between 1894-1900, he moved to Lango, Teso and Kuman hence bringing them under British rule. That is why he was given a title “Kabaka of Bukedi” with his headquarters at Nabumali he later transferred to Budaka.

In 1899, he played a great role in the capture of Kabalega and Mwanga in Lango with the help of Langi chiefs and the Kings were exiled into the Sychelles Islands.

In 1901, he was appointed president of Busoga Lukiiko.

He is remembered in promoting economic development wherever he went for example he built administrative posts which were later used by the British as their basis for administration.

He built roads in almost the whole of Eastern e.g. the road between Bubulo and Nabumali, between Iganga and Budaka etc.

He encouraged the growing of cashcrops e.g. coffee and cotton.

He planted many trees e.g the many mivule trees and mango trees along the roads in the East which have helped in environmental protection.

He introduced the Kiganda mode of administration i.e. divided the area into counties, subcounties and used Buganda agents to administer the areas.

He st up health centres for example Budaka dispensary.

He encouraged the British to extend the railway to eastern Uganda to collect cotton and coffee and by 1930; the rail line had reached Tororo.

However, the British all along had just been using him and that is why by 1901, the attacked his headquarters at Budaka forcing him to withdraw to Nabumali.

He also suffered a series of demotion e.g. from Kabaka of Bukedi to President of Busoga Lukiiko and later to a country chief in Mbale and in 1923 he retired on a pension of only 3000 pounds. This developments frustrated him so much, he abandoned Christianity and joined a religious sect “Bamalaki” which was opposed to anything Western.

In 1928, he died a disappointment man was even buried their in Mbale.

Semei Kakungulu
Semei Kakungulu


He was born in 1869 and trained as a Page in the King`s court. When the missionaries came, he converted and started preaching the gospel hence converting many. Indeed he is rembered for being instrumental in construction of Namirembe Church (Cathedral).

When Mwanga came to power, Kaggwa narrowly escaped being burnt alive because of his support of Christianity but still he was severely cained.

However, he later became the Katikiiro of Buganda and during his time he performed very well and that is why he was rewarded with some square miles of land.

In 1892, during the religious wars of Buganda he died with the British and protestants to fight the Catholics hence defeating them.

In 1893, he played a big role and signed an Agreement with the British representative, Sir Gerald Portal, which led to the declaration of Uganda as a British protectorate.

In 1894, he supported the British against the Bunyoro and in 1898 he led a force against the Sudanese hence bringing the situation to normal.

In 1900, he was instrumental and signed the Buganda agreement on behalf of the young King Daudi Chwa.

He introduced financial and judicial reforms in Buganda for example he introduced department in administration and upheld the rights of the Lukiiko.

He encouraged education by enrolling many boys and girls in mission schools and advocated for scholarships for those who deserved them e.g. he secured a scholarship for Obote and Abu Mayanja who later played a great role in the country`s independence.

He encouraged the growing of cash crops using modern methods.

He advocated for the spraying of tsetseflies around Lake Victoria which had claimed many lives.

He later lost influence in the King`s court when king Daudi Chwa grew up and also conflicted with the British that is why in 1926, he resigned and the following year 1929 he died.


  • He was a protestant and believed that resistance to British was backward.
  • He wanted to enhance his position in Buganda compared to the other chiefs.
  • He wanted gain some wealth by co-operating with the new government.
  • He might have collaborated out of ignorance because he didn’t know the intention of the British.
  • He may have wanted to enhance his prestige in Buganda.


He gained wealth because in the new land settlement of 1900 he was signed some square of land.

He helped Buganda to enhance it position in the protectorate government compared to others.

His influence was enhanced compared to that of Bataaka chiefs because he became a leading states man as a 1st premier Katiikiro.

There was increase in literacy in Buganda because of establishment of many schools in the area.

He helped to reduce rebellion and instability in Buganda because he convinced the Baganda to co-operate with the British.

His collaboration led to land alienation in Buganda as part of Buganda`s land became crown land.

There was spread of cash crop growing and the adoption of improved agricultural methods in Buganda.

He enabled the British to administer Buganda easily because of the chiefs who helped the British administrators.

He helped to spread Christianity in Buganda by convincing the people to embrace it.

He assisted governor, Heth Bell, in the evacuation of people from tsetse fly infected areas of Lake Victoria which had led to outbreak of sleeping sickness.

He wrote literature of Buganda which was a great importance to European colonialists by supplying them with information about the Kingdom.

He got used to a position of importance, this later made him to conflict with Kabaka and the young British officails in 1920`s.


He had a problem of satisfying the interest of the British colonialist and Buganda whose interests were sometime conflicting e.g. as s representative of Buganda in Lukiiko he had to stand firmly in the defence and preservation of Kiganda values. This brought him in conflict with the colonial administration and as a result he increasing fell out with colonialists.

Apollo Kaggwa faced opposition from the Bataaka and peasants over land allocation.

He also had disagreements with Kabaka Daudi Chwa after he had become of age and was anxious to assert his authority. This further threathened Apollo Kaggwa`s authority position.

He once conflicted with the missionaries of Buganda.

Apollo Kaggwa who was angry and frustrated resigned in 1926 he had outlived his usefulness in the British protectorate government and his own people he died in 1929.


He was born in Ankole around 1867 but lost both of his parents during his early years of his life so he went to live at the court of Mugabe Ntare the V.

He was a capable Page and became a favourite of Ntare V he was a brave young man, able warrior and a champion wrestler; qualities liked by Mugabe the V so he nicknamed him “Rutinwa” the feared.

He participated in several military expeditions on Mugabe`s behalf.

He had fought in many wars and he knew Buganda`s Military and political organisation well enough.

When Ntare died, in 1895, Nuwa support Kahaya against rakatagoro. By the time the British arrived in Ankole, Mbaguta was well known in many parts of Uganda as such he collaborated with the Brtish.

Nuwa Mbaguta
Nuwa Mbaguta
  • Mbaguta collaborated with the British because he wanted to increase his prestige in Ankole.
  • He hoped to be selected in the new Brirish administration as their colonial agent.
  • He wanted to extend his territory
  • He wanted to increase his own wealth
  • He wanted to increase the trade opportunities of the Kingdom
  • He was aware of the British military strength and found it safe for Ankole to collaborate than resisting.
  • The Kingdom had been hit by natural disaster e.g. famine, plague, jiggers etc which had weakened it militarily so it could not resist.

In 1894, Mbaguta signed a treaty of friendship and protection on behalf of Ntare the V with the British agent Major Canning Harm.

Mbaguta collaborated with the British by helping in the construction of a road to be used by the British High commissioner, Sir Harry Jihnson, when he was passing from Ankole to Toro.

The British realizing his friendly tendencies to them rewarded him with title the Prime Minister of Ankole. From then he helped the British colonial administrators in Ankole and also persuaded other local chiefs to consent to the British rule.

He persuaded the people of Ankole to pay taxes which helped them get revenue. He also encouraged the Banyankole to grow crops as the British had ordered.

He encouraged the setting up of mission schools from where the educated would help the British in carrying out some duties as clerks, country chiefs etc.

He helped in establishing the Kiganda system of administration in Ankole.

He helped the British to bring some Southern parts of Uganda under colonial rule; Igara, Mpororo, parts of Buziba this were under colonial rule through the Ankole administration.

In 1901, he signed the Ankole Agreement with the British on behalf of Kahaya and this Agreement placed the Ankole firmly in the hands of the British.

Mbaguta retired from government services in 1930 and he died in 1944.


  • He helped to enlarge the size of Ankole which transformed into a bigger Kingdom e.g. Igara, Mpororo, Buziba, Bubwenju etc.
  • He helped Ankole to keep its status as a Kingdom
  • He helped to raise the standard of living of the people by encouraging the establishment of schools and hospitals.
  • He enhanced his position and prestige in Ankole when he was given a little “Engazi” by Sir Harry Johnstone.
  • He saved Ankole from being ruled by foreigners especially Buganda like it happened in Kigezi.
  • He helped Ankole to avoid loss of life through wars of subrogation by the British.


Mumia was a ruler of the Wanga tribe of Luyia people in Western Kenya. He was born in 1849 and came to power in 1882 when he suceed his other Shindu. He had been in contact with the coastal traders so he was well known for peace making.

His early years in power were not easy as he was always attacked by his neighbours. He therefore chose to collaborate with the British;

  • He thought that the British would give him guns to increase his military strength.
  • He wanted to increase his prestige over the Luyia people in the area.
  • He realized that Luyia were not militarily strong and therefore could not withstand the British military mighty.
  • He hoped to increase his trading opportunities in the area.
  • He wanted to revenge on Luo and Nandi who used to invade his Kingdom.
  • He further hoped to gain a favourable condition in the colonial administration.

Mumia contributed to the extension of European colonial rule in the following ways;

In 1894 and 1906, Mumia sent some Luyia soldiers to help the British their expenditions against the Luo, Bagisu, and Nandi. This helped the British to establish their rule in Western Kenya having gotten rid of the resistors.

He welcomed the British and gave them land for settlement. He allowed them to use his capital as the British administrative headquater of Nortern Kenya. This saved them a lot of cost of administration.

He sent many of his people as chiefs to help the British to fight against the Bakusu in the West Valley reion. The Bakusu were defeated with a loss of more than 200 men. This heavy death tall made authority in London to warm the British administration in the area but couldn’t reserve the damage already done.


The British built the Luyia schools, good roads; hospitals ehich improved their standard of living.

The Luyia employment opportunities increased especially as chiefs for the British administration.

The Luyia didn’t experience great loss of lives during the extension of colonial rule because they didn’t fight many wars with the British

Nabongo Mumia`s prestige and political stand increased among his people and his neighbours. He was made paramount chief over all Luyia in Western Kenya.

The Luyia enjoyed peace since their powerful neighbours as well as enemies. The Nandi were weakened by the British.

Nabongo Mumia kept his position as King of the Luyia unlike his neighbouring Kings who fought a losing battle and therefore lost their positions.


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