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The compounds comprising of a carbonyl group -C=O are termed as Carbonyl Compounds. These compounds are a part of the organic chemistry with their primary members named as aldehydes and ketones.
A carbonyl group is also called a functional group. It consists of a carbon atom which is linked to the oxygen atom through a double bond as shown below. This group is called the carbonyl group. The term Carbonyl also refers to carbon monoxide as the ligand within an organometallic or inorganic compound say a metal carbonyl for ex- nickel carbonyl.
Again carbonyl compounds are divided into organic and inorganic carbonyl compounds, but in this article, we are dealing with the carbonyl compounds those of organic in nature.
These include carbamates, urea and also the derivatives of phosgene, acyl chlorides chloroformates, carbonate esters, lactones, thioesters, lactams, isocyanates, and hydroxamates.
In general, we come across the names aldehydes and ketones when we speak about the Carbonyl compounds. What is the role of these in the lists of carbonyl compounds? Aldehydes and ketones are the organic compounds which consist of the functional group as that of that of the carbonyl compounds. The main difference between these two compounds is the position of the carbonyl group. In aldehydes, the carbonyl group is placed at the ending of carbon chain whereas, in the ketones, it is located in the middle of the carbon ring. The examples of aldehydes include propanol, butanol, 4-chlorobutanol, etc. and some of the examples of ketones are propanone, acetone, 2-methyl-3-pentanone, etc.
Some of the properties of carbonyl compounds are given below:
The carbon atom of the carbonyl group is said to be electrophilic in nature as they tend to attract electron rich compounds. Some of the Examples of electrophiles include ions whereas the oxygen atoms are said to be nucleophiles as they do not have the rich density of electrons. They are said to be the lovers of nuclei such as the bases. The carbonyl compounds reactions are given below:
These classes of organic compounds contain a carbonyl functional group (C=O) with structures CHO for aldehydes and RC(=O)R’ for ketones. Here, R and R’ denotes substituents of carbon. They also refer to as the methanoyl group or formyl group. Aryl or alkyl group or its substituents fill in the remaining bonds of carbon atom in this group.
However, if the substituents in neither of the 2 remaining bonds are hydrogen, then the organic compound is a ketone. However, if one of the substituents is hydrogen then the organic compound is an aldehyde. The properties of aldehydes and ketones play a very important role in the uses of aldehydes and ketones.
Aldehydes and ketones find application in different sectors such as pharmaceutical, food, fragrance, cosmetics because of their chemical properties. Refer below to learn more about the various applications and uses of aldehydes and ketones.
Aldehydes and ketones impart some very characteristics fragrance in compounds. For instance, ketones help in the formation a compound “acetophenone” which is responsible for fragrances such as cherry, jasmine, honeysuckle, almond, strawberry, etc. However, aldehydes are a well-known source of perfumes and fragrances in comparison to ketones.
Everyone loves the scent of freshly baked cookies. But do you know the delicious scents of cookies baking in an oven are due to aldehydes? Aldehydes are an essential component in particular sugars. Moreover, certain popular flavours of baking such as cinnamon, vanilla during baking are because of aldehydes.
Aldehydes also play an important part in caramelization of sugars. During the process of caramelization, amino acids convert the aldehyde group present in sugar into unsaturated aldehyde thereby helping in the formation of caramel and the characteristic brown colour of caramel. Aldehydes are also present in herbs such as coriander and give it the characteristic smell of coriander.
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