Civilization is the gradual process of development from backward or low forms of life (Primitivity) to high or modern forms of life.
It is also the act of living together in a society and the ability to convert the environment into a suitable / habitable environment which can help them to get their needs at a particular time.
Civilization has to take place all aspects of life i.e. social, political, economic, spiritual etc.
As time went on in the life of man, population increased and towns soon sprung up with well-built houses of walls to protect the people from their hostile neighbours and wild animals.
In each area or town, each person had his own rights. In order to protect these rights, the people then came up with laws to govern their own community.
In order for these laws to be effective, there was need for someone to put them in practice (reinforce). This marked the beginning of governance (government).
WHY DID EARLY CIVILISATION START ALONG RIVER VALLEYS
Early civilization started along river valleys because there was access to water for irrigation, cooking, drinking, washing, bathing etc.
The river valleys had fertility of land because of silting, so these places were good for agriculture.
The early man could get clay in the valley which helped him in the art of pottery.
The lower Nile valley had a warm, fairly wet climate. So the early man could graze his sheep, goats and cattle in the swampy areas and streams.
The early man could get food easily within the rivers for example by fishing.
The river valley provided raw materials for example papyrus which could be used for very many things for example mats roofing and fencing materials.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CIVILIZATION
A civilized person should be well disciplined according to a given society standards.
This person should be decently dressed that is clean, tidy, suitable for the occasion, modest, culturally.
Such a person should be active and able to use the available resources to the best to get one`s needs without destroying the environment.
He should use his own and other people`s well enough that is not being abusive or vulgor.
He should be helpful
He should live in a clean environment.
He should maintain personal hygiene.
He should be well organized and tidy.
He should be kind to others and the environment.
He should humble or courteous.
He should have a certain degree of technology advancement which can be used in different areas of life for example transport and communications, agriculture, buildings and others.
THE DISCOVERY OF FIRE
It was discovered mainly in two ways;
Striking two stones together
Rubbing two stones together.
WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF THE DISCOVERY OF FIRE
The early man was able to scare away animals from his homestead.
He was able to tame some animals.
He was able to roast or cook his food.
He was able to preserve his food for example meat, fish, tobacco and others.
He was able to warm himself since he had no beddings.
He was able to get light to use and see in the darkness.
He could use the fire to harden his pots and other day utensils.
He could use it to make stronger weapons for example smelt metals and make any shape out of them which he later used as weapons.
He used it to make stronger piston for his arrows.
He used it to protect himself for example it could use its light to see dangerous spots like holes.
USES OF FIRE TODAY
It is used for smelting iron
For hardening pots, bricks and others
Can be used for burning trees to get charcoal for fuel
It can be used for cooking or baking
It can be used for warmth
For giving light
Can be used in industries for burning chemicals
It can be used for burning unwanted rubbish.
Can be used to prepare medicine or sterilize other medical instruments.
Can be used for carrying out experiments for example in schools
PROBLEMS FACED BY EARLY MAN BEFORE DISCOVERY OF FIRE
Early man used to eat raw food
Early man used to stay in the dark at night
Early man used to feel cold when it rains and at night.
Early man was attacked by wild animals
Early man`s food could easily go bad
He had weak weapons.
THE DISCOVERY OF FARMING (FOOD)
Farming is the growing of food and rearing of animals.
Before discovering farming the early man had to walk long distances looking for food hence he got tired.
Because they had no gardens, they had no choice of food. They were eating whatever was available.
Sometimes they would pick or gather poisonous food stuffs or fruits
The early man was sometimes eaten by wild animals while looking for food.
A lot of land was not put to good use (unexploited). There were no profitable activities done like farming.
Man was at the mercy of nature for survival (food). If nature didn’t provide, he could either eat little or no food.
Having no farms to grow variety of crops (to get different food values) for example carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins etc. was a big problem.
The early man suffered from certain diseases since their bodies lacked certain nutrients
Some men got lost on their way from hunting or gathering foods.
ADVANTAGES OF INTRODUCING FARMING
The early man was able to eat a variety and therefore had a balanced diet. Therefore this reduced on the diseases of poor feeding.
Man started to live a settled life because he had to look after his farm. So he stopped making the long tiresome journeys looking for food.
Man could now fully exploit the land since he was carrying out farming.
Man started to live in communities and could now fight against any dangers including wild animals.
Man was no longer in danger for being eaten by wild animals while looking for food.
There were less causes of food poisoning since man was now planting his own food i.e. they choose to plant those that is not poisonous.
Man no longer lived at the mercy of nature for the provision of his own food like during drought. With farming he could find a way of growing his own crops for food and even preserve some for the drought period.