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This unit is about Corruption and the forms and types it has.



Corruption may be defined as the diversion from the accepted norms in the course of performance of one`s duties for selfish personal gains.

It’s a situation where one uses the public office for personal material gain.

The following are the main features/forms of corruption.

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This is the act of giving out money in order to receive a service from a public officer.

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This is an act of obtaining money from somebody through false means.

Payments of goods not supplied or services not rendered.

Undercharging of taxes and duties on exports and imports involving false classification.

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This is sometimes called tribalism and sectarianism is another form of corruption.


This is a form of corruption since one is paid for work not done. It involves the following; appearing late for work, leaving earlier than expected, perpetual absenteeism from work etc.


This involves turning an office or place of work for a wrong purpose for example center for personal business, use of public property i.e. cars, computers, etc for personal benefit.


This is done in order to earn a difference. It involves the purchase of goods and services at inflated prices.


Quite often high ranking government officials pay wages and salaries to non-existent workers i.e. ghost workers and later money is diverted to their personal accounts.

The removal of documents from case files/disappearance of files is another form of corruption.


This is the act of demanding money from somebody in return for not revealing a secret or unpleasant information.


This is the act of stealing of pocketing/ diverting public funds.


This is the act of forcing female workers, especially into sexual acts in order to retain their jobs. In some instances, male workers are also harassed.

The disappearance of official records in order to destroy evidence is another form of corruption.

Demanding commissions on work done.


  1. Moral decay: some people lack the accepted standards of behavior in society due to bad upbringing and personal indiscipline.
  2. Irresponsible leadership: this is when administrators who are supposed to give a good example to their people are carelessly involved in wrong acts.
  • Low salaries/ payments: this leads to corruption in that the little money can’t meet his daily expenditure hence corruption
  1. High cost of leaving (inflation): this is a major factor that causes corruption because of the persistent increase in prices of goods and services which makes one resort to corruption.
  2. Poverty: in the process of coming out of poverty some people end up practicing corruption.
  3. Complex bureaucracy: this refers to unnecessary complicated delays in rendering what would be a straight forward service.
  • Personal greed: some public officials have endless desires to get rich by fair of foul means.
  • Hostile environment: this refers to regulations that are so inconvenient and unreasonable that they force people to resort to corruption.
  1. Insecure tenure of office: quite often people on top positions are uncertain of their jobs. They resort to corruption in order to retain their jobs.
  2. Lack of patriotism: lack of love and devotion for one`s country may lead to corruption.
  3. Inadequate government monitoring system: this is when the government fails to put up strong institutions to crack down on the corrupt.
  • Political instability can lead to corruption.
  • High rate of unemployment.
  • Shortage of goods and services.
  1. Weak judicial system and laws
  • Extended family leading to a burden of responsibility.
Causes of Corruption


The 1995 constitution has a full chapter that condemns corruption.

The government has established institutions that serve as watchdogs against corruption, for example, the office of the inspector general of government who is supposed to inspect and arrest the corrupt.

Government has put in place the leadership cord which makes it compulsory for high ranking government officials and politicians to declare their wealth to the IGG.

The policy of privatization has made the formerly inefficient government-owned palatals to be in the hands of efficient and effective administrators.

Ghost workers have been deleted from the government payroll as a measure to fight corruption.

The public has been encouraged to respect corrupt officials to the police using a hotline.

Parliamentary secretarial committees have been established to check in the performance of government institutions, for example, the public accounts committee, the local; government account committee.

Commissions of inquiry have been established to prove cases of corruption for example Sebutindes.

The independence of the Judiciary has been emphasized as a way forward for the cracking down of criminals.

The government has increased salaries, wages for public servants to reduce the temptations of corruption.

Government is addressing the problem of moral decay through the ministry of ethics and integrity.

Designing multi-media ethic information including theatrical performances, radio programmes, popular competitions etc.

The office of the I.G.G together with the office of the Director of Public Prosecution (D.P.P) has been given powers to prosecute corrupt officers.

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  • It increases public criticism about the government .people doubt the seriousness of government and may not support it.
  • Some governments fall due to corruption especially if there is out rite political and economic mismanagement.
  • Corruption leads to delayed completion of projects and at times diversion of projects.
  • It may lead to suspension of foreign aid to a country by the international monetary fund (I.M.F) and World Bank for example Kenya and Zimbabwe.
  • It leads to a reduction in production capacity in industry, Agriculture etc.
  • It leads to the creation of unequal social classes leading to distortions in the distribution of national resources.
  • It has led to delivery of total collapse of the delivery of total services.
  • It contributes to political instability as one group struggles to share the national cake.
  • It contributes to privatization of public enterprises.
  • It leads to bankruptcy of government treasury of revenue.
  • It leads to retrenchment of some workers if they are suspected of being corrupt.
  • Corruption has brought about distortion in the economy.
  • It has impaired and undermined administrative efficiency.
  • It has undermined Justice in the country.
  • It has led to shoddy work (poor quality work).
  • It has led to disregard of the rule of law.
  • It has led to ethnic hatred and tribalism
  • It has led to total traffic accidents.
  • It has undermined invasions and exploitation of talent leading to increased brain drain.
  • It has demoralized commitment of the public servants at work.
  • It has rendered some people jobless.
  • It has suspicion and distrust among people.



ASSIGNMENT : CORRUPTION assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

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