Sex differences refer to gender differences ie differences between the male and female sex. The two genders are basically one people although they have differences that include the following.
1. The sexual organs. Men have a penis with which to deliver sperms into a woman, and women have a vagina through which a child is born.
2. The menses. Women have monthly menstruation periods which may indicate conception or not.
3. Voice. Males tend to have a deep huge voice on from puberty while women have small soft voices.
4. Physically. Males have muscular bodies while females have soft, curved and we’ll rounded bodies.
5. Skin. Makes have a rough and hairy skin and females have soft clear skins.
6. Energy. Males are mature energetic in doing manual activity while females are generally weak and offer less effort
7. Reasoning. Males tend to be more thoughtful when facing situations while women tend to do things according to their feelings /emotions.
8. Courage. .ales tend to be more strong-hearted and courageous when facing problems where females may show fear.
9. Dominacy. Males are on average more likely to lead in society than females due to the natural leadership traits they posses.
10. Patience. Males tend to be impatient with situations due to the need to see things getting done fast. Women are more patient.
11. Fashion and style. Males tend not to mind about the good looking or sounding. Females strive hard to had good looking life styles.
12. Ego. Men have an inherent urge to get things done their own way. They tend not settle for less while women can accept to live without what they would like.
13. Respect. Men like being respected again due to their ego. Although women would also like to be respected but they don’t demand for it.
14. Ownership. Men tend to feel insecure when they don’t own valuables eg not having money. Women don’t mind living without much.
ADOLESCENT SEX DIFFERENCES AND EXPERIENCES
Adolescence refers to the transition period from childhood to adulthood. This period may start at about 13 (at puberty) to about 17 years.
Males and females have different experiences/changes in this period which include the following.
1. Physical experiences/changes.
(i) General fast growth in body size as seen in the height and weight.
(ii) The body becomes hairy especially on arms and legs.
(III) Later in that period, pubic and armpit hair may grow. Chest hair dies grow too sometimes.
(iv) A not so good odour /smell may identified with them due to an increased sweating rate.
(v) The voice usually deepens into a masculine one.
2. Sexual experiences /changes.
(I) Production of sperms start and at high rate. During this period, a boy could easily make a woman pregnant.
(ii) Nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) take places as a result of surplus production of sperms in the body.
(iii) Penis erections begin to be noticed in early mornings, as a result of the rest at night which allows hormones bring up sexual excitement.
(iv) There’s an urge for sexual activity which however should be handled with care.
3. Emotional experiences/cahnges.
(I) Development of infatuation to the opposite sex. Infatuation is a very strong love for someone that suddenly disappears with no strong cause.
(ii) Development of fraternity (friendship) with girls becomes common which may not even be sexual but just social.
(III) There’s growth of interest in touching girls’ hands, hips, breasts and trying to show they’re attracted to girls in always.
(iv) Jealousy over girls develop. They get really hurt seeing other boys with their girlfriends.
4. Mental experiences.
(I) They develop a high reasoning capacity. They ask themselves why things are the way they are and seek to reason them out differently.
(ii) They develop an independent thinking and tend to differ from the views of their elders eg parents, teachers etc.
(III) Self discovery grows where by they tend reject all rules and regulations because they don’t seem to have reason for why they (rules) should be there.
(iv) They tend to have insight into their futures. They start planning about the kind of life they would want to live.
5. Social experiences/changes
(I) They get identified with peer groups to fight loneliness.
(ii) They seek public recognition and popularity which they may do through maximumly utilizing their talents.
(III) They identify with super stars that they admire and would want to be like.
(iv) Most tend to find it natural to befriend girls for companionship. If this isn’t monitored though it’s consequences are fatal eg early pregnancies.
6. Spiritual experiences
(I) Some may may have an urge to actively serve God. This they may join born-again churches which give them space to serve.
(ii) Confusion may grow up due to Bible promises to grid people yet both good and bad people live in a world of challenges.
(III) They may get inspired by the character of Jesus who as an adolescent remained faithful to God. They thus may stay faithful too
1. physical experiences.
(I) There’s growth in the body mass and weight.
(ii) Breasts swell and become bigger.
(III) There’s development of body curves which give out a well rounded body. This specially is around cheeks, neck etc.
(iv) The hips widen out to prepare her for child bearing.
(v) The menses start, occurring monthly showing the possibility of conception.
2. Mental changes.
(I) The reasoning capacity increases at a higher rate than that if the boys.
(ii) They start to think independently of others. They make choices without first asking elders.
(iv) They start believing they have solutions for situations around, through self-discovery.
(v) At a new earlier time than boys, they start projecting into the future, determining the the the kind of life they want to live in their futures.
3. Social experiences.
(I) They get identified with peer groups with which they share common interests and likes.
(ii) They get highly concerned about their physical appearance in the society. They ensure they look attractive.
(III) They expect the general public to attentive, sympathetic, understanding and considerate to them due to the challenges they’re undergoing at this stage.
(iv) They find pleasure in challenging those in authority. They’re easily pulled by others into activities that oppose the establishment.
4. Emotional experiences
(I) They’re unpredictable with their moods in this period. They might cry, laugh, get annoyed etc quickly with no strong reasons.
(ii) They develop fraternal friendship feelings with boys with who they share common interests. This might not be sexual.
(III) Most are easily sexually excited than boys of the same age group. That’s why many date older boys that they’re.
(iv) They could develop infatuation to some lovedbine. This feeling could be hysterical, ie suffering an uncontrolled nervousness of missing a dear one.
5. Spiritual experiences /changes
These are the similar to boys’.
This is instruction and guidance concerning people’s sex lives.
WAYS HOW SEX EDUCATION PASSED ON TO TEENAGERS.
1. Parents have been at the forefront of this guidance to their children. However, nowadays it’s the courageous parents who get friendly to their children and talk to them about sex.
2. Relatives are also used, especially when parents may feel shy to talk sex to their children. Traditionally, the aunties, uncles, grandparents etc take it on.
3. Peer groups are also important because their teenage members freely share information concerning sex. This may take place whenever members meet up.
4. The church also organises talks that involve youths who are then guided on how to behave sexually. They are encouraged to reserve sex activities for marriage.
5. Schools also help in educating youths about proper sex behavior. This is done by matrons and patrons, CRE teachers, counsellor teachers etc.
6. Public lectures may also be carried out in communities where resource person’s talk to teenagers about sex related issues.
7. Some are also enlightened on sex through drama and acting. Plays bring out effective examples of sex topics that leave back an impact on to the teenagers.
8. Counselling sessions may also be carried out where professional counsellor individuals or groups engage teenagers on proper sex behavior.
9. Great sex information is also carried by the press, in newspapers, pullouts, magazines, eg straight talk which can even be kept for reference.
10. The internet era has introduced social media where teenagers care share information about sex. These include facebook which however if unregulated exposes them to pornography.
11. Songs have also been composed that tackle the sex topic. These may be in local languages which can easily be understood, and can listened to repetitively.
12. In political rallies also, politicians pass on government policy messages about sex life to youths.
13. The television has also played a big role in sex education through broadcasting plays, songs and messages that call for responsible sex living.
14. Literature has also helped where written information in books, novels, journals guide teenagers on how to go about sex.
PROBLEMS IN PASSING ON SEX EDUCATION
(problems parents face in trying to pass on sex education
1. Busy schedules. Parents are spending extra time at work and away from their children. Thus they have insufficient time to pass on the sex instruction.
2. Inadequate knowledge. Most parents themselves do not have the knowledge they need to pass on to their children because they themselves nay have not been taught by their parents.
3. Permissiveness. The too much freedom given to parents exposes them to all kinds of sex knowledge and parents get convinced it’s enough. However unregulated sex knowledge may be harmful.
4. Inferiority complex. Some parents think they’re not knowledgeable enough to talk to their learned children about sex.
5. Distance. Some parents and children spend most time distant from each other, eg when in boarding schools. This make them strange to each other with no freedom to talk about sex.
6. Despising traditional culture. The modern era teenagers have a negative bias about traditional ways of doing things, calling the outdated. They thus may agree to be taught.
7. False Independence. The most teenagers at this age believe they’re mature and can reason out life’s issues themselves, and not parents. They prefer self discovery instead.
8. Peer influence. The groups teenagers belong to feed them with with experiences, information etc that make them believe parents have no use educating them about sex.
9. False assurance. Parents may have a belief that teachers at school are educating teenagers about sex and yet teachers may think parents are doing it. This the teenagers stay unattended to.
10. Materialism. Parents may teach sex education to children but all that may be useless as teenagers put aside all that knowledge for the sweet little things they are offered.
11. Redundancy. Even if parents pass on the instruction but to idle teenagers, the knowledge won’t help. They still go out and behave recklessly if they have nothing to do.
12. Pornography. Parents messages on proper sex behavior has been tampered with rampant pornography because it arouses then into immorality altogether.
13. Unstable and dysfunctional families. In situations where the whole family is undergoing a period of suffering, fights, poverty, parents may have no time to educate their children.
14. Denominational contradictions. The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches differ on some sex education issues eg the use of condoms which breeds confusion among teenagers.
SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE PRESENT SITUATION
The natural sex differences have been misinterpreted to breed an inequality, putting women at a disadvantage.
WAYS HOW WOMEN ARE OPPRESSED IN UGANDA (Why women are suppressed,
1. Women have been denied leadership roles especially in the Catholic Church although they form the largest part of the congregation.
2. They are not allowed to have influence and respect in the family. They have no say in decision making even if it concerns her own children.
3. They also have little choice to make about the marriage partners they get. Societies such as the karimojong totally force then into marriage.
4. They have no security in marriage as they can unfairly be divorced anytime the husband wishes which results into misery and humiliation.
5. The custom of dowry and its misuse reduces the level of women to mere properties that can be used in any way. This breeds mistreatment and injustice.
6. Some women are subjected to injurious rituals such as female genital mutilation among the Sabiny etc that is painful and denies them sexual pleasure.
7. They’re also considered sexual objects, only created to satisfy men’s sexual needs. As a result, they’re raped, defiled etc.
8. Men consider it normal to be polygamous which is unfair to women as they have to stay sexually unsatisfied and yet can’t have many husbands.
9. At home, women are the beasts of burden doing all the hard work eg caring for children, tilling the land, even when feeling unwell eg when pregnant.
10. Some men also still batter their wives as a form of disciplining them. Society considers it right for a man to beat the wife. Authority is also soft on it.
11. Women are also considered a bad omen. Misfortunes such as a childless marriage, HIV/AIDS etc are usually unfairly blamed on women.
12. Also, most families still prioritize boys’ education leaving out girls. They consider it a waste of resources since get married away after all.
13. Women are also discriminated against at work, considering them to weak for some tasks, demanding them for sex before employment etc.
14. There are also some traditional food taboos that deny women of the most nutritious and delicious foods yet naturally, it’s them that need it most.
THE WOMENS LIBERATION MOVEMENT / FEMINISM
Having realized that they were being unfairly treated, some women decided to start a feminist movement that would fight for gender equality, The women’s liberation movement. It originated in the US before spreading to the rest of the world.
NB Feminism is defined as the
theory of the political, economic, and
the social equality of the sexes.
REASONS FOR STARTING THE WOMEN’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT (Reasons why and how women want to be equal to men, why equality is essential, causes of the need for equality
1. Both men and women are created in God’s image and thus are the same. None of the two should despise the other.
2. Women need assurance and security in marriage. Men seem to have unchallenged power to batter and mistreat them. They can also expel them whenever they felt it right which they’re against.
3. Many international declarations and agreements eg The United Nations declaration on Human Rights advocate for respect of women’s rights. This has awakened women into fighting for them.
4. They also want to have full conjugal rights where they can limitlessly enjoy the love of their husbands. In this regard, they’re to fighting polygamy and the extended family.
5. Their role in the family. Women are given a little decision making power in the affairs of the family. They need to have more say even in sensitive family issues.
6. Improving their health situation. Women have had to bear health hazards brought in by the man’s unfaithfulness. They get STDS, get malnourished due to the men’s behavior. They are against this.
7. Greater say in family planning. Women want to have influence on family planning, to be able to chose when and what to use. This is because it is them to produce children and upbringing them alone.
8. Cultural rigidities. Women are fighting against unfair and injurious customary practices that put them at an unequal pacing with men such as female genital mutilation, forced marriage etc.
9. Property ownership. There’s a need for women to be able to inherit and own property like men. Laws have been put in place to enable girls share on the parent’s property on the latter’s death.
10. Education opportunities. Women, just like men should have a right to acquiring knowledge through education. Some families prioritize boys education which isn’t fair.
11. Employment opportunities. Employment of women in some jobs is difficult even if they have the required qualifications. They are considered too weak, naive and are thus given odd jobs only.
12. Leisure. They want a levelled situation for time off work. They want to have a break, and rest from the monotonous house work because men think it’s a reserve only for them to rest.
13. Engagement in politics. Women activists are calling for more influence by women in the politics of their nation. They want to engage in elective politics, occupy high positions etc.
14. Supportive government policies. They need to see government formulating policies that specially favour women in fields they have been marginalized for long such as tertiary learning.
THE GOVERNMENT’S CONTRIBUTION TOWARD WOMEN EMANCIPATION
-Affirmative action… Special measures put across to enable women achieve prominence
-Women emancipation, the movement to have women have equal rights with men.
1. Championing Human Rights. The government in power respects fundamental basic Human Rights of all people irrespective of their sex. The Uganda Human Rights Commission was formed for this purpose.
2. Special women’s seats. Through affirmative action, government put in place some leadership positions reserved only for women eg woman mp seat etc to up women’s political roles.
3. Sensitization. Government has provided personel and materials for use in women emancipation campaigns. Seminars, workshops etc have been organised to create this awareness.
4. Girl child education. In all public universities eg Makerere, female students awarded 1.5 points for free to enable a greater number of them acquire tertiary education.
5. Competitive academics. Healthy competition between boys and girls has been championed through establishment of mixed schools. This has also showed respect for the equality idea.
6. Tough protective laws. Legislations have come into being aimed at guarding women as the weaker sex from lustful men. The offenses of rape, defilement, etc have heavy punishments.
7. The Women’s Day. Government allowed the celebration of the Women’s Day every 8th of March to show its resolve to support women’s liberation. This day helps to highlight women’s achievents annd targets.
8. Presidential appointments. High profile appointments have been made with women put into top positions to entrench equality. Such include the post of vice president in the past, Executive directors of KCCA and UNRA etc.
9. Open professions. All educational professions have been kept open for capable people irrespective of sex. This we have female doctors, teachers, militarily personel etc.
10. Favourable employment policy. Advertisement and recruitment for civil servants is open for all sexes. Men and women can equally compete for the available opportunities.
11. Associations. Government has allowed and supported formation of organizations that spearhead the emancipation movement. They include FIDA, ACFODE UWESO, MOTHER’S UNION etc.
12. Economic empowerment. Women have lagged behind economically. Government has encouraged setting up of women’s financial institutions eg Saccos that offer credit finance, equip them with skills, etc.
13. Supportive ministry. Government created the Ministry for gender, labour, and
social development deal with the concerns of women emancipation.
14. Condemning cultural rigidities. Leaders in government including the President continually oppose injurious rituals such as female genital mutilation, forced marriage etc.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE WOMENS LIBERATION MOVEMENT IN UGANDA
The following are the remarkable achievents of the feminism campaign in Uganda.
1. Church leadership. Women have courageously taken up top positions in church as Reverends in the Anglican church, pastors in Pentecostal churches etc and have helped build God’s Kingdom.
2. Family influence. Due to awareness, women now play a greater role in driving decisions in the family. They can decide on sensitive issues eg children education, choice of food etc.
3. Girl child education. Due to supportive government policies, girl children have acquired education opportunities that level those of boys.
4. High profile professionals. Women are now known to compete with men in being high salaried professionals as doctors, lecturers etc, fields that were known fit for only men.
5. Fair terms of work. Women now also share in the privileges entitled to all workers such as pay rises, promotions, accommodation and transport allowances etc.
6. Justice access. Through the work of FIDA (Uganda Women Lawyers Association) women have acquired legal aid, guidance and representation. Their problems are thus addressed fairly.
7. Health. Women play a great role in influencing better health for them and other family members. They are involved in immunization, anti HIV campaigns and other forms of health sensitization.
8. Development of culture. The regained position of the woman has helped boost traditional culture through being the enlightened inculcators to children.
9. Charity. Through their activism, women have extended financial, material and emotional support to the disadvantaged in society through groups such as UWESO, girl guides.
10. Leisure industry. The empowerment of women has enabled them to turn into famous artistes, as songstresses and actresses. They also produce beautiful handicrafts all that generate incomes.
11. Role in politics. Women are now prominent at all political levels in the country as councillors, members of parliament and in governance. Such include Rebecca Kadaga, speaker of parliament.
12. Economically empowered. Women now can independently generate incomes to fend for themselves through projects such as piggery, retail shops, salons etc.
13. Parliamentary representation. In Uganda, women in each district specially have a legislative representative that channels their views to make laws that ensure their well-being.
14. Defense and security. Women have rendered their service to such organs as the police, army and prisons. This, they now contribute to peace and safety of society.