Computer intrusions typically involve computer networks, and there is always going to be the potential for valuable evidence on the network transmission medium.
Capturing network traffic can give investigators one of the most vivid forms of evidence, a live recording of a crime in progress (Casey, 2004).
This compelling form of digital evidence can be correlated with other evidence to build an airtight case, demonstrating a clear and direct link between the intruder and compromised hosts.
The problem is that this medium is volatile. If you are not capturing traffic on a network link when a transmission of interest is sent, then it is lost. You will never have access to that data.
It is advisable that you begin capturing traffic in the beginning of an incident, at least for the devices that are exhibiting the initial symptoms of a security event.
Later during the incident, you will be able to readjust your monitoring locations based upon more detailed results of your analysis.
In an ideal world, you would be able to capture all network traffic entering and leaving any network segment that is in the potential scope of the incident, as well as data to and from your network management and data “crown jewels.”
But your organization most likely does not have the capacity for network traffic collection on this scale, so you will need to prioritize your captures.
Your priority should be to collect network traffic to and from known compromised systems, so that you can collect enough information to be able to identify specific artifacts that can be used later to detect attacker activity across other network devices already in place, such as firewalls, proxy servers, and IDS sensors.
Whenever you encounter a source of logs on a network, preserve the entire original log for later analysis, not just portions that seem relevant at the time.
The reason for this admonition is that new information is often uncovered during an investigation and the original logs need to be searched again for this information.
If you do not preserve the original log, there is a risk that it will be overwritten by the time you return to search it for the new findings.
When exporting logs from any system, make sure that DNS resolution is not occurring because this will slow the process and may provide incorrect information (when DNS entries have changed since the time of the log entry).