DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH – p.5

do know what direct and indirect speeches are and how they are used in English grammar, check this unit. it will help in the understanding of this unit.

PAST SIMPLE TENSE

Past simple tense changes to past perfect tense.

Example:

  1. She said, “The hen laid this egg last week.” (DIRECT)

She said that the hen had laid that egg the previous week. (INDIRECT)

 

TOPICAL QUESTIONS

Punctuate the following sentences correctly.

  1. Moses said I am very hungry.
  2. Juliet said we are going home.
  3. What is your name Tom asked me?
  4. Allen says I must pass my exam.
  5. I want food said Peter.
  6. I don’t eat beans Annette said.
  7. The moon appears at night said the teacher.
  8. Mother said the sun sets in the west.

 

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

(Present continuous tense)

Present continuous tense changes to past continuous and “now” changes to “then” “today” changes to “that day”

Examples

  1. He said, “I am drinking this water now. (DIRECT)

He said that he was drinking that water them. (INDIRECT)

  1. “I am taking these books home now,” Jane said. (INDIRECT)

Jane said that she was taking those books home then.

Activity: Learners do exercise 56 pg. 68

THIS VIDEO SHOWS THE USE OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Present perfect tense changes to past perfect tense.

Examples:

  1. The teacher said, “I have spoken to you about your dressing.” (DIRECT)

The teacher said that he/she had spoken to her/him/me about her/his/my dressing. (INDIRECT)

SPEECHES

  1. i) Direct
  2. ii) Indirect speech

Direct speech made of two parts

  1. i) Speech tag
  2. ii) Actual words

 

Examples (Direct) PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

  1. I said, “I drink water every day.”

Speech tag           actual words

 

  1. Indirect speech has three parts.
  2. i) Speech tag
  3. ii) Conjunction

iii) Said word in past tense

 

Example

  1. I said         that                   I drank water every day.

Speech       conjunction           said words

tag

  1.  Indirect speech has three parts.

i) Speech tag

ii) Conjunction

iii) Said words in past tense

 

Example

I   said                 that                         I drank water   everyday

Speech           conjunction                      said words

tag

 

Changes involved

Direct                               Indirect

This                                     that

These                               those

Here                                 there

Now                                 then

Ago                                  before

Today                               that day

Tomorrow                         the next day/ following day

Yesterday                         precious day/ day before

Last                                  previous

Come                               go

Bring                                take

I                                       he/she

We                                   they

My                                   his/her

Our                                  their

Am                                   was

Will /shall                         would

May                                  might

Can                                  could

You                                  her/they/him

Are                                   were

Must                                had to

Must not                          was not to/ were not to

Me                                   her/him

Us                                    them

EVALUATION

Change the following sentences from direct to indirect speech.

  1. “We do our work,” said the pupils.
  2. Joan said, “I buy sweets.”
  3. The teacher said, “I have taught you for a long time.”
  4. “He has been playing volley ball,” said Ivan.
  5. “He is abusing me,” said Arthur.
  6. Mukasa said, “I am doing homework.”
  7. Irene said, “We have bought sugar canes.”

 

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