FORMS OF LEISURE
Refers to the ways through which information is circulated in the community in the world. It includes electronic media like news papers, magazines, pamphlets and brochures.
ASSESS THE ROLE OF THE MASS MEDIA AS A FORM OF LEISURE ACTIVITY OR ENJOYMENT OF LEISURE
- Mass media enables people to be informed about everything going on in the world in different fields like politics and religious affairs. For example people can watch WBS, NTV, and NBS and follow the election campaign of USA today.
- Mass media has been used as a good avenue for imparting new ideas in the society. For example radios and Television channels.
- Mass media acts as a leisure industry and an investment. For example the newspapers and televisions Bukedde television and newspapers by Robert Kabushenga.
- The mass media has acted as a good source of entertainment and relaxation of one’s mind. For instance people relax as they read news papers like Bukedde and new vision news papers and listening to music on radio and watching television program.
- The mass media houses have contributed to government taxes a lot hence enabling the government to carryout its policies for the good of the citizens.
- The mass media channels have helped some people to acquire marriage partners. This is done through surfing the internet, reading news papers with advertising the people search for partners and also watching television programs like ‘abanoonya’ on Bukudde television on Saturday around 9:30pm on Bukedde one.
- Mass media channel have helped to provide employment opportunities to many Ugandans. So many people get jobs as disco jokers, news readers and program presenters.
- The mass media tools have acted as stories of wealth and investment. For example Robert Kabushenga is very rich because he owns various television status like Bukedde 1 and 2 and newspapers like Bukedde newspaper, Bukedde television and Bukedde radio
- The mass media as a leisure amusement channel has helped to correct wrong information in the public. For instance health workers are invited on televisions or radio stations and have corrected information concerning family planning methods and immunization advantages just as politicians also do defend their political parties.
- The mass media channels have been advantageous in Uganda in a way of spreading God’s kingdom. Different people pick the word of God through listening to different radios stations like radio Maria, Namirembe FM, Kingdom FM, Top radio and watching gospel programmes on televisions like channel 44, Top TV, Bukedde one on Sunday.
- Mass media provide a source of research through reading news papers, magazines, internet surfing and listening to various political and religious programmes like family planning students are able to attain knowledge on how to control themselves sexually.
- Mass media have encouraged democracy in the country through freedom of expression and discussion of ideas between people from different political groups like Kabbinkano on Bukedde Television.
However the following are the disadvantages of mass media today;
- Most forms of mass media like reading news papers and watching films on television offer passive leisure leading to destruction of people’s skills and creativity and causing boredom.
- Some forms of media are only feasible/centred in urban areas where electricity and network signals are accessible. Thus the rural areas are denied chances of such sources of entertainment like watching some television channels.
- Most forms of mass media only present views of the internet groups and sometimes misinterpret information. For instance UBC radio and television mainly broadcast government internet ideas and leave out a criticism. This may give a wrong picture to the public that all things are good.
- Many forms of mass media are expensive which denies the poor the chance to enjoy their leisure time well. For example a digital sate-light television today August 2016 costs at least 140k which cannot be afforded by a village Ugandan.
- Most forms of leisure are affected by language barriers and therefore cannot secure the whole community. For example most newspapers are written in English and luganda. Therefore the illiterate are denied a chance of getting proper information from such papers.
- Some mass media forms do not promote socialization. For example one may ignore a visitor because he or she is busy reading newspapers or watching television programs.
- Most forms of mass media are dangerous because they have promoted moral degeneration among the youths. Some youth spend their leisure time watching blue movies (pornographic literature) and reading sexy magazines which end up putting them into the moods of practicing fornication which results into early pregnancies.
- The mass media as a leisure channel has been badly used by some people to black mail others. This is done through public talk on television stations like on Bukedde TV on akabinkano programme.
- Some people use the mass media and pas on false information to the public so as to get a wider market or more supporters especially during political campaigns.
- Some programmes are presented at wrong timing and therefore do not benefit the target group. For example some youth programmes are presented on radios and televisions when majority of them are at school.
- Some mass media forms of enjoying leisure like television have attracted many thieves who end up ignoring the owners.
- Sometimes mass media is dangerous because it undermines the human dignity. For example the Red pepper, Bukedde paper which sometimes publishes nude photos of people having sexual intercourse in some places like the beach which may mislead the young ones.
- Some politicians use the mass media as an avenue for organizing demonstrations and strikes against the government. On many occasions the Forum for Democratic change [FDC] party has called upon supporters to join hands in demonstrations against some government policies.
- The increased cases of marriage instabilities today are partly due to influence of the mass media. Some women watch soaps or Nigerian movies which change their minds to rebel against their husbands.
- The mass media contributed a lot of man’s evasion of God today. Many people do not go for prayers because they are busy watching TV programmes which are even unChristian such as blue movies.
SPORTS AS A CASE STUDY OF LEISURE INDUSTRY
Sports can be defined as a physical activity in which people compete against each other, sports activities include running, racing, football, rugby, wrestling in the school curriculum activities.
Advantages of Sports
- Sports helps in imparting self- discipline among participants since discipline is emphasized in the sports sector.
- Sports as a form of entertainment and enjoyment too many who watch them hence acquisition of relaxed mind for good help.
- Sports help individuals to exploit their talents and use them for their benefits, family benefits.
- Sports encourage a spirit of team work and co-operation among individuals since winning any sport competition requires team work.
- Sports provide an outlet for both participants and spectators which commands good health for individuals as a result of good health.
- Sports international co-operation as it cuts across social religious and political boundaries thus it is an avenue of solving grievances among wearing parties.
- Sports helps people involved even spectators to forget troubles in a mean time giving one a clear mind and effective mind.
- Sports help in achieving material wards to individuals who excel and the country at large. For example he award of medal, gold, houses, cars, money and many others
- It gives a chance of sports and women to travel to various parts of the world leading to learning more about the world, copying good practices of the world thus paving way for development.
- Sports help to give mental refreshment especially after a serious mental work thus commanding good health for an individual.
- Sports is also important for doing away with boredom which is common in passive form of leisure such as watching television, listening to music and many others
- Sports help people to develop a competitive spirit among participants which may later help them in the secular life.
- Games and sports helps participants to be physically fir, thus commanding good health and avoiding diseases like heart diseases, diabetes and many others
- Sports are a source of employment and income to professionals, their families and the country at large. Countries like Brazil make more money in exporting sports men and women that from any other activity.
- Sports can be a gesture of co-operation and friendship, for example through organizing friendly matches between schools, clubs and countries and many others
- Sports make participants popular and even the country that is excelling in sports, for example Henry Thierry of France, Ronaldo of Brazil, Christiano Ronaldo of Portugal and many others
- It helps the individual to diversify to the activity where he/she can do better especially to these who can’t do better in academics.
- In the school circular, sports make teaching and learning interesting to the young one hence maintaining them in school.
- Games and sports help people to acquire friends in the various place visited. This may pave way for getting a marriage partner.
- Games and sports are important for advertisement of institutions such as schools, for example some parents prefer schools which excel in games and sports for their children to give them a good foundation in games and sports.
Disadvantages of Sports
- Due to stiff competition in sports, some people have been forced to indulge in unethical behavior for example, bribing referees, practicing witchcraft, use of magic and drugs.
- Some people may get deformed as a result of injuries that may be got during accidents thus affecting the health participants.
- Some activities have been commercialized and as such very few people can afford to enjoy them as leisure activities.
- Hooliganism, black mailing and use of abusive language are exhibited during sports events. Hooliganism has led to fighting and accidents leading t injuries and sometimes death.
- Due to competition to excel, some people decided to use drugs such as marijuana. These drugs are aimed at stimulating extra-energy. However, they are addictive and may cause side effects in the body.
- Some of the sporting activities such as cross country and motor racing do not take place at a particular point. You can only see the starting point and end; hence it is not the best entertainment to the spectators.
- Sometimes sports become monotonous to spectators thus becoming boring hence less entertainment to them.
- Through sports some people seek personal glories hence leading to man’s evasion of God, as their glorification.
- Games and sports increases government expenditure through importing sports wear for the participants paying allowances to sports officially, transport and accommodation to sports officials and participants, hence affecting other sector of the economy.
- Sometimes sports may create enmity and hatred among participants due to the brutal instincts involved in some sports that may lead to injuries. For example in football, rugby and many others
- Some people may be too committed to sports to extent of abandoning their families, education and others creating a social crisis.
Today, there is steady rise of professionalism, which has introduced an element of money. The motive of sports is no longer entertainment and relaxation but money.
- Sports and games have created conflicts between parents hence leading to the activity to be conducted in a less proper way.
- Sports sometimes lead to over spending on the side of spectators hence grooming poverty. This is very common among motor car rally funs.
- Sports leads to marriage instabilities as some people invest more time in sports than for their spouses, leading to conflicts and quarrels paving way for family breakdown. For example many families have been negatively affected by football (premier matches). As many husbands are always out their homes for these games even when their spouses need them around.
- Sports promote immorality through vulgar language, alcoholism and sex immorality especially by the motor rally funs.
DRINKING ALCOHOL AS A FORM OF LEISURE ACTIVITY
Alcoholism can be defined as the medical condition of being an alcoholic. Alcoholism involves the taking of alcohol and spirits that are stimulating and can lead to addiction. Examples of alcohol include beer, waragi, wines and many others.
REASONS/CAUSES OF DRINKING ALCOHOL/WINE
- Some people drink alcohol in order to get comforted as a result of anxiety, retrenchment from the job, being unemployed and losing a beloved one among others.
- Some people drink alcohol in order to cure thirst and this is preferred in areas with limited water, such that alcohol becomes the best substitute.
- Some people drink alcohol because it is part of the cultural practice. For example cultural meetings such as naming, funeral rites, circumcision require a traditional booze in order to be well celebrated, in case of funeral rites, the traditional booze considers those who have lost a family member or a friend and that the last funeral rites may not be well performed in absence of a drink, that the departed ancestor also need a drink as he/she goes to the next world.
- Some people drink because it highlights occasions, it gives people enjoyment, make everybody happy and feeling good interesting and genetic influence.
- From the social perspective, some people drink alcohol to socialize with others since company is always provided in bars, where there is always laughter, fun, and news was where people run to break the home monotony and boredom.
- Some people drink alcohol because it highlights occasions, it gives people enjoyment, make every body happy and feeling good interesting and sometimes funny.
- Some people drink alcohol as an accompaniment for meals. This is very common in Italy, France and Israel where wine is used as an accompaniment of meals.
- Some people drink alcohol due to peer group influence who sometimes conduct their friends from homes, buy for them alcohol and encourages them to drink by always emphasizing the importance of drinking alcohol no wonder ‘birds of the same feather flock together’.
- Some people drink alcohol to get sleep, especially when faced with many problems alcohol helps an individual to forget problems in the short run thus causing sleep.
- Some people drink alcohol for health reasons, for example to reduce weight, to get food appetite and many others
- Some people drink alcohol for status reasons. In some societies drinking alcohol is associated with having a lot of money so people to show their financial strength. This is mostly determined by the type of the alcohol one takes, for example expensive wines and many others
- Some people drink alcohol because they are addicted to it, to the extent that they can hardly do anything without taking it for example some people take a glass of alcohol before commencing work.
- Some people drink alcohol because of the kind of job they do for example people working in the mortuary drink alcohol to cope up with the kind of environment where they are working.
- Some people drink alcohol so as to avoid being shy when going out to meet their lovers. This is very common among adolescents and some youths.
- Some people especially adolescents drink alcohol to prove that they are grown up since in some societies alcohol is only supposed to be taken by adults.
- Some people take alcohol as a result of fulfilling religious instructions. For example the Christians take wine in church which is considered to have turned into the blood of Jesus Christ, who commanded them to drink in his memory.
- Some people drink alcohol for political reasons for example spying for and against the government is best done at drinking joints, where people speak out secrets any how due to influence of alcohol.
- Some people drink alcohol because of having too much money sometimes inherited wealth, thus they drink to show of as they even buy booze to strangers.
- Some people drink alcohol to pass time. After work some people in evenings prefer to be entertained to a beer as they enjoy their leisure time, listen to music, watch a television or even discuss with one another.
- Some people drink alcohol due to environmental determinism or surroundings for example staying in a home where there is selling alcohol would lead the children to learn taking it and so are slum areas where drinking alcohol seems normal.
- Some people drink alcohol so as to get extra ordinary courage to talk in public openly tells neighbours of the wrongs they are committing. For example in case of conflicts originating on land wrangles, witchcraft and many others
DANGERS OF ALCOHOL TO AN INDIVIDUAL
- It causes heart diseases and damages the red blood cells leading to one having shaking limbs and the skin turning yellow in colour.
- It reduces one’s life span. An alcoholic feels constantly weak, suffers from indigestion because the bile, which is responsible for digestion is easily destroyed by alcohol.
- It leads to loss of appetite to the alcoholic leading to Vitamin C.
- It stops the production of white blood cells thus the alcoholic is likely to suffer from various diseases due to lack of immunity.
- Alcoholism causes impotence in man, which may be temporary or even permanent when the alcoholic stops drinking.
- Alcohol causes intestinal ulcers especially if taken on an empty stomach.
- Alcohol damages the central nervous system leaving the alcoholic with loss of balance and shaking limbs.
- Alcoholism makes one to loose respect in society when it is taken beyond the normal rate leading to failure to get a marriage partner or divorce for the married ones.
- It leads to body deformities especially if the alcoholic falls into hot water, on the ground and many others Thus leading to broken limbs, wound scars and many others
- It reduces man’s ability to make national judgment hence it leads to sexual immorality, domestic violence, fighting in bars and others leading to injuries and loss of respect.
- In case of a pregnant woman, alcoholism leads to serious mental and physical damage to developing child and even lead to miscarriage or infant mortality.
- It can make a man poor in short time. He may sell all his properties including clothes, house and land in order to meet expenses of drinking alcohol.
- It may lead to committing suicide due to poverty, unemployment social rejection. The alcoholic may respond to all those humiliating experiences by committing suicide.
- It may lead to the acquisition of diseases as a result of communal drinking using same straw, cups, glasses and many others
- Alcoholism leads to unemployment due to inefficiency in work, late coming and leaving early to go and drink alcohol due to being an addict.
DANGERS OF ALCOHOL TO THE FAMILY AND SOCIETY
- Failure to provide the family with basic needs of life such as food, shelter and clothing due to the fact that much of the income is spent on drinking alcohol.
- Alcoholics are in most cases violent and aggressive to their wives, children and society members. They are quarrelsome and capable of doing anything to the family thus leading to family instability.
- Alcoholism leads to irresponsible parenthood; children lack parental care and training from both biological parents. This leads to the children to grow up with morally unacceptable behaviours and practices such as being hooligans and practicing theft among others.
- Alcoholics do not do well in bed. They are always unwelcome partners and sometimes they leave their sexual partners unsatisfied thus paving way for practicing extra-marital sex as adultery and prostitution leading to acquisition of STDs and AIDs hence death.
- Due to high level of poverty and violence associated with over speeding on drinking alcohol, cases of divorce in marriage are high.
- It is easy for an alcoholic to make his children and wife homeless due to selling the family properties including land to get money for drinking alcohol and paying debts hence leading to family breakdown.
- It gives false confidence and aggressiveness that paves way for fighting which may result into over spending on the family level in the process of providing treatment.
- It causes worries to family members as a result of one member being out drinking alcohol especially during late in the night.
- It also leads to increased rates of accidents due to reckless drinking and driving leading to injuries and death, hence leading to loss of family income earners causing suffering to the dependants.
- It leads to man’s inefficiency at places of work, as they are common absentees, late comers to termination from work, thus creating suffering to family members, especially if the terminated member is the bread winner of the family.
- It encourages sexually unacceptable behaviours such as practicing prostitution, incest and others due to motivating the sex appetite and giving the alcoholic false confidence thus paving way for sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDs.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO ALCOHOLISM
- The public should be sensitized about the dangers of alcoholism through seminars, workshops, mass media and the church.
- The government should set up laws to regulate the drinking of alcohol by firing the hours of drinking alcohol, such that it would be illegal to drink alcohol before and after the stated hours.
- The alcoholics should be helped to know that they are a danger to their families and so the society at large can adjust accordingly.
- Alcoholics should be given medical attention plus guidance and counseling so as to do away with the habit.
- Christians should preach against the misuse of alcohol and at times organize seminars for the Christians where they could be taught about the dangers of alcoholism.
- Sports should be encouraged by the church, government and all society members so as to avert people from spending their leisure time through drinking alcohol.
- Those who drink alcohol because of problems should seek counseling rather than drinking alcohol which just provides temporally solutions.
- Those addicted to drinking alcohol should pray to God to save them from such a risky practice that may expose them to various diseases.
- There is need to avoid friends or peer groups that entices one into drinking alcohol which may lead to biological and social problems.
- People should be advised to have control over drinking habits so that they ae not controlled by alcohol one should be able to determine what is enough.
THE BIBLICAL TEACHING ABOUT ALCOHOL
The bible has both positive and negative attitudes towards drinking alcohol. All Christians condemn excessive drinking of alcohol. However, some church sects such as the protestant fundamentalists (Balokole) condemn drinking alcohol completely.
Positive Attitude (In Support)
- Wine was part of the diet of the Israelites (Gen 27:37) thus it is acceptable for Christians to drink alcohol.
- In the New Testament wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus Christ, thus Christians ought to drink it in mass celebration to remembrance of Jesus as commanded by him.
- In the Old Testament, shortages of wine and rain were interpreted as a result of a curse from God because of sin. Besides the presence of abundant wine as a blessing from God thus drinking alcohol is not committing sin.
- According to Old Testament, wine is one of the gifts from God for being obedient to him (Deut 7:13) thus drinking alcohol is not committing a sin.
- Jesus supported the drinking of alcohol as an important socializing element when he turned water into wine at a wedding feast at Cana of Galilee.
- Hosea 9:2 points out that it was tragedy for a man if he did not enjoy wine and bread thus wine and bread are a source of happiness.
- Wine was used as medicine that is why St. Paul advised Timothy to take wine when he was sick. The good Samaritan also poured wine on the wounds of the injured man (Tim 5:23)
- Jesus did not condemn alcohol not did he put a law against it. So it is upon an individual’s conscious to either drink or not.
- Wine was used in the old testament as an element of highlighting occasions and bringing happiness to society members (Esther 5:6-9)
Negative Attitude (Not in Support)
- Noah drunk some wine, which forced him to take off his clothes and lay on the ground naked. This made his ones ashamed and scandalized (Gen 9:20-24)
- According to St. Paul in his letter to the Corinthians (1 Cor 6:16) those who are drunkards will not inherit God’s kingdom thus Christians should refrain from drinking alcohol.
- Proverbs 20 points out that drinking too much make one a fool. It is stupid to get drunk so Christians advised to regulate our drinking habits.
- Wine is condemned by the bible among other things it makes people commit sins. The daughters of Lot made him drunk so that they could commit incest with him (Gen 19:32-38) hence whether wine is taken deliberately or not can make a person to do something undesirable in society.
- Isaiah 5:11 say that ‘you are domed! You get up early in the morning to start drinking and you spend long evenings getting drunk’ thus over drinking alcohol makes one lazy and enticed to commit sin.
- In the Old Testament priests were not allowed to drink when entering the holy place, as they would end up forgetting the formula f approaching God and then end up being punished by God.
- Christianity also condemns alcoholism because it is a medium for sin such as poisoning. It was at a drinking place that Absalom had his brother Amon died.
- Wine or alcoholism is condemned because it causes man’s evasion of God through robbing people’s senses (Hosea 4:11 and Eph 5:18)
- Alcohol makes Christians les committed to the Lord as they begged down into immorality, so it is better not to take it (Rom 13:13) and concentrate on God’s will.
- The early believers made a solemn pronunciation against all forms of immorality including over drinking alcohol which led to committing many sins.
- Drinking alcohol may cause isolation since the drunkards are considered unworthy due to the many sins committed under the influence of alcohol. This is in line with 1 Cor 5:11.
This is a practice common among old people and the youths who do it with intentions of being considered old. The practice of smoking was very common in traditional Africa and it was common among cattle keeping communities such as the Banyarwanda, Banyankole and many others
CAUSES/ REASONS FOR SMOKING
- Some people smoke to venerate the ancestors and to fulfill certain cultural rituals such as last funeral rites celebrations in some societies.
- Some people smoke as a way of relaxation. This is common after a heavy work or a heavy meal.
- Some people smoke as a way of doing away with boredom, especially in the evening.
- Some people smoke due to peer group influence. Being in association with smokers can make a person a smoker in attempts to fit in that peer group fully.
- Some youths smoke so as to look grown up since smoking is associated with the old people.
- Some people smoke due to need to provide themselves with heart in a cold period of time, especially in the evenings and early in the morning.
- Some people smoke as a way of doing away with a depressing situation such as loosing a loved one, failure in a marriage relationship, loosing a job and many others
- Some people smoke due to the genetic influence. It is biologically believed that some children are naturally smokers due to the effect of genetic influence as a result of their parents being smokers.
- Some people smoke because smoking is one way of life, as the Banyankole and Banyarwanda cattle keepers smoking is ways of life.
- Some people involve in smocking because of persuasive advertisement n radios and televisions where smoking is portrayed as a way to a successful life. This ma force people to smoke in order to become successful, for example super match are referred to as the ‘winners’ cigarettes’.
- Some people smoke to gather sleep especially those addicted to it while others smoke to do away with sleep, especially students who want to read books at night and those doing the job of night watching such as police officers, gate keepers and many others
- Some people smoke because of ignorance a
- bout the dangers of involving in the habit such as disease.
- Some people especially youths smoke as a way of advertising themselves to members of the opposite sex, to seek for admiration and approval.
- Some people smoke to activate serious thinking and intellectual reasoning especially in case of presenting a paper or doing an examination.
- Some people smoke especially those from rural areas to urban areas because they regard it as a fashion of life associated with the educated, whites and above all modernity.
- Some people especially the youths smoke as a result of curiosity. They feel like finding out what happens when one smokes, how pleasant and interesting it is, thus they start smoking which sometimes becomes very different to stop due to getting addicted to it.
- Some people smoke due to the nature of job they are doing. For example those working in the mortuary do smoke to change their mental metabolism so as to survive well in such a nasty environment and so are night watchmen who do it because of coldness.
- Some people smoke especially the youths due to getting bad role models which they so much admire and yet they are smokers for example musicians, film stars, radio presenters, politicians, religious leaders and others thus they smoke to fit in the lives of the people they so much admire.
USE OF TOBACCO/ADVANTAGES OF SMOKING
- Creation of employment opportunities leading to the earning of income. The tobacco industry employs people in the field of processing, transportation and distribution of cigarettes leading to the generation of income to citizens.
- When smoked, tobacco stimulates the body and mind of some individuals leading to increase productivity in terms of reasoning and energy output.
- Tobacco smoking leads to relaxation of the smokers, especially when confronted with problems.
- Tobacco is important in making insecticides for controlling pests and diseases, thus boasting agricultural productivity and health to human beings.
- Tobacco is an important source of government revenue through taxing the tobacco industry, the workers and those selling the products.
- Tobacco smoking is a form of leisure and entertainment to some society members.
- Tobacco is a source of medicine, especially for domestic animals such as cattle leading to boasting their health.
- Tobacco smoking helps people working in the coldness to increase on their body heat through smoking which heat is distributed throughout the body by blood circulation.
DANGERS/ DISADVANTAGES OF SMOKING
- Cigarette smoking leads to dangers of health to an individual such as constant coughing, heart attacks, high blood pressure, lung cancer, reduces one’s food appetite thus reducing one’s life span.
- It can cause destructive fire in factories, factories, homes and others due to careless throwing of cigarettes pieces, thus causing loss of property and sometimes lives too.
- It s an addictive habit, which can cause someone to sell all his properties so as to get money for smoking, besides one may not be able to stop even when he/she wishes to stop the habit.
- Smoking is considered sin by the Christians especially by the protestant fundamentalists as it is considered to contaminate the temple of the holy spirit of which is the body of the Christians thus smoking causes cases of unholiness to Christians hence it is wrong to smoke.
- For the case of the student, smoking may result into expulsion from school since it is against school rules and regulations of most schools.
- Cigarette smoking can cause poverty as a result of being an addictive habit that may force the one practicing it to sell anything he has to get money for smoking.
- It can cause disease to the off springs of the pregnant woman. It can equally cause miscarriages, small children to be born as well as low resistance to diseases by the children of the smokers.
- It gives a bad smell to the non-smokers, the non-smokers do not feel comfortable with the smokers thus it can cause social rejection.
- It disfigures the human body, tears part of the teeth and cause imbalance in the body.
- It promotes immoral acts such as stealing to attain money for smoking as it is an addictive habit.
- It lowers the person’s dignity. For example they become beggars so as to get money for smoking especially the low income earners.
- Cigarette smoking causes a serious danger to the menstrual cycles of smoking women. It could prolong the bleeding or even suspend the menstruation periods of smoking women for some months.
- Due to the fact that public smoking is against the law, it may lead to imprisonment or payment of fines once one is proved guilty by the courts of law.
- Smoking on the side of a parent gives a bad example to a child. A child may end up copying the habit from the parent since most children believe that what their parents are doing is unquestionably good.
- Smoking makes one to be public nuisance, smokers are looked at as danger to the public due to inhaling the smoke, smokers are always humiliated in public for the practice especially if one does it in public, for example in the library, classroom, church, taxi and many others
- Smoking may lead to misunderstandings among married couples. This is due to the fact that most women hate smoking and may therefore end up vomiting once sensing the smell of cigarettes. This may bring friction among the couples paving way for marriage breakdown.
SOLUTIONS TO THE PRACTICE
- Government should regulate the production of cigarette and consumption through taxation to cigarettes industry.
- People should be advised to avoid bad peer group of smokes as they may be lured into the practice.
- The church should preach against the practice and sensitize people about the dangers of smoking.
- Schools and institutions should help to sensitize people about the dangers of the practice such health dangers and over spending on the practice.
- Parents should be good examples to their children by not smoking and should teach the young ones the dangers of smoking.
- Smokers should seek medical treatment guidance and counseling from medical personnel, religious leaders and elders from society.
- People should be advised to abstain from smoking and anything that can make one to members smoking should be destroyed. For example ash dishes and many others
- Persuasive advertisement concerning cigarette smoking should be discouraged to reduce cigarette consumption and the related dangers.
- The companies dealing in cigarette manufacturing should be obliged by law to make public awareness about the dangers of smoking so that people smoke when they are fully aware of the consequences of the practice.
- The public should be sensitized through seminars, workshops and the church gatherings, through mass media as radios about the dangers of smoking.
Drug abuse drug abuse refers to the misuse of drugs. A drug is anything that can change the body chemistry. During abuse involves taking drugs beyond their required dosage, changing the state drugs, taking expired drugs and many others.
TYPES OF DRUGS
- These drugs are used to cure depression, give pleasure and confidence, make someone jolly and awake throughout the night. Such things include narcotic heroin.
- These have a smoothing and calming effects on the body activities and often cause cheerfulness for example marijuana and alcohol to some individuals.
EFFECTS OF DRUGS
- Drugs are a source of income to those selling them leading to the provision of the basic needs of life to children, for example those operating a bar business, selling drugs such as marijuana, cigarettes and many others
- Government gets revenue through taxing those selling drugs such as alcohol, through licensing system, leading to implementation of government policies and programmes.
- Selling of drugs is a source of employment to the citizens, thus avoiding idleness and the associated morals concerns at a family level.
- Drug consumers get extra courage and energy thus leading to increase labour productivity. For example, one taking marijuana can dig the whole day from morning to evening.
- For some people taking drugs such as alcohol is the best way of spending leisure time that brings them happiness and relaxation of both body and mind hence commanding good health.
- Some drugs help in relieving pain and thus helps an individual to get sleep, especially to those who are sick and may be lacking sleep.
- Drugs such as cigarettes are a source of heart to individuals staying in coldness. For example night watch men, police officers on patrol.
- Drugs help to comfort people a nasty experience for example, loss of a relative and a broken relationship after taking the drug such as alcohol one forgets in the mean- time hence getting sleep.
- Some drugs such as alcohol are important in curing thirst and are sometimes used as part of the family menu in some societies and countries like France and Italy.
- Some drugs are important sources of medicine for domestic animals and others are important for the manufacture of insecticides. For example tobacco.
- Some drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, Viagra and others are used for enhancing sexual performance, thus creating sexual satisfaction to marriage partners and promoting family stability.
- Some drugs such as narcotic heroic help in killing pain and causing sleep, when their effects are over, the user feels restless, fearful, suffer abdominal pain, develops a feeling of sickness, yawning, excessive production of tears and many others
- Most drugs are addictive in that the user may not do anything without taking the drug thus destroying the physical and psychological body mechanisms.
- Most drugs leads to irrational judgment and due to body excitement leads to violence, fighting paving way to injuries and sometimes death.
- Some drugs are used to carry out abortion of which is against the biblical commandments as it is a case of murder, condemned by the bible (Exodus 20:13)
- Drug abuse encourage sex immorality due to activating the sex argue and reducing the reasoning capacity of an individual abusing drugs paving way for rape, defilement, bestiality, prostitution and which are un Godly (Lev 19:29, 20:10-22)
- Most drugs are health hazards; they damage the organs such as the liver, lungs, make the user loose appetite paving way for reduced like expectancy.
- Drug abuse can cause marriage instability due to the fact that most drug abusers are always unwelcome sexual partners, they are violent and some drugs cause impotence in men.
- Drug abuse lead to poverty due to the fact that they are addictive and expensive, thus all family resources may be spent on buying these drugs.
- Drug abuse may lead to imprisonment or payment of fines since drug abuse is against state laws. For example smoking in public and others hence leading to suffering of the drug user, diseases or even death in prison.
- Drug abuse leads to the user to loose respect and dignity in society due to the fact that most drug abusers re always in fantancy and others behave in a funny way.
- Drug abuse may lead to expulsion from school, since it is against most school rules and regulation especially to strict schools, thus leading to loss of educational opportunity. This is very true with smoking marijuana, drinking alcohol and others in most schools, which are fit to be called schools.
- Drug abuse may lead to unemployment as the drug user may not execute his duties to the required standard. Dodge work, some late for work and leave work early to go and drink for the case of alcoholics.
- Drug abuse causes accidents especially those who drink and drive as drugs give false confidence to the drivers and sometimes see imaginary objects on the road leading to injuries and loss of life.
- Drug abuse cause unnecessary sleeping . For example a student takes drugs may sleep completely in the middle of the examination only to wake up after the examination hence failing that examination.
- Some drugs as opium, aviation fuel and others cause increased crime rate in society due to the fact that they make the body of their user immune to pain even when subjected to it and make them to make irrational judgment, leading to cases of murder, rape and defilement and many others
- Drugs have been responsible for the increased cases of mental disorders in form of madness leading to one becoming a destitute, lunatic and sometimes committing suicide.
- In case of a pregnant mother drug abuse may cause serious physical and psychological damage to the child, besides causing cases of miscarriage.
- The church should preach against drug abuse without fear or favour and should spell out clearly the dangers of the practice to the community.
- Government should seriously punish those involved in the practice of drug abuse to defer others from copying it.
- Medical treatment, guidance and counseling should be provided to those involved in the misuse of drugs.
- The youths should be advised to avoid bad peer groups that may entice them into the practice of drug abuse of which would expose them to health, social and economic hazards.
- Schools and institutions of learning should effectively and actively teach the young ones about the dangers of drug abuse and should go ahead and discourage the practice among the learners.
- Parents should practice responsible parenthood by showing good examples to their children by not involving in the practice of drug abuse, besides they should give guidance and counseling to their children to avert the practice of drug abuse.
- Government should control the quality of drugs produced and consumed by the nationals through effective legislation.
- Teachers, doctors and social workers should be given training that would help them to detect drug abuse among the youths at early stage so that they can be effectively helped to recover from the practice.
- Research should be opened up to find out the exact causes of drug abuse, such that effective measures can be adopted to address the practice.
- Companies dealing in the production of drugs should be obliged by law to sensitize the public through the mass media and other ways about the dangers of drugs, so that people take them with full knowledge of these dangers to their lives or otherwise.
Gambling can be defined as a practice of playing any game for money, whose results remain guess work to all people taking part in the game. It involves betting money or any property on a given game predicting the out -come results. It is based on probability and risks at the expense of one who profit out of it. Examples of games for gambling include playing cards (matatu), ludo, predicting the scores of a football game and many others
CAUSES OF GAMBLING
- Laziness which makes some people to depend on gambling as a way of earning a livelihood. This is very common with people in urban and peri-urban areas.
- The escalating levels of unemployment in uganda have forced many youths to resort to gambling as a way of making ends meet.
- Gambling is one way of raising money for building the church, funding parties through the process of fundraising.
- Caused by tremendous increase of poverty such that people look at it as the best way of getting easy money to solve the accumulated problems.
- Gambling houses pay taxes to government through the process of licensing, for example the ‘sada’ practice and others which taxes are used by government to fulfill its policies and programmes for the benefit of the citizens.
- Some people participate into gambling due to being ignorant about the risks involved as they look at it from one side of gaining. That is why gambling is very common among the less educated and the youths.
- Gambling is also caused by peer group influence among the youth, especially if one of them wins, others may also be enticed into the practice due to band wagon.
- Gambling forms an interesting form of play during leisure time that is characterized by laughing gaining to some individuals, arguments and many others when playing cards, ludo.
- Some people get rich out of it, for example through winning a lot of money, car, a house, a contract and many others
- The increasing levels of permissiveness with in the modern society also facilitate gambling. Young people are given too much freedom to decide what pleases them as such some youths decide to engage in the practice of gambling.
- Gambling is also facilitated by the fact that there is no clear law against the practice in many African countries. For example in Uganda any one arrested playing cards is charged under the law of being idle and disorderly, which law is being repeated in parliament (Jan 2007).
- Gambling is also a result of environmental determinism such that people who stay in the neighbourhood of gambling centres, houses or even many people involved in the practice also pave way for others to join the practice, as it may be considered the effective way of earning a living in that particular area.
- Gambling is also due to the high rates of idleness especially in urban areas after the days of work due to the fact that leisure activities are expensive to most people, so the youths resort to playing cards.
- Gambling is also as a result of the precious awards to the winning participants put by the gambling houses or those who arrange gambling games . For example the winning participants may be promised a house, a car, a trip to Europe and many others This definitely attracts many youths to involve in the practice to win such prestigious wards.
- Gambling is also encouraged by persuasive advertisement through the mass media such as radio, news papers.
- Some people have invested their time in gambling because they lack patience as an important venture of investment and accumulating wealth. They thus rush into gambling so as to get quick money or wealth. This explains the fact that the majority of the people involved in gambling are youths.
- Gambling in Uganda is also due to the liberalization policy that has opened way for gambling investors from foreign countries to set up gambling houses as their business to create employment for the youths, besides making supernormal profits for themselves. It should be noted however, that gambling has led to exploitation to Ugandans rather than benefiting them.
DISADVANTAGES OF GAMBLING
- Poverty is created as a result of gambling. Some people gamble until they are left with nothing to offer.
- The practice is an offense against brotherhood because someone’s gain is another one’s loss.
- Gambling may spark off disagreement, quarrels and fighting leading to los of lives among those loosing and those winning in the gambling exercise.
- Gambling encourages laziness among people as they may stop working to wait for what luck can bring them, thus affecting labour productivity and development.
- The practice of gambling is addictive, people who got used to the practice may do nothing for themselves and may loose all their properties on the alter of gambling.
- It is wrong to get money or wealth one has not worked for as it may lead to misuse of such wealth over drinking alcohol and sex promiscuity, thus risking someone’s life.
- In most cases the chances of winning praise are very few, hence gambling is unreliable to people practicing it and cause frustration.
- Gambling is a blind investment, because no- body can be sure of the return as the practice is based on luck, chances or probability.
- Gambling makes a person to live by chance rather than God’s providence. It is bad to misuse God’s providence to determine one’s fate rather than accepting God’s fate.
- Gambling may create hatred among those who lose to those who gain in this process, thus it is sin against brotherhood.
- Gambling leads to poor performance in case of learners or scholars, as much time is invested in it rather than reading books, besides it may cause school drop- out as one goes to concentrate on gambling, which is presumed to give quick money, wealth.
- Gambling encourages immoral practices such as stealing, corruption and dubious practices especially among the youths to get money to invest in the practice of gambling.
- Gambling has led to family neglect as some people invest all their time in the practice. Families may end up lacking the basic needs of life such as food due to the fact that some people may spend all their money in the practice of gambling.
- In most societies gambling is condemned because it promotes criminal activities. This is so because those involved in gambling practice disguised unemployment during the day, only to come in the night to practice pick-pocketing, stealing and murder people for money and other associated terrorist activities.
- The practice of gambling leads to wastage of precious time especially for the youth in a more or less productive venture, yet such time would be invested in a productive activity such as agriculture, brick making.
- Gambling leads to destruction of creativity and failure to harness one’s talents for his benefits, his family and the society at large.
BEAUTY CONTEST AND VARIETY SHOWS AS LEISURE ACTIVITIES
These are gaining prominence in the modern society both on the local and international scene. It is becoming a major leisure activity in today’s modern societies.
ARGUMENTS OF BEAUTY CONTESTS AND FASHIONS
- It is a way of promoting one’s culture especially dressing fashions and cooking.
- It is a source of income to the participants, as people win a variety of gifts ranging from cars, houses and money leading to investment and development.
- It helps the participants to gain fame, prominence and travel to various parts of the world where those competitions would be organized from, for example miss world.
- It is one way of making the country to be known throughout the world . For example spectators hence giving them a relaxed mind and body.
- It helps individuals to harness their talents and skill s for their personal benefits, their families and the society at large. Besides it helps individuals to diversify to an activity where one has more interest and talent.
- It helps individuals to achieve materials and gifts, for example cars and cash through winning the contest.
- Beauty contest and variety shows is in a way of advertising institutions such as schools, hotels and clubs. Besides it is used as a form of sales promotion of companies such as MTN, Arapapa models and many others
- It gives fame and psychological satisfaction to the winners, for example after winning the Miss MTN, psychologically one is satisfied of herself, besides being proud.
- Beauty contests and variety shows help the participants to get marriage partners as well as a variety of friends through the exposure created.
- Beauty contest and variety helps the participants to gain employment opportunities such as being agents of companies, employed in the advertisement fields thus leading to the earning of income.
- Beauty contest and variety shows promotes a spirit of competition among the youth thus leading to efficiency in discipline and other aspects of life.
- In Africa, it undermines the dignity of a woman. The body of a woman is supposed to be kept a secret and preserved only for her husband, but through beauty contest her body is exposed to the public.
- Being beautiful is subjective so the one considered to be beautiful to those judging the competition may not actually be the most beautiful.
- The practice is normally too expensive to the participants and a lot of exercise and anxiety is involved leading to stress resulting into mental sickness.
- The practice promotes immorality among spectators as it activates the sex appetite leading to fornication, prostitution, masturbation and many others This is mainly due to exposure of naked bodies.
- Judgment is usually based on artificial factors rather than natural ones. It is only those who are versed with current affairs, good make-ups and clothes e who win at the expense of the poor ones who cannot afford such make-ups.
- It creates hatred among participants especially those who lose the competition under unclear judgment.
- Judgment is not based on discipline and sound moral principles but on superficial factors which does not promote discipline and good behavior among the participants and the society at large.
- Beauty contest does not contribute a lot of economic development of the country; instead it increased expenditure on importing costumes and other materials used in the competition.
- It is a way of gaining without working on the side of the winners of which leads to issue of such wealth.
- It promotes immorality in form of racism and corruption due to the fact that it looks embarrassing to the Europeans to declare a miss world who is an African, so they end up doing anything nasty to avoid such results.
- Beauty contest creates conflicts between parents and their children. There are some parents who would not wish their children to participate in the practice due to religious beliefs and cultural values, and yet the children may be interested hence leading to conflicts.
- It may result into arrogance especially to those who win the competition leading to disrespect of others.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL ATTITUDES AND CHRISTIAN ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEISURE
- Both encourage resting after a tedious work for example Ecc. 3: 1-8 encourages balancing work with leisure to give life full meaning.
- To both, leisure is for cultivating cultural, social and religious virtues.
- Both the traditional African and Christianity encourages the use of leisure for prayer to God. That is why Jesus used to go to silent places for prayers as a way of communicating to God (Mark 1:35-36)
- To both, leisure is for self- improvement by reflecting on one’s life and plan for the future.
- To both, leisure is important for developing ones talents to his personal benefits and the society at large.
- To both friendship and sharing during leisure times is highly encouraged. For example, the traditional Africans would go for beer party celebrations, where even strangers would be allowed to participate freely. Besides Jesus in John 2 attended a wedding feast in Cana of Galilee where he turned water into wine for the people.
- Both encourage resisting the friends, relatives and the sick. For example, Jesus used to visit his friends Martha and Mary during his leisure time (Luke 10:38)
- Both used leisure time for story -telling and parables aimed at imparting discipline and good morals . For example Jesus used to teach in parables and tell stories to the young ones during his leisure time.
- Both gave celebrations and rituals to the living dead members. For example, the Christians especially the Roman Catholic Church organize mass for the dead. More so 3rd November is dedicated for praying for the dead.
- Both use singing and dancing as an important leisure activity. Singing in the church is aimed at glorifying God, thanking him for his greatness, seeking for forgiveness and many others
- Both encouraged fellowshipping with one another to promote unity and co-operate. For example, Jesus had a fellowship at Levi’s house (Luke 5:27-32) and a feast at Simon’s house (Luke 7:36) and through these feasts he would teach people the will of God.
- Both gave opportunities to introduce new members of the community . For example it was during leisure time that new marriage partners would be officially introduced to society members in traditional Africa.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL SOCIETY AND CHRISTIAN ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEISURE TIME
- Christianity today disapproves some traditional dances such as Magunju, Rakaraka and twin dancing which are considered to be immoral.
- Christianity doesn’t agree with using leisure for seducing, yet it was allowed and considered normal in traditional Africa.
- Christianity doesn’t agree with drunkardness as a leisure activity, yet in traditional Africa beer party was a major leisure activity in most society.
- Christianity doesn’t agree with drugs such as chewing tobacco, which was an important leisure activity in traditional African societies, such as the Banyarwanda societies.
- Christianity disapproves misuse of sex during leisure time, yet traditionally it was a case of hospitality to give in a wife to a visitor for sex intercourse in some societies as the Bahima of Western Uganda.
- Setting aside one day (Sabbath) for rest and leisure, yet enjoyment as per Christianity is unacceptable to traditional Africa, where leisure was mixed up with work.