This Unit is about European Explorers in Uganda


Are people who came to Uganda from other countries


 Arab traders



British trader



The first foreigners to come to Uganda were Arab traders.

The first Arab traders to come to  Uganda was Ahmed Bin Ibrahim.

He arrived in Buganda in 1844 and met Kabaka Sunna II.

Reasons why Arabs came

  1. To carryout trade.
  2. To spread Islam.
  3. Due to religious wars.

Goods the Arabs got from Uganda:

  1. Slaves
  2. Ivory
  3. Copper
  4. Gold

Goods brought by Arabs to Uganda:

  • Beads
  • Cups
  • Knives
  • Plates
  • Guns


John Speke and Richard Burton were send to Africa to look for the source of River Nile.

They arrived in Zanzibar in 1856.

John Speke and Richard Burton spent time at the provided supplies and porters.

Why did John Speke and Richard Burton go to Zanzibar?

  1. To get permission from Sultan.
  2. To get supplies and porters.

How are King Rumanika important to the earliest explorers?

  1. He provided hospitality to other explorers.
  2. He provided care to Richard Burton when he was sick.

John Speke reached the shores of Lake   Victoria on 30th July 1858.


Speke was sent away to check on earlier findings..

They passed through Tanzania and reached Karagwe kingdom.

They were welcomed by King Rumanika

Grant fell sick and Speke left him behind and continued his journey.

John Speke arrived at Kabaka’s palace (Muteesa palace) at Banda in 1862.

Kabaka Muteesa exchanged gifts with Speke with him like rifles (gun) and other gifts like knives and cloths.

John Speke reached the source of River Nile on 28th July 1862.

Omukama Kamurasi of Bunyoro stopped them from crossing the kingdom.

He thought they were going to overtake his land.

In 1863 John Speke and Grant met Sir Samuel Baker in southern Sudan called Gondokoro.

They told him they had seen the source of River Nile.


He came from England with his wifeJane Baker.

They met Speke and Grant at Gondokoro in 1863.

They saw the lake locally known as Mwitanzige

(Killer of locusts)He  named it called Lake Albert

The Bakers were the first to see Murchison falls.

Baker returned in England through Sudan and Egypt  after his findings.

They later came to Africa.

Kedhive Ismail of Egypt made him the first governor of Equatorial Province.


It was southern and northern Uganda.

Colonel Charles Gordon the second governor of the Equatorial province.

EMIN PASHA (Dr. Edward Schinzer)

He was the last  of Equatorial province.

He built port Wadelai which was used for protection (a defence unit).

Give one reason why Sir Samuel Baker is remembered in the history of Uganda.

  1. He built Fort Patiko and Port Floweira.
  2. He stopped slave trade in Acholi.
  3. He tried to conquer Bunyoro but he was defeated by Omukama Kabalega.

How did Sir Samuel Baker stop slave trade in Acholi?

He provided guns to the Acholi people.

How was Fort Patiko important to Sir Samuel Baker?

  1. It is used for protection against enemies.


He came in 1871 to look for Dr. David Livingstone.

Stanley’s second journey

In 1874, H.M. Stanley came to Uganda He circumnavigated Lake Victoria to prove whether it was the source of River Nile. He used a canoe to move around Lake Victoria.

Why did H.M. Stanley circumnavigate Lake Victoria?

To prove whether it was a source of River Nile.

He was welcomed by Muteesa in 1875.

Mutesa expected protection against his enemies and Khartoumers.

Stanley wrote a letter on behalf of Muteesa I to the Queen of England inviting missionaries to come to Uganda.

Why did H.M. Stanley write a letter on behalf of Muteesa I?

  1. Muteesa I was illiterate.

The letter was sent through Lent De Belle Fonds.

-H.M. Stanley was the first explorer to see Lake Edward and Lake George and he named them and he was also the first explorer to see Mt. Rwenzori.

-He named it mountains of the moon.

H.M. Stanley’s third journey

He came to rescue Emin Pasha.

Reasons for the coming of  explorers to Uganda.

i) To find the source of R. Nile.

ii) To find the scientific information about climate.and physical features.

Results of explorers

  1. They made Uganda known to the outside world.
  2. They opened the way for colonization.

How did explorers promote colonization?

  1. They opened the way for colonization.
  2. They took back reports about places in Uganda.

How did the Royal Geographical Society promote colonization of Uganda?

He sent explorers who opened the way for colonization in Uganda.

How did Royal Geographical help explorers?

i) They funded their journey.

ii) They provided food and medicine.


Who is a missionary?

This is a person who moves to foreign countries to spread religion.

Missionaries were invited by Muteesa I to come to Uganda.

H.M. Stanley wrote an invitation letter inviting missionaries to come to Buganda.

The letter was written to the Queen of England and published the paper called Daily Telegraph in 1875.

State  reason why Muteesa invited missionaries to come to Uganda

i) To spread Christianity.

ii) To teach people how to read and write.

iii) To teach the 3R’s which include:

 Why Mutesa 1 invited missionaries in Buganda

i) To have protection against Bunyoro.ii) He expected guns.

iii)He wanted to get trading partners.

Name the society which sent missionaries to Uganda

Church Missionary Society.

The first group of missionaries were sent by Church Missionary Society.

They were Protestants and Anglicans.

They came in 1877.

The first two protestant missionaries to come to Uganda were Shergold Smith and Reverend C.T. Wilson.

Later they joined together by Alexander Mackey in 1878 as their leader.

Alexander Mackey introduced the first Printing Press in Uganda.

How did the printing promote Christianity?

It printed prayer books for reading.


This was the second group of missionaries to come to Uganda.

They came from France in 1879.

They were also called the White Fathers.

These include:

  1. Father Simon Lourdel. (Mapeera)
  2. Brother Amans.

State  reasons why missionaries came to Uganda?

  1. To spread Christianity.
  2. To teach people how to read and write.
  3. They wanted to spread western civilization.
  4. They wanted to stop slave trade.

How did missionaries reduce the rate of illiteracy in Uganda?

They taught people how to read and write.

Give  ways the government of Uganda is reducing the rate of illiteracy

  1. Introducing universal primary education.
  2. By introducing adult literary education.
  3. By introducing alternative basic education for Karamoja.[ABEK]
  4. By introducing basic education for urban poor .

State the problems faced by missionaries

i) Poor transport and communication.

ii) Attacks from wild animals.

iii)Tropical diseases.

iv) Harsh climate.

v) Attacks from hostile tribes.

vi) Shortage of water and medicine.

vii)       Resistance from African religious leaders.

viii)      Language barrier.

Why did some African leaders hate missionaries

They preached against African culture.

How did the religious conflict affect Christian converts?

It led to loss of lives.

Why were Christian converts hated by African traditional leaders?

i) They disobeyed the orders of the traditional leaders.

ii) They refused to denounce Christianity.

iii) They rebelled against the traditional leaders.

Contributions – Positive results of missionaries

  1. They taught people how to read and write.
  2. They spread Christianity.
  3. They built schools.
  4. They built hospitals.
  5. They stopped slave trade.
  6. They built roads.

Name the group of foreigners which introduced formal education

The missionaries.

Negative results of missionaries

i) Led to religious conflicts.

ii) They let to persecution of Christian converts.

iii) They preached against African culture.

iv) They created division among people.


Sir Albert Ruskin Cook, CMG, OBE, MD (22 March 1870 – 23 April 1951) was a British born medical missionary in Uganda, and founder of Mulago Hospital and Mengo Hospital. Together with his wife, Katharine Cook (1863–1938), he established a maternity training school in Uganda.

Albert Cook was born in Hampstead, London in 1870. His parents were Dr. W.H. Cook and Harriet Bickersteth Cook.

He graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1893 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, and from St Bartholomew’s Hospital in 1895 as a Bachelor of Medicine. He became a Doctor of Medicine in 1901.

In 1896, Albert Cook went to Uganda with aChurch Missionary Society mission, and in 1897 he established Mengo Hospital, the oldest hospital in East Africa.

He married Katharine Timpson, a missionary nurse, in 1900, with whom he had two daughters and a son.

Katharine Timpson, who later became Katharine, Lady Cook was matron of Mengo Hospital 1897–1911, and the General Superintendent of Midwives, and Inspector of Country Centres.

She was involved in the foundation of the Lady Coryndon Maternity Training School and founded the Nurses Training College in 1931.

Sir Albert Cook is outstanding among medical missionaries for his efforts to train Africans to become skilled medical workers. He and his wife opened a school for midwives at Mengo and authored a manual of midwifery in Ganda, the local language.

Albert Cook started training African Medical Assistants at Mulago during the First World War, and in the 1920s, encouraged the opening of a medical College that initially trained Africans to the level defined by the colonial government as “Asian sub-assistant surgeon”. The school grew to become a fully fledged Medical School in his lifetime.

Albert Cook established a treatment centre for the venereal diseases and sleeping sicknessin 1913, which later became Mulago Hospital.

He was President of the Uganda Branch of the British Medical Association (BMA) between 1914 and 1918, during which time he founded a school for African medical assistants.

He was awarded the Order of the British Empire in 1918, the Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George, and received knighthood in 1932. In 1936–37, he was again President of BMA (Uganda Branch).

Lady Cook died in 1938 and Sir Albert Cook died on 23 April 1951 in Kampala.

Why is Dr. Albert Cook remembered in Uganda’s History?

  1. He built Mengo hospital.
  2. He treated people who were suffering form sleeping sickness around the shores of Lake Victoria.


Hospitals built by Missionaries in Uganda

i) Mengo hospital (Dr. Albert Cook)

ii) Rubaga hospital.

iii)Nsambya hospital.


He introduced the first cotton seeds in Uganda in 1903) (American Upland Cotton Seed).

Sir Hesketh Bell encouraged cotton growing in Uganda.

Give reasons why the missionaries introduced cotton growing in Uganda

  1. To provide income to people to pay for the cost of administration.
  2. To provide raw material to home industries.

Schools built by missionaries in Uganda

i) Namugongo College by White Fathers.

ii) Mengo High School (C.M.S) IN 1898.

iii) Kings College Buddo (C.M.S)

iv) Gayaza High School for girls by (C.M.S.) in 1904.

v) Mary’s College Kisubi in 1906 (White Fathers).

vi) Mount Mary’s Namugongo.

Give  reason why Muteesa I turned against missionaries.

  1. They preached against African culture.
  2. They refused to give him guns..

Suggest  reasons why Mwanga ordered for the killing of Uganda Martyrs.

  • They disobeyed him.
  • They refused to denounce Christianity.
  • They rebelled against him.
  • They had turned to Christianity.

How did the killing of Uganda Martyrs promote Christianity ?

It strengthened the Christian faith.

Give the importance of Namugongo to Christians.

It is where Uganda martyrs were burnt or killed.

It was the chief executive of Kabaka Mwanga.

Why is 3rd June celebrated by Christians every year?

It is Martyrs day.

Reasons why some Africans accepted Christianity .

i) They wanted to learn how to read and write.

ii) For prestige.

iii)Some Africans wanted protection against enemies.

iv) Some Africans wanted gifts.

Ways in which missionaries contributed to the economic development of Uganda 

  1. They built schools.
  2. They built roads.
  3.  They introduced new cash crops.
  4. They built hospitals.
  5. They taught carpentry.and new farming methods

How did missionaries promote health in Uganda?

i) They built medical centres.

ii) They treated sick people.

iii) They taught Africans good hygiene

How did the missionaries above contribute to economic development?

Kenneth Borup .

Introduced first cotton seeds in Uganda.

Ways in which Uganda benefited from missionaries .

  1. Hospitals were built.
  2. Ugandans learnt how to spread Christianity.
  3. They spread Christianity.
  4. Schools were built.
  5. Slave trade was stopped.

How did missionaries improve on education?

  1. They built schools.
  2. They taught people how to read and write.

How did missionaries promote transport?

They built roads.

How did missionaries promote agriculture?

They introduced new cotton seeds in Uganda.

They taught new farming methods.

Name the type of education which was in Uganda before the British came.

Informal education (indigenous education).

Reasons why traditional education is important in your community .

i) Promote culture.

ii) Promote discipline.

iii)Promote morals.

Importance of culture

Promote unity.

Promote morals.

Promote discipline.

Why did the Martyrs disobey Mwanga?

They hated the traditional beliefs/customs/culture.

How did missionaries save on soul of Ugandans?

  1. They spread Christianity.
  2. They stopped slave trade.

Services the missionaries provided to Ugandans

  1. Medical care
  2.  Transport.


He was the first Anglican Bishop to come to Uganda.

He came from East Africa in October 1888.

He was murdered in Busoga on his way to Buganda Kingdom.

Why was Bishop Hannington murdered in Busoga?

He used what was believed to be a wrong route to enter Buganda kingdom.

He used a wrong route according to Buganda beliefs.

The belief was that any white person who would enter Buganda through the East would over throw the Kabaka.

Bishop Hannington was arrested by Chief Luba of Bunnya kept him in prison for 9 days.

Luba got orders from Mwanga to spear the white man to death.

In which way was Mwanga a threat to the existence of Christianity

He killed the Christian converts.

Name the first Christian Martyrs

  1. Makko Kakumba.
  2. Yusuf Lugaboma.
  3. Nuwa Sseruwanga



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