SCI/P/4: HUMAN HEALTH

This Unit is about the diseases that affect human health.

HUMAN HEALTH

  1. Communicable.
  2. Intestinal
  3. Disease
  4. Worm
  5. Infection
  6. Faucal diseases
  7. Diarrheal diseases
  8. Sings
  9. Symptom
  10. Dehydration
  11. Rehydration
  12. Procedure
  13. Precaution
  14. De worming
Constipation with overflow incontinence can be mislabeled as diarrhea.

Communicable intestinal diseases and worm infections

Diarrheal or faucal diseases

Diarrhoea

  1. Diarrhea is the frequent passing out of watery stool.
  2. It is also the passing out of watery stools many times a day.
  3. It is caused by bacteria and virus.

Ways how diarrhea is spread

  • It is spread by houseflies.
  • Through drinking contaminated water.
  • Through eating contaminated food.
  • Cockroaches carrying germs onto the food.
  • Through eating unwashed fruits.
  • By use of contaminated utensils.

Signs of diarrhoea

  1. Watery stools.

Symptoms of diarrhoea

  • Abdominal pain.
  • Pain while releasing the stools.
  • Body weakness.

Effects or dangers of diarrhoea

  1. It causes dehydration.
  2. It can lead to emaciation.

Control of diarrhoea

  • Boiling water before drinking it.
  • Killing houseflies by spraying.
  • Washing hands before handling food.
  • Proper disposal of human faeces.
  • Washing utensils before using them.

Dysentery

  1. The frequent passing out of watery stool with blood stains.
  2. Amoebic dysentery is caused by amoeba.
  3. Bacillary dysentery is caused by bacteria.

How dysentery is spread

  • Drinking contaminated water.
  • Eating contaminated food.
  • Houseflies carry germs onto the food and hands.
  • Use of contaminated utensils.
  • Handling food with unwashed hands.

Control of dysentery

  1. Boiling water for drinking.
  2. Washing fruits before eating them.
  3. Spraying insecticides to kill houseflies.
  4. Washing hands before eating, or serving food.
  5. Wash hands after visiting the toilet.
  6. Properly disposing human faeces.

Dangers of dysentery

  • It leads to dehydration which may result into death
  • It leads to anaemia.
  • It leads to liver abscess.

Cholera

  1. Cholera is caused by bacteria.
  2. It is spread by houseflies.
  3. It is also spread by drinking contaminated water eating.
  4. Contaminated food.

Signs of cholera

  1. Severe vomiting.
  2. Severe diarrhoea.

Symptoms of cholera

  1. Pain around the abdomen.
  2. Body weakness.

Control of cholera

  • Boil water before drinking it.
  • Kill houseflies by spraying with insecticides.
  • Wash hand before eating, serving or handling food.
  • Wash hands after visiting the latrine or toilet.
  • Cover cooked food to prevent houseflies from sitting on it.
  • Properly dispose human faeces.

THE VIDEO SHOWS WHAT CHOLERA IS, HOW IT IS CURED AND PREVENTED

TYPHOID

  1. It is caused by bacteria called salmonella typhus.
  2. It can be spread by houseflies and cockroaches.
  3. Typhoid can be spread by drinking contaminated water and eating dirty food.

Signs of typhoid

  1. Diarrhoea

Symptoms of typhoid

  1. Headache
  2. Fever

Prevention of typhoid

  • Boiling of water for drinking.
  • Spraying with insecticides to kill houseflies.
  • Washing hands before eating food.
  • Washing hands after visiting the latrine.
  • Properly disposing off rubbish and faeces.

Effects of typhoid.

  1. Kidney failure
  2. internal bleeding
  3. Extreme fatigue.
  4. Abdominal pain.
  5. Inflammation and per formation of the intestines.

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT TYPHOID

THE 4Fs

This is the cycle in the spread of germs.

  1. Faeces
  2. Flies
  3. Fingers
  4. Food

Explanation

  1. Houseflies carry germs from faeces onto our food making it contaminated.
  2. Germs can remain under our fingernails and we end up eating them.

Dehydration

It is a condition when a person does not have enough water in the body.

Causes of dehydration

  • Severe vomiting.
  • Severe diarrhoea.
  • Over sweating.
  • Severe burns.
  • Severe scalds.

Signs of dehydration

  1. Sunken eyes.
  2. Passing out little or no urine.
  3. Dry lips/mouth.
  4. A pinch on the skin goes back slowly.
  5. Sunken soft spots on a baby’s head.

Symptoms of dehydration

  1. General body weakness.
  2. A person feels thirsty all the time.

Effects of dehydration

  1. It leads to loss of weight.
  2. It leads to death.

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT DEHYDRATION

THE 3 Ds in full

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dehydration
  • Death

Explanation

Diarrhoea leads to dehydration and when it is not treated it leads to death.

Rehydration

This is the replacing of lost water and mineral salts in the body.

Ways of rehydration

  1. Drinking a lot of fluids e.g. passion fruit juice, water, any other juice.
  2. Drinking ORS.

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN HOW TO MAKE ORS

 ORS

This is a solution given to a person with diarrhoea, dysentery or a person who is vomiting.

  1. ORS in full is
    • Oral
    • Rehydration
    • Solution (Salts)
  1. S.S. in full is
  • Sugar
  • Salt
  • Solution

N.B.:   ORS is factory made while S.S.S. is home or locally made.

Importance of ORS / S.S.S.

  • To replace the lost water and mineral salts in the body.
  • To provide energy to the body.
  • It prevents a person from being dehydrated.

Requirements for making ORS

  1. Sugar
  2. Salt
  3. Drinking water.
  4. Clean container

Procedure

  • Wash your hands with clean water and soap.
  • Measure 1 liter of drinking water into a clean container.
  • Measure 1 leveled teaspoonful of salt and 8 of sugar into the clean container.
  • Stir until the salt and sugar dissolve.

N.B.    The solution should not be too salty or too sugary.

Dosage of ORS

  1. Babies –           A quarter of a cup after every stool.
  2. Grown up children and adults –           Half a cup after every stool.

Precaution

  1. The solution should be preserved within 24 hours after which it goes bad.
  2. It should be kept covered.

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