Primary Six Science


Types of alcohol.


Alcohol is a chemical substance that makes people drunk once taken in.

Types of alcohol.

There are basically two types of alcohol namely;

  • Ethyl (ethanol) alcohol
  • Methyl (methanol) alcohol

Ethyl (alcohol) is the most common type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks.

It’s the type of alcohol formed immediately after the ripening of a plant fruit.

Plant fruits ripen due to ethylene hormone.

 Methyl alcohol ( e.g. methanol) is the most dangerous type of alcohol.

It can easily cause blindness in case of contact with the eyes.

Examples of alcoholic drinks include:

‘malwa’,’tonto’ and beer.

Reasons why people drink alcohol.

People drink alcohol for a number of reasons

  • People drink alcohol due to excitement or happiness
  • To celebrate their successes
  • To forget their problems
  • To quench thirst

Subtopic alcohol and alcoholism.

Methods of producing alcohol.

 There are basically two methods of producing alcohol namely;

  • Fermentation method.
  • Distillation method

Fermentation method.

Fermentation is the process of turning sugar from plant juice and water into alcohol

This is aided by yeast

The sugar found in fruit juice is worked upon by yeast to form fermented alcohol.

Example of plant materials used to produce fermented alcohol are; 

Ripe banana, cassava flour, maize, millet, sorghum

Distillation method.

  • This is a process of obtaining pure alcohol from fermented alcohol by boiling evaporating and condensing of the alcohol vapour to form distillate
  • Distillation method involves two process namely evaporation and condensation of the vaporised alcohol into a liquid.
  • The liquid obtained using this method is called a distillate.
  • Examples of alcoholic drinks obtained through this method are waragi, enguli, kasese, liralira whisky, rum gin, vodka.

Diagram showing distillation method of making alcohol.

Image result for distillation method of making alcohol

Heat source provides the heat to cause evaporation.

  • Cold water helps to condense the vapourised alcohol into a liquid.
  • Note: home distillation of alcohol is illegal due to the likely
  • Accidents that may occur.

Alcohol and alcoholism

Uses of alcohol in the society.

  • Alcohol is an important drug in the society recommended on most celebrations.
  • Alcohol (methyl alcohol) is used by doctors to sterilize medical instruments that cannot be boiled on cleaning.
  • Alcohol can be used in some thermometers.
  • Alcohol (methylated spirit) can be used to clean the skin before an injection is taken.
  • Alcohol is also used as a disinfectant on wounds.
  • Alcohol can be used by builders to mix paints and dyes.


  • This is a condition that results from the prolonged use of alcohol.
  • It results into the body’s addiction to alcohol.
  • It also makes the body functioning controlled by the alcohol in take.
  • The person who is who is addicted to taking alcohol for his or her normal body functioning is called an alcoholic.

Factors that may lead one to take alcohol

  • Stress
  • Sad news
  • Peer pressure
  • Family background or life styles.
  • Seductive advertisement.



Effects of alcoholism.

The habit of taking alcohol causes social and health problems in the society.

These effects are caused to; individuals, family or the community.

The following are the effects that may result from alcoholism to an individual.

  • It causes damages to body organs such as, liver, brain and stomach walls
  • Leads to personal neglect .(self neglect)
  • Leads to loss of appetite for food resulting into stomach ulcers.
  • Leads to poverty since most of the money is spent on buying a alcohol.
  1. To the family;

The following are effects that can be caused in case one of the family members is an alcoholic.

  • Family poverty.
  • Family neglect.
  • Loss of family respect.
  • Antisocial behavior, child abuse, separation of spouses.
  • Causes immorality in children. 
  1. c) To the community.
  • Alcoholism leads to road accidents by drivers working under the influence of alcohol.
  • Alcoholism also leads to increased crime rates in the community.
  • Alcoholic officials delay community services since most times they are drunk.

Laws governing alcohol in Uganda.

  • Persons below 18yrs of age are not allowed to drunk alcohol in public places.
  • All public places dealing in alcohol should be licensed after fulfilling certain standards.
  • Drivers are not allowed to drive under the influence of alcohol.
  • All forms of home distillations, transportation and possession of alcohol is illegal.




  • This is the regular use of tobacco by a person.

Commonly smoked drugs:

  • Njaga, marijuana, Bhangi.
  • it is sniffed through the nose.
  • This contains Nicotine and tar.

Ways people use tobacco include;

  • Through the burning pipes.
  • Through burning cigarettes.
  • By sniffing tobacco powder.
  • By chewing the leaves of tobacco.

Note; tobacco contains a dangerous gas called carbon monoxide and dangerous chemicals namely Nicotine and Tar.

Types of smoking.

There are two types of smoking namely,

  • Active smoking.
  • Passive smoking.

Active smoking is the act of inhaling tobacco smoke directly from a burning cigarette.

Passive smoking is the act of inhaling air contaminated by tobacco smoke from an active smoker.

Reasons why people smoke;

People have different reasons why they smoke

  • Some smoke to warm their bodies.
  • Some smoke due to peer pressure.
  • Some smoke to concentrate on their work.
  • Some smoke to feel confident.
  • Some smoke to look sophisticated/ important.



Effects of smoking.

  • Tobacco smoking is harmful to one’s health.
  • Tobacco contains poisonous chemicals and a gas.

These are nicotine, tar    and carbon monoxide gas.

Disease caused due to smoking.

Diseases that result from smoking affect the respiratory system. they include;

  • Lung cancer, emphysema, tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculosis, bronchitis and pneumonic are worsened by smoking.

Smoking is also dangerous to  pregnant mother in the following ways;

  • Causes miscarriage/abortion.
  • Causes pre mature birth/ still birth.
  • Causes under weight births.

Effects of smoking to the community.

  • Smoking can easily result into fire out breaks in an area.
  • Smoking causes air pollution.
  • It creates bad practices among children in the area.

Effects of smoking to the family.

  • All family members become passive smokers.
  • Young children copy bad habits from elders who smoke.
  • It can also lead to loss of family income since much of the money used for smoking.

How to avoid smoking.

  • Keeping busy during free time by involving in football, volleyball, and music to avoid thinking about smoking.
  • Avoid joining peer groups of people who use tobacco and other drugs.
  • Advise friends who smoke about the dangers of smoking.




A drug is any chemical substance introduced in the body that affects the functioning of the body systems.

Drugs can be introduced in the body voluntarily or involuntarily.

Types of drugs.

There are basically two types of drugs namely.

  • Essential drugs.
  • Narcotic drugs.

Narcotic drugs arte drugs which cause addiction after a prolonged use or dependency.

Examples of narcotic drugs are,

Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, opium etc.

Essential drugs.

These are drugs used by people to meet their health problems.

  • They are categorized into four groups
  • Pain killers – for reducing pain.
  • Curative drugs – used to cure diseases.
  • Preventive drugs commonly vaccines used to prevent diseases
  • Contraceptives –mainly used in family planning.

Qualities/ characteristics of essential drugs.

The following are the attributes of essential drugs:

  • They should be common and affordable.
  • They should have less side effects and meet people’s health problems.
  • They should have value for money.

Ways drugs are introduced in the body.

  • By swallowing (tablets)
  • By injections (injectables)
  • By drinking (syrups)
  • By smearing (ointments) 


Types of essential drugs:

Essential drugs are grouped into two types according to their characteristics namely;

  • Traditional drugs.
  • Laboratory drugs.
  • Traditional drugs are drugs which have existed before the introduction of science and technology
  • Traditional drugs can also be modernized in the laboraties.

Examples- blackjack cures wounds

  • ‘bombo’ grass for cough etc.
  • ‘enkejje’ for measles

Characteristics of traditional drugs.

  • They are used in their raw form mainly
  • Their side effect on human health is not known.
  • Their purity and quality changes.
  • They are commonly not packed and sealed.

Laboratory manufactured drugs.

These are drugs which are commonly made from the laboratory with both manufactured dates and expiry dates.

Examples include:

Cough mixtures, chloroquine, paracetamol, pilton, ORS for rehydration, capsules etc.

These drugs are commonly found in clinics, hospitals and other health units.

Characteristics of laboratory manufactured drugs

  • They are well packed and scaled to prevent easy contamination.
  • Have expiry dates
  • Are the same for every quantity made they have labels, names and what they cure.
  • Their stability and strengthen are known.
  • They have same purity and quality.

drugs in society

Drugs prescription; 

This is the written information given by a health worker on how to use a certain drug.

Prescription of drugs is based on the age, weight of the patient, sex or gender and duration or length of illness.

Prescribed drug consists of ; name of the drug the disease it cures, time of taking the drug, the dosage.

Importance of drug prescription.

  • It prevents people from taking under or over dose.
  • It helps the patient to avoid drug misuse.

Under dosage; is when ones takes than the recommended

Drug misuse; is the act of using a drug with out or against the recommended advice. It is the wrong use of a drug.

Dangers of buying drugs from shops or markets.

  • Drugs may be harmful or expired.
  • Such drugs are not well prescribed and stored.
  • Drugs may be contaminated
  • They may be spoilt/damaged
  • They may be fake drugs.

drugs in society

Lesson 10:  drug storage and drug abuse.

Drug storage.

  • Drugs need to be kept in a clean cool dry place to prevent them from contamination.
  • Cold chains are used to keep vaccines where there is no electricity
  • Drugs should also be kept away from children to prevent child poisoning at home. 

Dangers of poor storage of drugs.

  • Drugs may easily become contaminated and lose its curative value.
  • Poorly stored drugs instead become poisonous to one’s health.
  • Keeping drugs in children’s reach can easily cause child poisoning in homes.

Drug abuse;

  • Is the use of a drug in way that is harmful to one’s health drugs abused can be either legal or illegal.

Reasons why people abuse drugs.

  • To quench thirst
  • To improve performance
  • To concentrate on work
  • To feel warm
  • To celebrate successes.

Effects of drug abuse;

  • It can cause health damages to the body organs such as the brain, liver pancreas etc.
  • Drugs abuse can cause abnormalities or improper body function.
  • Drug abuse can easily result into death. It leads to divorce/spouse/child abuse.

Note; drugs of dependency are drugs which cause addiction incase of prolonged use.

Drug dependency is when one’s body becomes addicted to a certain drug.

Life skills to safe guard against drug dependency.

    • Keeping busy with sports and games in free time
    • Avoid peer groups which exercise the use of common drugs.
    • Engage in good social clubs.
    • Never wish to taste any drug any day.



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ASSIGNMENT : HUMAN HEALTH – P.6 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

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