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Existence of two or more compounds with different structural formula but same molecular formula
The different compounds are called isomers.
Physical properties of Alkenes
– The first five members are gases the next 12 members are liquid and the rest are solid.
– They are immiscible with water (when mixed they form 2 separate buyers)
– They are less dense than water.
They increase with increase in molecular size (increase in molecular weight).
Methane burns in limited air to give carbon monoxide gas and water vapour or carbon (pluck particles) and water vapour.
2(CH4 (g) + 02(g) C0g + 2H20(g)
2CH4 (g) + 302(g) 2C0 (g) + 4H20(g) then (1)……………….. (1)
CH4g + 02g C(S) + 2H20(g) then (i)……………………. (ii)
Combustion of Methane and other hydrocarbons in limited air is a source of pollution.
The pollutants introduced in the air are:
Combustion of Methane in excess air. The products are: carbon dioxide and water vapour.
CH4 (g) + 202(g ) C02(g) + 2H20 (g then L)
Alkenes are saturated hydrocarbons.
This is one in which all carbon –carbon bonds are single:
The name petroleum means rock oil. It comes out of the grounds as a thick green or dark brown liquid .Oil deposits are usually found with sand, salt and brine, sulphur .Oil was formed from the remains of microscopic plants and animals which lived in warm inland seas million of years ago. The chemical effects of pressure, heat and bacteria converted the remains into oil just as they converted forests into coal
Oil is usually found in the porous rock layer e.g. sandstone, between 2 layers of non-porous rock. Natural gas is above the oil .This is a mixture of many gases but contains between 80 and 99 percent of methane.
Fractionation of Crude oil (Petroleum)
Petroleum is a mixture of alkenes; it is separated by fractional distillation. Each fraction is a mixture of various alkenes.
First fractions are light coloured, volatile, highly flammable, not viscous (flow easily like water). Higher fractions are ark coloured, hot flammable, have high viscosity not volatile.
Cracking of Oils
Reaction which involves converse of long hydrocarbons into smaller hydrocarbons (smaller molecules) of petrol and gases. (Mainly alkenes and hydrogen)
C10 H22 (oil) C7H16 (petrol) + C3H6 (g)
Cn H2n for alkenes
Cn H2n for alkynes
THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT ISOMERISM
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