TM: LESSON PLAN

This unit digs deeper into the teaching methods by guiding you on hoe to strategize while rolling out lessons to your learners. It will gives you the core principles of lesson plan and how to structure your teaching

LESSON PLAN

Weekly Lesson Plan

The weekly lesson plan is a plan of the lesson to be taught within a week. Most school subjects occurred on the school time-table more than once a week. The teacher therefore needs to select his topic for the week from his diary (scheme of work) and distribute appropriately into the number of periods his subject is appearing on the school time-table.

It is observable that many teachers do no longer make use of weekly lesson plan perhaps due to other engagements and new dimensions in teaching nowadays. However, weekly lesson plan will enable him to see the scope of possible coverage of the entire topic for the week.

A weekly lesson plan can afford the teacher the possibility of completing his syllabus. A typical format of a weekly lesson plan is shown below.

lesson planDaily Lesson Plan

A daily lesson plan is a unit of lesson to be taught for a time duration of 30 to 45 minutes. This depends on the school
schedule and level of the learner.

It is the layout of how the teacher intends to handle a lesson from the beginning to the end. A lesson plan is the instrument with which a good teacher can effectively perform his daily classroom teaching.

A good teacher is expected to plan his lesson on daily basis stating the steps or procedures to follow to achieve the stated objectives.

Justifications for a Daily Lesson Plan

There are many reasons for a teacher to have a documentary evidence for his pro[posed lesson. The habit of relying on old note does not give room for innovation. New ideas will always come up the teacher ought to incorporate these into their lessons. Some of the reasons put forward by Afolabi and Adesope (2010) include

1. to avoid errors
2. to avoid omissions and to prevent repetitions

3. It assists in choice of teaching methods as well as choice of instructional materials.

4. It instils confidence, security and removes nervousness from teachers.

5. It delimits the field of work and prevents wandering off-course the subject matter.

6. It helps the teachers to think out new ways and to discover when to act in a particular way.

7. It assists the teacher to prepare for individual differences.

8. Other teachers can stand in proxy when unavoidably absent.It enhances economy of time and resources.
9. It gives direction to the lesson

Elements of a Good Lesson Plan

There are many opinions about the different ways of setting down notes, and all have certain advantages and disadvantages. Again you would not need to write notes in the same way for a History lesson as for a lesson in Mathematics.

• However it is clear, that every lesson should have a beginning, a middle and an end. Lesson notes are necessary because they limit teachers to particular bounds in their delivery.

• Lesson notes make teachers select the facts they teach.

• Lesson notes are details of the work to be done in one lesson.

• They are also meant to guide the teacher’s methods of delivery and activities in the lesson.

Basic Information about the Class before the commencement of the Lesson

• The size of the class: that is the number of students in the class. This will help the teacher to determine the teaching method to use and the teaching materials to make available.

• Ability of the class: This is to know whether the class is streamed according to students abilities. If on the other hand, the students are mixed the teacher will be able to
plan for differences in abilities.

• Characteristics of the class: Find out whether it is a noisy class or quiet class. If it is a noisy class, you need to make the lesson more interesting; you are more alert; and should monitor the students properly to prevent those who will not pay attention while you are teaching.

• Topic of the lesson: This is a statement stating what the lesson is all about. For example a topic like “factors affecting production” in a subject like Economics.

Objectives of the Lesson

• A good lesson plan will have specific aims and objectives to be achieved.

• The objectives must be simple.

• The objectives must be capable of being achieved within the stated period.

Teaching Aids and Other Instructional Materials

Before the take-off of the lesson all the needed teaching aids and instructional materials must be adequately provided.

• The teaching aids will enhance teaching and learning in the
classroom.
• Such materials should be used appropriately and effectively when teaching. 

Organization of the Class

• The classroom must be properly organized for effective teaching.

• Know how to group the class.

• Be able to identify trouble areas in the class.

• The arrangement of the students before the lesson starts. • Identify trouble makers and pay particular attention to them.

Presentation of Lesson Notes

The lesson must be carefully planned in such a way that the presentation of it will allow for good coverage of the topic, teachers’ activity, students’ activity and good conclusions.

Ringing of the bell should not end the lesson abruptly.

To allow for good time, the teacher should not prepare too much and the teaching materials should be within reach. One should avoid too much time on trivial issues during the lesson.

Teacher’s activities during the lesson may take the form of questions or practical demonstration. While student’s activity deal with student’s involvement i.e. answer to teacher’s question exercises to work.

Division of a Lesson

Most lessons are made of four parts which are the

1.  Introduction

2. Development

3. Conclusion

4.  Summary and evaluation.

Time of these parts may vary from lesson to lesson but every part must have its own fair share of time.

1. Introduction

A good lesson should begin with good introduction, which is interesting and could arouse students’ interest and attention.

A good lesson should have the following qualities.

a)  Should present the problem to be answered during the lesson.

b) Should be able to tell what the lesson is about.

c)  Should make use of teaching aids like pictures and diagram.

d) Should be able to have questions that can be used to revise the work covered in the previous lesson. 

There are different ways of introducing lesson thus every lesson should not be introduced in the same way.

2. Development

Development is the main body of the lesson. This is a period of exposition, when the teacher teaches new materials and this could come in different stages or steps.

3. Evaluation

This is the last stage of the lesson. It deals with finding out the extent to which the teacher has succeeded in imparting the knowledge.

This is the stage where the success of the lesson is determined. The teacher will know if the objective of the lesson has been achieved or not. Evaluation involves asking questions from the students based on the topic treated. Students also will know whether they have followed or not.

If the students respond to questions very well it means the teacher has succeeded but if otherwise he has failed. A teacher who fails to evaluate his lesson is not a good teacher.

Summary

This is a brief review of the whole lesson where the teacher goes over the lesson again informing the students the ground covered. After all the steps have been properly covered the teacher gives the students assignments on area covered.

When an assignment is given, date of submission must be indicated. Areas not clear in the lesson will be made clearer while attempting the assignment. Assignments must be marked, recorded and scripts returned to the students to enable them correct their mistakes.

4. Conclusion

This is towards the end of the lesson. This should be made within a reasonable time and should have enough room for evaluation.

Conclusion can take the following forms

Brief revision of what has been covered in the lesson.

Students reporting on what they have gained.

Linking the conclusion with the next topic.

Giving homework, which could serve as a logical outcome of the lesson.

Relationship among the Lesson Objectives, Lesson Content and Lesson Evaluation

There should be one-to-one correspondence among the lesson objectives, the lesson content and the lesson evaluation. This implies that what you purpose to achieve is what you teach and it is the same that you evaluate.

Conditions to be fulfilled Before Preparing a Lesson Plan

Preparation of a lesson plan is not an easy task, but when appropriate materials are put in place, the task becomes very simple.

• You should consult the current scheme of work for the topic.

• You should think out the objectives of the lesson.

• You should consult reference books and textbooks.

• You should organize and assemble materials needed for the lesson in logical sequence.

• You should decide on the teaching aids to use.

• You should think of the most suitable methods of teaching to use.

• You should think of the subject matter and questions required at each stage of the lesson.

• You should ensure accuracy and adequacy of facts.

• You should think of provision for individual differences in learning.

• With all the above, you have a very clear mental picture of the lesson plan

Sample of Lesson Plan Format

(1) Name of teacher …………………………………………………

(2) Subject ……………………………………………………………

(3) Class ……………………………………………………………

(4) Topic ……………………………………………………………

(5) Duration …………………………………………………………

(6) Date ……………………………………………………………….

(7) Objectives (i)……………………………………………………
(ii) ……………………………………………………

(8) Previous Knowledge ……………………………………………

(9) Method of Teaching ……………………………………………

(10) Teacher’s Activities

(11) Learners’ Activities
(12) Presentation ………………………………………………………

Step I: Introduction Step II: ——–

Step III: —–

(13) Evaluation
(14) Summary/Conclusion

(15) Assignment

The timing of the lesson depends on the time allotted to each period per school.

• In distribution of lessons, subjects like Mathematics should come up in the morning while Fine Art and Music can be taken in the afternoon.

• Before the time-table is put into use, it must be approved by the appropriate authority concerned e. g. Principal or the Vice Principal or the Examination Committee.

• The School Time Table

The time table indicates what each teacher and each student is to do at a given period. The school ensures that each subject receives its due share of attention according to the importance of the subject. Adequate time should be given to every subject.

The Value of the Time Table

Adeyemo (1985) outlined the significance of the school time table. A few of them are listed below:

• It regulates teaching adequately by paying attention to all subjects.

• It prevents waste of time of both the teacher and the students as everybody knows what to have at what time.

• It ensures enough periods are allotted to each subject, while English and Mathematics take more periods than other subjects.

• It prevents monotony as subjects are inter mingled.

• It helps to form the habit of order and regular work.

• It helps to arrest the interest and attention of the students as they are occupied.

• It gives information to visitors and government officials of  the where about of each teacher at a given time.
The time table helps the smooth running of the school system.

It helps the teachers and the students to prepare for their lessons.

It directs the attention of the teachers and students to their own subjects.

Factors to consider in Drawing Up a Time-Table
• Subjects to be taught. Ensure that all subjects receive their proper attention by giving each of them proportion
according to its importance.

• The length of each day must be considered; i.e. opening and closing time (8.00 a.m.–2.00 p.m. in most public
schools)
• Members of staff must be considered and their disciplines.

• The duration of the lesson must be considered. In the Primary schools 25-30 minutes, at the secondary level 30-40 minutes. This is so because, interest and attention cannot be maintained for too long at the primary level.

• The sequence of the lesson is important. Ensure that two difficult subjects do not follow each other (e.g. Physics and Chemistry) nor two oral subjects succeed one another. This is to avoid fatigue and boredom.
The Problem of the Time-Table

Making the school time-table entails a lot of problems. Thus a time table should be drawn by experienced teachers under close supervision of the vice-Principal Academics and all heads of departments must duly have an input. However the following are some of the problems of time-table.

• Schools are not adequately staffed in certain subject areas. Where this in the case, the few staff in some departments are over loaded especially in subjects like English Language and Mathematics.

• Transfer of teachers without replacement while the school is in session constitutes a lot of problems. Students being left untaught can degenerate to weakening the discipline of  the school.
• Where there are clashes on the time table teachers and students miss some lessons.

• Not all the students may be interested in a time table drawn up to include Agriculture for boys and Home Economics for girls. The affected only take notes from their friends.

• Where the school library is not spacious enough to accommodate students during their free periods, some
roam about the school premises.

• The students attendance of morning lessons is always very poor, some come late to school because of long distance.

This might lead to the change of the time opening from 8.00 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. this will shift the time of every
subject forward by 30 minutes.

• The preference of most teachers is always for the morning lessons and it is not possible for all to be fixed up in the morning.

CONCLUSION

The lesson plan is a layout of how the teacher intends to handle a lesson from the beginning to the end. A well prepared lesson, if followed systematically will lead to effective teaching and will produce good learning. You should prepare your lesson in an orderly manner, such that it will be easy for the students to follow the lesson as well as take down notes.

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