SCI/P/4: MAJOR ORGANS OF THE BODY

MAJOR ORGANS OF THE BODY

  1. All major body organs
  2. Diseases
  3. Disorders

Examples of body organs

  1. Eye
  2. Brain
  3. Ears
  4. Stomach
  5. Urinary bladder
  6. Heart
  7. Lungs
  8. Liver
  9. Kidney
  10. Skin

Diagram showing the positions of body organs.

body p4

THE BRAIN

  1. The brain is found in the head
  2. The brain is protected by the skull.

Diagram showing the position of the brain

 

Uses of the brain

  1. For thinking
  2. For body balance
  3. For body balance
  4. For storing information
  5. For learning.

Care for the brain

  1. Having enough rest.
  2. Avoid drugs like alcohol, marijuana, tobacco.
  3. Eat a balanced diet.
  4. Having physical exercises to refresh the brain daily.

STOMACH

  1. It is part of the digestive system
  2. It stores eaten food for some time.
  3. The stomach also churns or mixes food to form chime.
  4. In the stomach, germs in the food are killed by hydrochloric acid produced by the wholes of the stomach.
  5. Alcohol enters blood in the stomach.

Diagram showing the position of the stomach

Uses of the stomach

  1. It stores food.
  2. It digests food
  3. It produces an acid which kills germs in the food.

Care for the stomach.

  1. Avoid drinking too much alcohol.
  2. Drinking a lot of water to prevent constipation.
  3. Eat a balanced diet
  4. Avoid smoking.
  5. Avoid prolonged hunger.

Diseases of the stomach

  1. Ulcers
  2. Diarrhea

Disorders of the stomach

  1. Constipation
  2. Indigestion
  3. Vomiting
  4. Choking

THE EYES

The eyes are found in the head.

Eyes are protected by eye socket found in the skull.

People have two eyes

They are used for seeing.

Care for the eyes:

  1. Wash eyes with soap and clean water regularly.
  2. Avoid looking at bright light directly.
  3. Visit eye clinics for regular checkups and tests.
  4. When reading or writing, do not hold your book too close or far from the eyes.
  5. Do not strain your eyes by reading in dim light, in a moving car, in direct sunlight, etc.

Diseases of the eyes.

  1. Trachoma
  2. River blindness
  3. Conjunctivitis
  4. Night blindness.

EARS

  1. They are found on the head.
  2. People have two ears at the sides of the head.

Diagram showing the human ear

Uses of the ears

  1. Ears are used for hearing.
  2. For body balance.

Care for ears

  • Wash your ears daily and keep them dry.
  • Do not put or push objects into your ears.
  • Do not use sharp objects for cleaning your ears.
  • Do not direct your ears to loud sound

THE LIVER

It is located in the upper part of the abdomen.

Uses of the liver

  1. Regulates blood sugar
  2. Produces bile
  3. Stores iron
  4. Removes poisonous substances from the blood
  5. Stores Vitamin A and D

Care for the liver

  1. Avoid drinking too much alcohol
  2. Have a balanced diet
  3. Do regular body physical exercises.

Diseases of the liver

  1. Cirrhosis
  2. Hepatitis
  3. Cancer of the liver

KIDNEYS

  1. They are found at the back of the abdominal cavity
  2. There are two kidneys in the human body
  3. They are protected by the pelvis

Use of the kidneys

They filter blood.

Care for the kidneys

  1. Regular physical exercise
  2. Drink plenty of water
  3. Avoid holding urine for a long time

Disease of kidneys

  1. Kidney stones
  2. Bilharzias
  3. Kidney failure

The bladder (Urinary bladder)

  1. It is found in the lower abdomen.

Diagram showing the position of the urinary bladder and the kidneys.

Use of the urinary bladder

  1. It stores urine

Care for the urinary bladder

  1. Avoid drinking too much alcohol.
  2. Do not keep urine for a long time in the bladder.
  3. Drinking plenty of water.

The gall bladder

  1. It is found in the liver.
  2. Its main work is to store bile.

THE NOSE.

  • The nose is found on the head
  • A human being has one nose.
  • The nose contains hair in it called cilia

The diagram showing the nose.

Functions of the nose.

  • The nose is used for smelling.
  • The nose lets air in and out of the body.
  • The cilia helps to trap the dust in the air we breathe in.
  • The air is moisten in nose.

Disorders of the nose

  • Nose bleeding.
  • Nose blockage by the mucus.

How to keep the nose healthy.

  • By washing with clean water and soap.
  • By cleaning using a clean piece of cloth
  • Avoid rough games that might rapture the nose

THE LUNGS.

Diagram showing Parts of the  lungs.

USE OF LUNGS

  1. For breathing:
  2. Take in oxygen
  3. Take out carbon dioxide.

Care of the lungs

  • Avoid tobacco smoking
  • Avoid dusty places
  • Avoid crowded places
  • Take infants for immunization to protect them against tuberculosis, whooping cough, etc.
  • Do regular physical exercises.
  • Isolate people with diseases like tuberculosis.

Diseases of the lungs

  1. Diphtheria
  2. Whooping cough/ pertussis
  3. Pneumonia
  4. Influenza
  5. Chronic bronchitis

THE HEART

  1. The heart is situated in the chest cavity.
  2. It is protected by the rib cage.
  3. People have one heart.

Use of the heart.

  1. The heart is used for pumping blood throughout the body.

Care for the heart

  1. Regular physical exercise.
  2. Eating a balanced diet
  3. Avoiding smoking.

Diseases of the heart

  1. Hypertension
  2. Heart attack

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE HUMAN BODY SYSTEM

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