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CHE1: MATTER

This unit gives an an in depth discussion about how matter is composed and how it can be formed into different other substances forming different components of matter

Matter is anything that occupies space and has got weight.

In what state is matter found?

There are three states of matter

-Solids

-Liquids

-Gases

What are the differences between the three states of matter?

All matter is mode small particles.

Arrangement

Arrangement of particles in solids very close and regular.

In liquids the particle are further apart although they are still regular and in gases the particles are very far from one another and with no particular arrangement.

Movement of particles

In solids particles can only vibrate about a position. In liquids particles can move from one position to another that is they can flow or pour and in gases the particles move very far. This is because in solids there are strong forces of attraction, in liquids the particles are not as strongly held together as in solids and in gases the forces of attraction are very weak.

Therefore, solids have got a regular shape and a definite volume although liquids have a definite volume the liquid takes on shape of the container.

And gases have neither definite volume nor shape.

EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THAT PARTICLES IN A SOLID DON’T MOVE FROM ONE POSITION TO ANOTHER

In the experiment the apparatus is set up as follows;-

solid experiment

Observation

If it is left even after a week the two substances will remain in to layers

Experiment 2

Do particles in liquids move.

Experiment is set up as follows:

experiment2

A glass jug was filled with water and a crystal of potassium permanganate was dropped in.

Observation

After a day or two the purple color of the potassium permanganate is evenly distributed in the gas jar of water.

Experiment 3

Do particles in gases move?

A drop of bromine was placed at the bottom of the gas jar, a gas jar slides was places on top of gas jar

experiment3

Observation

The gas jar with bromine was quickly filled with a brown gas

 

Explanation

Bromine is brown liquid which vaporizes easily at room temperature. The gaseous particles move very fast and quickly the brown color of bromine is seen to fill the gas jar.

N.B

When a gas changes to liquid is called condensation

Explanation (Liquids)

Potassium permanganate dissolves in water to form a purple solution, therefore, the purple color in the gas jar in all the water shows the presence of potassium permanganate particle are knocked by the moving water particles.

Explanation (solids)

The solids didn’t mix because solid particles don’t move from one position to another

Energy

Particles of gases have a lot of energy therefore they can move for from one another. Liquid particles have less energy therefore they don’t move far but they have more energy than solids.

Compressibility

Gases are easily compressed solids and liquids are not easy to compress.

Exercise:

Using simple diagrams only show how particles (0) are arranged in solids liquid sand gases.

Arrange of particles in;-

SOLIDS

solids

LIQUID

Liquids

GASES

GASES

 

KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER

All matter is made up of tiny moving particles are invisible to the naked eye. The particles are moving all the time. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move.

Small particles move faster than larger than larger or heavier ones.

What happens when substances are heated?

Investigating the effect of heat on substances

Name of substancesWhat does the sub look like before heatingWhat happens during heatingWhat does it look life after
Candle waxIt look creamishIt turns to a colorless liquidForm white solid
IodineIt is a grey solidIt forms purple gasForms grey solid
Potassium permanganateIt is a dark purple colorIt is shining crystalIt gives a grackle sound gives off a gas which re-lights a flowing slitThe residue of purple form a grey solution in waterN.B heating forms a purple color

water heat

It is colourless

Water-Forms a colorless vapor-The boiling point of water depend on altitude and atmospheric pressure

From the experiment it is observed that when some solids are heated

  • They may melt
  • Sublime
  • From one substances

However, some solids remain uncharged when heated

Boiling point of any liquid

The boiling point of a liquid depends on the atmospheric pressure with in turn depends on altitude.

Define boiling point

Boiling point of liquid is the temperate of which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the surrounding or external pressure.

Finding the boiling point of a liquid which burns

boiling point

 

Observation

The temperature of ethanol kept rising until it remained at 74.5oc

Conclusion

Therefore the boiling point of ethanol was 74.5oc. Pure ethanol boils at 78oc at sea level. Therefore when finding the boiling point of a liquid which burns doesn’t heat it directly on a flame use a water bath.

Supposing the inflammable liquid had a higher boiling point than that water, how is it heated?

In that case oil or constructed sulphiric acid is used instead of water.

Attachments8

ASSIGNMENT : MATTER MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

 
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