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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A METROPOLITAN AREA
New York Metropolitan area
This is the most common and developed metropolitan area in USA and it’s the fourth in the world after Tokyo, Seoul, Mexico city. The area includes: New York, Long island, New Jersey, Comedian, Peneylivana. The major cities in this region include: New York, Jersey city, New York city, Yonkers Paterson. This area had got a total area of 17,405kq2 with population of 19 million.
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW YORK
New York city is found in New York state, however, it is not the capital city of New York state, therefore the capital city of New York state ie Albany New York is the largest city in USA and it is located on Manhattan highlands it covers the total are of 830 sq.km with a population of 8.2 million people.
New York begun as a Dutch settlement in 1684. They came from Holland in search of land for settlement and wealth. When they reached this city they named it New Amsterdam.
In 1664, it was taken over by the British settlers who named it New York. The population continued to grow due to the immigrants who were attracted to this area. This led to expansion of the city into other islands. It is now made up of several administration cities or boroughs and these include: Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, Bronx, and Staten Island.
The major highlands on which New York is sited include
- Long island
- Starten Island
- Governors Island
- Manhattan Island
- Coney Island and the rest of the city is is located on the mainland of North America.
A MAP OF THE SITES OF NEW YORK CITY
FACTORS THAT ATTRACTED EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND AGRICULTURE.
- Presence of the warm climate conditions which were favourable for settlement and agriculture.
- Presence of fertile soils especially along the river, it supported agriculture.
- The presence of good Natural harbors that enable easy Navigation.
- The strategic position of New York favored European settlement since it could be easily defended against external attacks.
- The existence of the hostile Indians that acted as obstacle for the European immigrates from the interior
FACTORS FOR THE RAPID GROWTH OF NEW YORK
- It’s position as a part enable New York to handle many commodities because it has a rich agriculture and industrial hinterland.
What is a hinterland?
A hinterland is a trading area served by a port.
- The coastal location between New England and the plantation states made it very easy for the area to get raw materials.
- The area of New York has good navigable water ie the waters are deep, free from freezing and this has favored transportation and trade activities to be carried out through out the year.
- The presence of the rich agricultural and industrial areas led to the rapid growth of New York.
- Presence of market for the goods that are produced in an area.
- Presence of capital.
- It’s situation at the south end of Hudson bay, Mort hawk gap (valley) gave way from New York to the interior. The valley became important after the completion of the New York state canal which is connected by roads and railways enabling to enter the interior.
FUNCTIONS OF NEW YORK
Most the industries in USA are concentrated in New York which has made New York the greatest industrial city in the area.
It has mainly manufacturing industries and most of which are large scale and capital intensive. They tend to produce mainly consumer goods. The major kinds of industries and moist of which are large scale and capital intensive. They tend to produce mainly consumer goods. The major kinds of industries in New York include
- Textile industries patrol chemical industry
- Food industry, Oil referring industry
- Ship repairing, industry, printing industry etc.
FUNCTION OF NEW YORK
- The city of New York plays an Administrative role e.g Has the headquarters of United Nations (UN).
- New York as a communication centre. This is import because many of the roads and railways convey in New York.
- It has a number of small ports which handle National and International cargo ant it also has the major sea port that handles a number of Vessels.
- New York as a commercial centre. New York is one of the world’s business centers i.e one of the centre of the world’s biggest centre is located on Manhattan. It also has several stock exchange e.g the New York wall street, Advertising Agencies. There are also a number of Banks and other financial institutions.
- New York as a recreational centre. New York has several recreation facilities and entertainment centers for example Night Clubs, Cinema halls, Restaurants, etc.
- New York as a Centre of Social Services. These include Hospitals, Research Institution, Churches/Religious centres, etc.
- New York as an Educational centre. There several education facilities and centres and these include the Universities, Collages, Public libraries, etc.
- New York as a port. It is one of the biggest ports in the world. It handles half of the entire North America’s trade.
- New York as a residential. Several people reside in New York, however there are different classes of people in New York staying in different areas.
- Sky scrappers; These are very expensive residential areas mainly found in Manhattan and are mainly occupied by the high income groups.
- Suburbs; They are found outside the city centre and are mainly occupied by normal people.
- Slums; These are mainly occupied by the low income groups of people who are unemployed. They include: Bronx, Harlem and Tenement
NEW YORK AS A PORT
What is a port?
This is a place next to navigable water with facilities of docking of ships or water vessels. It also involves loading and off loading of goods and passengers.
What is a Dock?
This is a place enclosed with water at the top that is used for loading of goods or for repairing ships.
What is a dry lock?
This is an area from which water is emptied for use.
What is a harbor?
This is a sheltered stretch of water at the coast where ships can shelter and obtain for protection of storms, ocean current and tidal waves.
FACTORS THAT HAVE FAVOURED NEW YORK AS A HARBOR
New York has deep waters for example the channels on the eastern side of the Hudson river is 14m deep and these has enabled large ships to sail through.
It has ice free conditions i.e the waters of New York do not freeze during winter hence navigation is carried out through out the year.
New York has a low tidal range (is the difference in the height of the water at the coast). It could be low and high. The tidal range is less than 2m and this enables the activities to be carried out through out the year.
Presence of hard rocks which provides a firm foundation for a dock yard construction.
Presence of sheltered water. New York port is sheltered from the strong winds by low islands.
The entrance of the harbor is free from coral reefs.
PROBLEMS NEW YORK FACES
- Transport problems. In New York city, there is a lot of traffic jam especially during peak rush hours. This has led to accidents as a result of reckless daring.
- Accommodation problems i.e there are poor housing conditions and people have resorted to living in slums in the cities.
- Pollution of the air due to many industries in the city as well as so many vehicles on roads.
- Over population. In New York city, there are so many immigrants which has led to over population and has caused a strain on public utilities.
- There are high unemployment levels i.e not all the people in the city can find jobs and therefore results into poverty.
- High crime levels e,g high way robberies, prostitution.
- Racial discrimination as a result of so many ethnic groups that live in the city.
- There is limited land for potential expansion.
- Construction of underground tunnels flyovers and subways to ease the congestion on the road.
- Bridges have also been constructed to connect the different islands e.g Verrazono Bridge families have been encountered to reduce on the number of vehicles owned and have also been urged to use buses and trains as they go to work.
Traffic lights and policemen have also been enforced to solve the problem of traffic jam.
- In order to improve accommodation, the following have been done;
- Slums have been abolished and better houses have been built. This is what is referred to urban renewal.
- Sky scuppers have been setup and suburbs have been extended.
- Works in Manhattan have been encouraged to commute from the main land
- Reclamation of marsh land.
2. To solve the problem of population
- Industries are encouraged to treat their waste before disposal.
- Laws have been posed to protect environment.
- Vehicle in dangerous conditions have been discouraged.
- Research has also been carried out in order to produce … that don’t pollute the environment.
- To minimize the effect of over population, urban-rural migrations been set aside to provide more social service.
3. To solve the problem of unemployment, the government has taken steps to create market for American foods and this will lead to increased production in order to expand job opportunities.
4. To solve crime; the polices force has been strengthened through the provision of the necessary equipment by the sheriff and FBI. In additions, laws have been enforced to deal with the criminals.
5. Anti racist laws have been passed to minimize the problem of racism
6. The problem of limited space for expansion has been solved by building sky scraps and the radiation of swampy lands
Disadvantage of New York City
- New York being located on island means that there is limited space for expansion.
- New York is sited on many islands which require the building of many bridges. In order to connect other islands this may be very expensive.
- New York is sited on marsh land which requires radiation and this is very expensive.
- New York is sited on Manhattan Island which is belived to be to be shrinking because of the heavy buildings that were put there.
Containerization at New York Port
This is the parking of goods in large standard metallic boxes that are then stilled and then places of origin and remain unchanged are sealed and then exported to their final destination.
- They protect goods against the theft
- They protect goods from danger of pests and insects.
- They protect against bad weather.
- It makes it easy for offloading of goods.
- It is time saving ie it takes a shorter time to load on the containers.
- The containers have enough space and thus many goods can be transported in container.
- It is very expensive to acquire the container and other facilities like the cranes.
- It is also un economical to use these container especially when you have small amounts of goods.
- The containers are bulky and they occupy a lot of space leading to over crowding at the port.
- It leads to unemployment of people who could lead the goods and offload them
COMPARISON BETWEEN NEW YORK AND MOMBASA PORT
|1||Largest port in Kenya||Largest port America|
|2||The water of Mombasa are very deep||The waters of New York are deep|
|3||The main town is located on Mombasa island.||The main town is located on Manhattan island.|
|4||The entrance of the harbor is free from coral reefs.||The entrance of the harbor is free from rocks and small island.|
|5||Mombasa is sheltered from the Indian Ocean by the Nyorwa and lilcon head limes||New York is sheltered from the Atlantic island Ocean by long island.|
|6||Mombasa has got on indented waistline.||New York has got an intended coast line.|
|7||The harbor is ice free through out the year.||The harbor is also ice free through out the year.|
|8||Has hard rocks that give a firm foundation.||New York has hard rocks that give a firm foundation.|
|9||Mombasa ie located at the mouth of Rivers thus suffers less silting.||It is also located around rivers and thus suffers less silting.|
|10||It has a low tidal range||It also has a law tidal range.|
|1||Mombasa is located on aria||Located along rivers|
|2||It is in the southern hemisphere||In northern Hemisphere|
|3||Doesn’t have marshlands||Has marshlands|
|4||Have coral reefs||Has no coral regs|
|5||Mombasa is in Africa||North America is in America|
|6||It is in the Indian Ocean||It is in the Atlantic ocean.|
|7||Has tropical climate||Has temperature climate|
|8||Mombasa was found by the Arabs and Portuguese||It was form by the dutch and developed by the British.|
Everyday between 7am to 10am several people enter Manhattan in the table.
|Means of transport||Percentage|
|Cars, lorry and taxi||13|
Draw a pie chart and represent the information in the table
THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS THE DIFFERENT AREAS IN IN NEW YORK CITY