COTTON GROWING IN NORTH AMERICA.
Cotton is mainly grown in the southern parts of USA and the major producer are Texas, California, Missiissipi, Arkanss. Cotton is a flowering shrub, which is usually grown from seeds annually and is by further the most important fibre.
IMPORTANCE OF COTTON
- Raw materials in clothing and textiles industries
- We got cooking oil from cotton seeds
- Can be sold for income
- Closed to make cotton wool which can be used in hospitals.
- Used to make cotton pillows, cushions and mattresses
REQUIREMENT FOR SUCCESSFUL COTTON GROWING
- Requires moderate rainfall (600-700mm) during the growing season and in a rid condition, irrigation can be applied.
- Requires a pest free area.
- Requires warm temperatures 230c during the growing period.
- Should be dry sunny weather for ripening and drying this is because heavy rainfall destroys cotton growth.
- Requires a good drainage, well drained the best being sandy loam soils.
- Requires a period that’s free from frost, because cotton is highly susceptible to damage by frost.
COTTON GROWING IN U.S.A
Cotton is grown in the southern region, which is described as the cotton belt. There’s the old cotton belt which is located in the South East area. This is where cotton was originally grown in large qualities, but later shifted to Southwest part of the grown as the new cotton belt.
BACKGROUND TO COTTON GROWING
Cotton growing started in South East, USA, in the 18thcentury in plantation using slaves. After the American civil war, freedom was granted to them and the new kind of system known as shear cropping started.
Land was divided into plots and farmer slaves (tenants) were given freedom to cultivate land.
After harvest, half the produce and a third of the maize was given as rent for using the land.
However, this system began to break down after the world II because negrows joined the army and machines were introduced.
A MAP OF USA SHOWING THE COTTON GROWING STATES.
COTTON PRODUCING STATES
These are divided into 2 ie old cotton belt states which include Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Tennessee and South Carolina and North Carolina and Arkansas
- New Cotton belt
- New Mexico
CHANGE IN THE COTTON PRODUCING AREA.
Formerly, cotton was grown in S.E USA, ie from Mississippi flood plain to the coast al plain but later cotton growing shifted to the western part of the region.
Factors that led to the charge in cotton growing areas.
- There was soil exhaustion due to mono-culture in the area at the same time erosion has resulted from heavy rains in S.E.
- Attacks by the cotton ball weevil (insect pest) whose survival was fovoured by warmth and humid condition.
- There was frost which tended to destroy the cotton plants.
- Destruction of the crop and properly by the hurricane winds which cause floods.
- The relief was steep hence discouraging use of machines.
FACTORS THAT FAVOURED THE COTTON GROWING BEST IN THE NEW COTTON BELT
- There were fertile soils some of which were virgin lands
- The soil were drained suitable for cotton growing.
- Bright and sunny weather which made cotton growing suitable.
- Absence of pests like cotton ball weevil
- The area experienced more frost free days than the S.E.
- Suitable relief ie the land was flat and conducive for mechanization.
- Absence of hurricanes or storms.
- Availability of capital as well as advanced technology enabling irrigation to take place.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE OLD COTTON BELT
- Introduction of animal husbandry and poultry
- Industrialization was introduced and the main industries include:-
- Petrol chemical industries
- Oil refinery
- Textile industry
- Cigarette & Tobacco industries
- Space industry (a more recent development)
- Forestation and reforestation
A forestation and Area have been planted with trees and forestry how become one of the most rewarding activities.
- Modern farming methods have been adopted e.g use of machinery crop rotation and application fertilizers.
- Introduction of soil banks in the exhausted area ie areas where cotton growing was abandoned.
- Diversification in agriculture ie new cash crops have been introduced like rice, soya beans and food crops.
MINING IN THE SOUTH
The main minerals mined in the South are oil, the main producing state is Texas where oil well have been found. They use the drilling method were oil is found under ground. The other oil producing states are Arkansas Oklahoma, Louisiana.
USA produces the 25% of world’s oil supply.
This is mined in most of the oil producing states
This is mined in Kentucky
Ironore: mainly mined in Tennessee
INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE SOUTH
In the South there was mainly agriculture but lather efforts were put to try to minimize dependence of the South on farming
Several industries have now developed in the south.
Two main types of industries are:-
Spare industries: This concerns the exploration of space it involves the launching of space rockets or craft satellite.
- Space shuttles are also launched as well
- The launching sites are cape Canaveral in Florida.
- The body concerned with space administration (N.A.S.A) with headquarters in Washington.
The associated industries with the space industry include:
- Experimental testing of rockets and its normally carried out in white Souds and new Mexico
- Rocket engineering involving engine testing
- Flight control where by as they take off they being controlled. This is in Hudson Texas.
- Rocket assembling which is in Los Angeles, (California).
- Electric research in relation to space administration at Cambridge Massacha – siessttes.
- Space flight center in Alabama Cape Canaveral was selected as the launching site for space crafts for many reasons.
- Suitable climate: the area has subtropical climate ie free from fog and frost that may obstruct vision.
- Latitudinal location: the [area is in a place that is near the equator where the earths circumference is big
- AT this place the speed of rotation of the earth is greater
- This high speed of ration given the space an initial and natural
- Velocity which supplements on their velocity in order to escape from the earths gravitational pull.
- The escape velocity from the earth’s gravity is about 11km/s which is equal to 40000kph.
- Nearness to the It is located at the coast and since the rockets are launching East wards in case of any accidents it crashes into the sea.
- Oil refinery industry: these are not meant to produce fuel for transport in vehicles and airplanes, domestic use ie for cooking and heating. Oil for industries ie running machines. It is used in power stations for thermal power production.
- Petro – chemical industries e.g Texas it is used for making petroleum boxed chemicals.
- Textiles industry in Georgia and southern California.
- Tobacco processing industries in Alabama.
- Iron and steel industry in Alabama.
- Lumber industry in Mississippi and southern Arkansas for production of wood products.
- Cotton growing industry.
- Spinning mills where lint is woven
- Soap making industry
- Cooking oil and fat industries.
ENERGY IN USA
The major sources;
- Natural gas H.E.P
- Petroleum oil Nuclear power
- Coal – Solar energy etc.
Major transport and exportation ports for American cotton.
American cotton grown in the south is transported to other ports of the country by mainly railway and road.
Exploration of cotton is through.
- Los Angles
- San Angeles
- New Orleans
Uses of petroleum and natural gas
- Natural gas is used for lighting
- Natural gas is used for cooking
- Petroleum is used to make fuel for vehicles
- Petroleum can be used to make Vaseline
- They are used to make fertilizers and explosives.
ADVANTAGES OF NATURAL GAS OVER COALS
- Natural gas when used causes less air pollution than coal.
- Natural gas is easier to mane than coal
- Natural gas is less bulky and can be cheaply transported by pipeline.
- Natural gas gives off more energy than coal.