NOUNS P.5

understanding of the use of nouns in english

A noun is a name of anything. It can be a name o f a person, animal, place or things. Nouns are in four kinds i.e. proper nouns and common nouns, abstract nouns and collective nouns.

Proper nouns
A proper noun is a particular name of a person or thing. Names of people, books, places etc. are examples of proper nouns; all proper nouns are written beginning with a capital letter.

Examples
Gloria, Nakitende, Junior English, Bwaise , Rwenzori, Nile, Kenya, Africa, Nairobi, Sunday , October etc

EVALUATION

Identify the proper nouns and punctuate correctly
1. My father will go to Nairobi next week.
2. Mr. buyondo teaches English in primary five.
3. river nile is the longest river in the world.
4. nairobi , kampala, Kigali, dodoma, Bujumbura are cities in east Africa.
5. Mr. hills is a Briton by nationality
6. my eldest brother is busy at makerere university.
7. treasure island is a very interesting book.
8. musa, wabwire and nakanjako are friends.
9. when will you go to kasese to visit the queen Elizabeth national game park?
10. my brother is very poor at mathematics.

COMMON NOUNS

Common nouns are used to name only one class, people, place or things e.g. girl, tree, town, etc.
They are sub – divided in singular and plural, countable and uncountable nouns. Nouns that mean “only one” are singular number. Nouns that mean “more than one” are plural number.
(i) Most nouns form their plural by adding “s” e.g. animals, houses, dogs, books, spaces etc.

(ii) Some nouns form their plurals by adding “es”

  1. a) Nouns that end in a hissing sound e.g.
    dress – dresses             box – boxes                      torch – torches
    brush – brushes           church – churches         branch – branches
    inch – inches                 fox – foxes
  2. b) Nouns that end in “o”
    Potato – potatoes      mosquito – mosquitoes
    Hero – heroes             cargo – cargoes
  3. c) Nouns that end in “f” or “fe” form their plurals by changing “f” or “fe” to “ves”
    leaf – leaves      hoof – hooves      wife – wives                   thief – thieves
    half – halves     wolf – wolves        knife – knives
  4. d) Nouns that end in “Y” make their plurals by changing “y” into “ies”
    baby – babies           army – armies                 factory – factories
    lady – ladies             city – cities                        party – parties
    fly – flies                    body – bodies
  5. e) There are one or two nouns that don’t follow any of these rules.
    Examples
    Man – men                     child – children     ox – oxen
    Woman – women        foot – feet                  tooth – teeth
    Goose – geese               mouse – mice          sheep – sheep
    Deer – deer                   dozen – dozen          furniture – furniture

THIS VIDEO SHOWS THE USE OF NOUNS

EVALUATION 1

Write the plural of the underlined words.
1. The child came into the room
2. A lady gave the girl the key
3. The cat caught the mouse.
4. The leaf fell from the tree
5. The ox pulled the cat.
6. The army went into the battle.
Re – write the sentences giving the plural form of the underlined words.
7. The nurse carried a baby.
8. A thief stole watches and the boxes of jewelries.
9. A wolf killed a sheep.
10. This furniture is very expensive.

EVALUATION 2
Write the singular form of the underlined words.
1. The gentlemen filled the glasses with soda.
2. We saw geese and foxes.
3. The boys have nice watches.
4. The armies fought a hard battle.
5. The at caught some mice.
Rewrite the sentences giving the singular forms of the underlined words.
6. The feet of the deer crushed the flower.
7. Birds sang on the branches of a tree
8. A boy was tending some sheep in the field.
9. The man put the books on top of the shelves
10. the women had knives.

COMPOUND NOUNS
These are nouns with more than one noun. Some of the compound nouns take a hyphen while others don’t.
E.g.s of compound nouns that don’t take a hyphen
Blackboard – blackboards       employment – employments
Armchair – armchairs               homework – homeworks
Spoonful – spoonfuls                 handkerchief – handkerchiefs
Handful –
Headmaster

Compound nouns that take a hyphen
Step – son          – step –sons
Step – mother  – step – mothers
Co – workers    – co – workers
X – ray                – X- rays
Mouse – trap   – mouse – traps
Bye – law           – bye – laws
Tooth – brush  – tooth brushes
Girl – guide       – girl – guides
Check – point  – check – points
Cob – web          – Cob – webs
He – goat           – he – goats
Egg – plant        – egg – plants
Foot – path      – foot – paths
Check – up      – check – ups

Compound nouns which affect the first word only
Passer – by                  – passer – by
Sister – in                    – law – sister – in – law
Head – of – state        – heads – of – state
Prefect – on – duty – prefects – on – duty
Master – on – duty – masters – on – duty
Commander – in chief – commanders – in – chief
Guest – of – honour – Guests – of – honour
Father in – law – fathers – in – law
Office – in – charge – Officers – in – charge
Master – of – ceremonies – masters – of – ceremonies

EVALUATION

LESSON 12

Write the plural of the underlined words.
1. The rebels are fought by the commander – in – chief.
2. The baby was given a spoonful of medicine.
3. This passer – by has escaped from prison.
4. The classroom block was measured with a tape – measure.
5. A – tug – of – war is an interesting game.

Rewrite the sentences giving the plural form of the underlined words.
6. Our head – of – department is very hardworking.
7. A toothbrush is sold in our shop.
8. That member – of – staff is going to be transferred.
9. Who is the prefect – on – duty this week.
10. We saw many head – of – cattle at the road side.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS
These nouns stand for a lot of things individuals. We call them collective nouns because refer to collections of things, people, items etc.

Examples

A gang of thieves
A packet of cigarettes
A flock of sheep
A fleet of cars
A team of oxen
A heap of soil
A troop of lions
A heap of soil
A swarm of bees
A bouquet of flowers
A set of furniture
A brood of chicken
A forest of trees
A leap of leopards
A troop of monkeys
A crowd of people
A troupe of dancers
A company of actors
A choir of singers
A gang of prisoners
A mob of disorderly people
A congregation of worshipers
A bundle / bunch of keys
A cluster of bananas
A mouthful of food
A pack of cards
A herd of cattle
A pocketful of money
A library of books
A queue of people

A flight of birds

EVALUATION

Complete each of the phrases
1. A ……………………………… of grapes
2. A ………………………………of matches
3. A ………………………….of clothes
4. A ………………………….of trees
5. A …………………………of corn
6. A ……………….. of drawers
7. A ………………………of bees
8. A ……………………………..of sticks
9. A ……………………….of stamps
10. A ……………………………of stars
11. A ………………………………… of birds
12. A ………………….. of cows
13. A ………………………of angles
14. A ……………………………of wolves
15. …………………………… of whales
16. A …………………………….. of monkeys
17. A ………………………….. of thieves
18. A ………………………… of pups
19. A ………………………………of slaves
20. A ………………………….of beautiful ladies

ABSTRACT NOUNS
These are the nouns which cannot be seen or counted.
They are nouns of qualities, things, creatures or people. These qualities only exist in something. They don’t exist on their own. Abstract nouns can be formed from adjectives of verbs.

Examples
Width     height
Length    anger
Breadth   behavior
Truth      love
Sadness  heat
Happiness presence
Bitterness choice

  1. a) Abstract nouns from adjectives formed by adding “ness”

Adjective                                      abstract noun
1. eager                                           eagerness
2. clever                                          cleverness
3. proud                                          proudness
4. clean                                          cleanliness
5. sad                                                  sadness
6. Handsome                                   handsomeness
7. kind                                                 kindness
8. heavy                                           heaviness
9. smart                                           smartness
10. Good                                         goodness
11. Rich                                           richness
12. quick                                        quickness
13. Happy                                     happiness
14. strange                                    strangeness
15. bright                                         brightness
16. Mad                                       madness
17. Slow                                     slowness
18. Ugly                                     ugliness
19. Lazy                                     laziness
20. fat                                          fatness
21. Shabby                                  shabbiness
22. stubborn                            stubbornness
23. Foolish                                 foolishness
24. rude                                     rudeness
25. Quiet                                   quietness
26. Polite                                 politeness
27. Sick                                     sickness
28. ill                                            illness
29. New                                  newness
30. Cold                                coldness

Abstract nouns formed by changing the last “t” or “te” to “ce” or “cy”

Adjective                                         Abstract noun
Distant                                                 distance
Innocent                                             innocence
Lenient                                                  lenience
Important                                                importance
Patient                                                 patience
Abundant                                         abundance
Silent                                                silence
Absent                                              absence
Ignorant                                         ignorance
Present                                            presence
Violent                                            violence
Urgent                                              urgency
Efficient                                           efficiency
Intimate                                            intimacy
Constituent                                    constituency
Expectant                                          expectancy
Agent                                                  agency
Accurate                                                accuracy
Accountant                                      accountancy
Pregnant                                         pregnancy

Abstract nouns formed when the adjective changes to other forms

Adjective                                          Abstract nouns
Powerful                                                     power
Truthful                                                         truth
True                                                             truth
Harmful                                                       harm
Painful                                                          pain
Faithful                                                        faith
Merciful                                                       mercy
Anxious                                                     anxiety
Curious                                                     curiosity
Poor                                                              poverty
Dangerous                                                     danger
Old                                                                  age
Dead                                                                death
Healthy                                                          health
Coward                                                      cowardice
Punctual                                                      punctuality
Greedy                                                           greed
Loyal                                                             loyalty
Pure                                                          purity
Cruel                                                      cruelty
Able                                                         ability
Envious                                                        envy
Difficult                                                    difficulty
Original                                                      origin
Possible                                                    possibility
Superior                                                          super
Rapid                                                            rapidity
Rigid                                                             rigidity
Supreme                                                    supremacy
Jealous                                                       jealousy
Noble                                                          nobility
Wise                                                           wisdom
Free                                                           freedom
Broad                                                         breadth
Just                                                             justice
High                                                           height
False                                                        falsehood
Warm                                                         warmth
Proud                                                         pride
Humble                                                    humility
Long                                                           length
Wide                                                            width
Deep                                                            depth
Angry                                                           anger
Hungry                                                          hunger
Timid                                                               timidity

Abstract nouns ending with “TION” formed from verbs.

Verb                                                       abstract noun
Explain                                                    explanation
Repeat                                                      repetition
Classify                                                    classification
Congratulate                                           congratulation
Accommodate                                       accommodation
Introduce                                                  introduction
Complete                                                 competition
Administer                                          administration
Oppose                                                     opposition
Complete                                                completion
Continue                                                  continuation
Revolve                                                   revolution
Elect                                                          election

Abstract nouns that end in “SION” from verbs

Verb                                                             abstract nouns
Decide                                                              decision
Conclude                                                        conclusion
Invert                                                               inversion
Confuse                                                           confusion
Divide                                                               division
Explode                                                            explosion
Express                                                             expression
Discuss                                                            discussion
Impress                                                            Impression
Provide                                                             provision
Convert                                                           conversion
Expel                                                                expulsion
Possess                                                            possession
Confess                                                             confession

Abstract nouns ending with “MENT” from verbs

Verb                                                                   Abstract
Develop                                                         development
Govern                                                            government
Pay                                                                     payment
Punish                                                               punishment
Excite                                                              excitement
Require                                                            requirement
Advertise                                                        advertisement
Entertain                                                          entertainment
Achieve                                                             achievement
State                                                                    statement
Measure                                                             measurement
Enlight                                                              enlightment
Refresh                                                              refreshment
Move                                                                   movement
Assign                                                                assignment
Embarrass                                                      embarrassment

Abstract nouns that don’t change verbs at all.

Verb                                                              Abstract nouns
Process                                                              process
Record                                                                record
Progress                                                            progress
Demand                                                            demand
Duplicate                                                           duplicate
Rest                                                                        rest
Pool                                                                      pool
Fish                                                                        fish
Love                                                                     love
Retreat                                                                retreat
Race                                                                    race
Drive                                                                drive
Dream                                                              dream
Knock                                                               knock
Ride                                                                   ride
Sleep                                                                 sleep

EXCEPTIONS
Verbs which form abstract nouns without following any of the above rules
Verb                     Abstract nouns                         verb                                      Abstract nouns
Depart                    departure                                 mix                                        mixture
Arrive                         arrival                                 fix                                          fixture
Avail                      availability                              assemble                               assembly
Choose                       choice                                     sell                                         sale
Fail                             failure                                 advise                                        advice
Succeed                      success                               practice                                      practice
Sit                                    seat                                refuse                                           refusal
Lend                               loan                                lose                                                    loss
Speak                             speech                          Just                                              Justice

serve                              service

Abstract nouns formed from other nouns

Nouns                                                 abstract nouns
Neighbour                                         neighbourhood
Free                                                             freedom
King                                                            kingdom
Child                                                          childhood
Man                                                                manhood
Brother                                                            brotherhood
Poet                                                                 poetry
Friend                                                         friendship
Relation                                                      relationship
Slave                                                              slavery
War                                                                 warrior
Martyr                                                         martyrdom
Pot                                                                  pottery
Baker                                                             bakery
Butcher                                                          butchery
Grocer                                                            grocery

EVALUATION

Use the correct form of the words in brackets to complete the sentences.
1. John’s ……………………………….was misleading. (Advise)
2. Our teachers get their ………………………….at the end of every month. (Pay)
3. We had a lot of …………………………during holidays. (Entertain)
4. The ………………………..i had last night almost came true. (Dream)
5. What caused your …………………………….yesterday? (Absent)
6. Due to ……………………………they did poorly in their examinations. (ill)
7. Do you know the…………………………….. of your mother? (high)
8. There was no ………………………. for most of the guests. (accommodate)
9. There is a lot of …………………………..in Smoking. (dangerous)
10. My elder sister is reading an …………………………….course. (accountant)

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