SCI/P/4: OUR FOOD

This Unit is about foods as studied in Science.

Food is anything we eat or drink to get energy, be healthy and build our bodies.

Nutrition is the process of taking in and using food in the body.

Uses of food to the body.

  1. Food provides energy to the body
  2. Food keeps the body healthy
  3. Food builds the body
  4. Food provides warmth to the body.

Why we eat food

We eat food every day for the following reasons;

  1. To satisfy hunger
  2. To be healthy
  3. Because it is a habit
  4. Because of hospitality
  5. Because of happiness.

Note: The above reasons are known as the 5Hs, that is,

  1. Hunger (because our stomachs feel empty)
  2. Health (because we know that we need food and drink in order to live)
  3. Habit (because it is the time of day when we normally out)
  4. Happiness (because we enjoy eating certain foods)
  5. Hospitality (because we have guests and it is our custom to offer them food)

Ways people get food

  1. By growing it in the garden
  2. By buying it from the shops/markets.
  3. By fishing from lakes, swamps, rivers.
  4. By hunting
  5. By gathering from forests and bushes.

Places where people get food

  1. From shops
  2. From the garden
  3. From the supermarket
  4. From markets
  5. From lakes, rivers, swamps, etc
  6. From forest

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN WHAT FOOD IS AND THE VALUES OF WHAT WE EAT

Classes of food

food values

proteins

Note: Go, Grow and Glow foods are known as the 3Gs, that is

  1. Go foods
  2. Grow foods
  3. Glow foods

Classes of food/food values:

They are;

  1. Proteins
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Vitamins
  4. Fats and oils
  5. Minerals

PROTEINS

Uses;

These are body building food values.

  1. They make new cells in the body.
  2. They repair worn out cells// replace worn out cells.

Sources of proteins

Animal proteins

  1. Beef
  2. Chicken
  3. Fish
  4. Eggs
  5. Milk
  6. Grasshoppers
  7. White ants
  8. Pork
  1. Plant protein
  2. Beans
  3. Soya beans
  4. Ground nuts
  5. Peas

 

 CARBOHYDRATES

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. energy
  3. source

Uses:

These are energy giving food values.

They provide energy to the body.

Sources of carbohydrates

  1. Maize
  2. Millet
  3. Cassava
  4. Rice
  5. Sorghum
  6. Sweet potatoes
  7. Irish potatoes
  8. Coco yams
  9. Matooke
  10. Sugar cane 

VITAMINS

  1. Vitamins
  2. immunity
  3. source

They are health giving foods:

They increase body immunity

Types of vitamins

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B1
  3. Vitamin B2
  4. Vitamin C
  5. Vitamin D

Uses of Vitamins

Vitamin/ mineral Sources Importance Deficiency Signs /symptoms
Vitamin A i)        Liver

ii)      Cheese

iii)     Butter

iv)     Margarine

v)      Milk

vi)     Eggs

vii)   Spinach

viii)  Carrots

ix)     Red palm oil

i)      Increases resistance to diseases.

ii)     For god night vision

i)     (night blindness) i)    Blurred objects

ii)  Poor eye sight

iii) Reduced night vision.

Vitamin B1 i.        Unpolished cereals

ii.      Beans

iii.     Groundnuts

iv.     Green vegetables

v.      Meat

vi.     Yeast

i)       For mental health

ii)      For proper growth

i)     Beriberi disease i)    Poor growth

ii)  Paralysis

iii) Forgetfulness

iv) Lack of appetite

v)  Body weakness

Vitamin B2 i.        Beans

ii.       Lean meat

iii.      Liver

iv.     Yeast

v.       Kidney

vi.     Groundnuts

i)      For mental health

ii)     For proper growth

i)     Pellagra i)   Body weakness

ii)  Poor growth

Vitamin C i.        Oranges

ii.       Lemons

iii.      Guavas

iv.     Tomatoes

v.       Mangoes

vi.     Pawpaw

vii.    Fresh green vegetables

i)      For strong skin membranes i)   Scurvy i)   Bleeding of the gums

ii)  Poor healing of wounds

iii)Reduced resistance to diseases.

iv)          Poor growth of the skin.

Vitamin D i.           Butter

ii.          Milk

iii.         Cheese

iv.        Egg York

v.Liver

vi.          Fish liver oil

i)      For absorption of calcium

ii)     For strong bones and teeth.

i)   Rickets i)   Week bones

FATS AND OILS

VOCABULARY

  1. source
  2. Fats and oils
  3. all sources of fats

: They are energy giving foods.

Sources of fats and oils

  1. Milk
  2. Butter
  3. Cheese
  4. Egg York
  5. Ground nuts
  6. Margarine

N.B. Fats are solid while oils are liquids at room temperature

MINERAL SALTS

VACABULARY

  1. Sources
  2. mineral salts
  3. all examples of mineral salts.

Use:

They are health giving foods.

 EXAMPLES OF MINERAL SALTS

  1. Iron
  2. Calcium
  3. Phosphorus
  4. Iodine
  5. Sodium
  6. Potassium
  7. Magnesium

IRON:

Use: For making red blood cells.

Sources of Iron

  1. Meat
  2. Green vegetables e.g. spinach
  3. Liver

CALCIUM

  1. Beans
  2. Milk
  3. Millet
  4. Green vegetables

N.B. Phosphorus and magnesium also strength bones and teeth.

IODINE

Use:

For proper functioning of the thyroid gland.

Sources of Iodine:

  1. Sea fish
  2. Iodised salt  

BALANCED DIET

VOCABULARY

  1. Balanced diet
  2. components
  3. roughages
  4. fibre
  5. paristalsis

A meal which has all food values in their right amounts.

Components of a balanced diet

  1. Proteins
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Fats
  4. Vitamins
  5. Water
  6. Roughages/fibre.

WATER

Uses of water

  1. Softens food during digestion
  2. Dissolves digested food for transport by blood.
  3. Dissolves waster products for transportation to the excretory organs.
  4. It helps to control body temperature through sweating.

Sources of water in the body.

  1. Drinking water directly.
  2. Tea, porridge, milk.
  3. Juice
  4. Fruits e.g. mango, oranges and pineapples. 

 

 ROUGHAGES (FIBRE)

It is made of plant materials which cannot be digested.

Use:

  1. Roughages provide grip for the muscles of the alimentary canal to push the food along.
  2. It adds bulk to the food.
  3. It enables the muscles of the alimentary canal to grip food and keeps it moving by peristalsis.

NB: Peristalsis is the movement of food along the alimentary canal.

 Sources of roughages

  1. Cereals
  2. Vegetables
  3. Fruits

THESE ARE THE FOODS WHICH ARE SOURCES OF ROUGHAGES

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