This Unit is about Population in Uganda.


What is Population?

This is the number of people living in an area at a given time.


Population Census

This is the counting of people living in a country.

The first population census was carried out in 1921 and Uganda had three million people.

The most recent census was carried out was 24.9million people in 2002.

Population census is carried out after an interval of ten years (10yrs).

State any one reason why population census is carried out after ten years

i) It is expensive.

ii) It is a government policy.

iii) it gives enough time for estimation and planning.

Information needed during population census

  1. Level of education.
  2. Sex.
  3. Number of children.
  4. Number of animals.

State two reason why the government carries out census

i) To plan for citizens.

ii) To know birth and death rate.

iii) To know the number of people in our country.

iv) To demarcate electoral areas.

v) To determine the level of poverty.

vi) To determine the level of unemployment.

vii) To determine the level of illiteracy.

Problems faced by the government when conducting population census

  1. Poor transport system.
  2. Insecurity in some areas.
  3. Harsh weather (Bad weather).
  4. Ignorance among people.
  5. High rate of illiteracy.
  6. Shortage of skilled enumerators.
  7. People give wrong information.
  8. Cultural beliefs.

Who is an Enumerator 

This is a person who carries out population census.

What is Census Night

This is the night before census (Census day).

Which ministry is responsible for organizing census

Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development.

Population Growth

This is the gradual increase in the number of living in an area at a given period of time.

Causes of high population growth in Uganda

  1. High fertility rate among women.
  2. Plenty of food.
  3.  Improved medical care.
  4. Improved security.
  5. High immigration rate.
  6. The culture of early marriage.
  7. The culture of polygamy

Advantages of high population growth

i) There is enough labour force.

ii) There is more revenue collection.

iii) There is ready market for goods.

Give one reason why it is difficult to control high population 


  1. Poverty amongst people.
  2. Ignorance among people.
  3. Religious beliefs.
  4. cultural beliefs
  5. Illiteracy

Population Distribution

This is the way people are spread in an area.

Give  factors which influence population distribution

  1. Presence of fertile soils for agriculture.
  2. Favourable climate.
  3. Availability of social services.
  4. Improved medical care.
  5. Improved security.
  6. Better educational services.
  7. Chances of employment.
  8. Out break of diseases.
  9. Trade opportunities

Ways in which the government can control population growth

i) Encouraging family planning practices.

ii) Educating people about the dangers of population growth.

iii)Discouraging early marriages.

iv) By discouraging polygamy.

v) Provide incentives to families which have accepted to control.

vi) Declaring decree stating the number of children each family has

State any  natural factors that can reduce the population

  1. Floods
  2. Landslides
  3. Outbreak of diseases
  4. Hail storms
  5. Earth quakes
  6. Famine
  7. Volcanic mountains

Man made factors – wars, accidents, industrial pollution.

State any  problems caused by a high population growth

  1. High crime rate.
  2. Poor sanitation
  3. Destruction of the environment
  4. Land fragmentation.
  5. Shortage of accommodation.
  6. Shortage of land.
  7. Shortage of food.
  8. Easy spread of diseases


The high number of people in a given area.

Give reasons why areas around Lake Victoria densely populated

i) Presence of fertile soils for agriculture.

ii) Presence of reliable rainfall.

State any one reason why slopes of mountains are densely populated

  1. Favourable climate.
  2. Presence of fertile volcanic soils.

State one reason why people settle on the banks of River Nile

Presence of reliable rainfall.

Sparse Population

The low number of people in a given area

Areas with dense population





Areas with sparse population




Disadvantages of small population

  1. Shortage of market for goods.
  2. Low food revenue.
  3. Shortage of labour force.
  4. The is under utilization of resources.


This is where the number of people is more than the resource available.

Under Population

This is where the resources available are more than the number of people.


This is the study of population.

Optimum Population

This is where resources available are equal to population.

Population Density

This is the average number of people living in an area per square kilometer


  1. An area has a population of 5,000 people. Find its population density if the area is 10km2

Pd       = No. of People




500 People per square km.

  1. An area of 20km2 has a population of 20,000 people. Find the Population Density.        P.d      = 20,000


1,000 People per square km

Population Explosion

This is the sudden increase of the number of people in an area.

ASSIGNMENT : POPULATION IN UGANDA P.5 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

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