• No products in the cart.

DIV4/5: PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

This Unit is about Professional Ethics

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

These are standards or morals or behaviours or competence expected from a person who qualified in a particular kind of career like teaching, medical doctor and lawyers.

A profession is a paid occupation which one receives after an advanced level of training.

DUTIES AND OBLIGATION OF PROFESSIONALS

Professionals are people who qualify with advanced training with a particular kind of skills and jobs they have the following duties and obligations to fulfill in life;

  • Professionals should have standards of competence which they attain after being passed out from a recognized institution like Makerere or Kyambogo University.
  • Professionals have a duty to engage in in-service training. This would enable him or her to perform better in delivering following the current issues.
  • It is the duty of the professionals to involve themselves in research wok and investigations. This enables them to keep informed of the current affairs and they can do this by use of the internet, reading news papers and listening to various radio programmes.
  • It is the duty of the professionals always to be honest and maintain integrity and self respect at work. This will also enable them have respect from their servants.
  • Professionals like teachers are obliged to respect their fellow professionals while at duty. This they deal with.  For instance a doctor is supposed to keep the secrets of the patient.
  • The professionals should ensure that by their own conduct, they demand communal respect. That is to say, they should be respected by the society and the clients they deal with.
  • Professionals should be confident of themselves while at work. They should command enough authority from the people they lead. For example as a teacher you shouldn’t fear to attack some big headed students in your class because of their size or big voice.
  • The professionals should have a sense of patience especially in terms of demanding for their salary or wages. For instance a doctor should first save life of the patient box demanding his payments.
  • It is the duty and obligation of the professionals to treat fairly others. For example he shouldn’t criticize fellow workers in public or before clients or abuse one another publically.
  • A profession should try to control his temper. In other words he/she should accept to change character if changes call for it. This is commonly expected of a person who gets a promotion at a work place.
  • Professionals have an obligation of creating a sense of loyalty to each other in order to ensure mutual/health understanding with others.
  • It is an obligation and a duty of professionals to make use of other professionals especially in the same field because they might have better knowledge. For example a CRE teacher should feel free to seek for assistance from an economics teacher to help him teach the topic of unemployment.

RELEVANCE OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS TO PROFESSIONALS IN UGANDA TODAY

  • Observing professional ethics has assisted many workers to execute their duties satisfactorily. That is to say, many teachers have been able to teach their students and passed well because they make reliable research like in various libraries experienced personnel the internet
  • The ethical codes of conduct have also enabled employee to produce good results at work. This may come as a result of managing time and avoiding sexual relations with customers.
  • The profession code of conduct has also been helpful to people in a way that they get high respect from the community where one lives.
  • Professional ethics have helped many people in Uganda to control their emotions while at work. For example many doctors and teachers admire their clients (female) but due to respect of their professional ethics try to avoid sexual relations with them.
  • Professional ethics have been relevant in a way that many employers don’t offer jobs basing on tribes, clan or sex lines but base on the ability of the applicant.
  • Ugandans need professional ethics because they help to improve on the image of our work.
  • Professional ethics are necessary in Uganda since they equip individuals with power or moral judgment over issues such as strikes which may cause destruction and hinder development. In other words professionals don’t engage in strikes because it is illegal.
  • Professional ethics in Uganda have helped people to know how to relate with one another while at work places .e. quarrels are limited in business which are run by professionals.
  • Professional ethics have helped people to keep up with the expected public standards. For example to be trustworthy and loyal at work.

THE PROFESSIONAL ETHICS OF TEACHERS

This is one of the professions in the whole world which has the highest number of employees. The teaching profession has some set rules and regulations 9codes of conduct) which must be followed by those working under it and these are;

  • It is the duty of the teacher to have the necessary knowledge of what he/she is teaching.
  • Teachers should have the skills required to communicate knowledge properly to the learners.
  • They should create a learning situation that can help the learners understand what they deliver to them.
  • Teachers should be up to date that is making the necessary research about the new trend of events that take place or researching about new things on the syllabus, questioning, answering and making techniques.
  • A teacher has a duty to impart moral and spiritual values to the students.
  • The teacher should enforce/encourage his students to make research always for further reading and production of good grades.
  • The relationship between a teacher and his students should be parental.
  • A teacher should avoid using corporal punishments to discipline students because it may stop a student from attending his or her lessons but other channels like guidance and counseling should be utilized.
  • A teacher should encourage students to discover his/her academic potential weakness such that they move on with him or her smoothly.
  • A teacher should be impartial. That is to say, should demonstrate any level of favouritism while dealing with his students.
  • A teacher should be a role model. That is to say, living an exemplary to both the students and community at large.

IN WHICH WAYS ARE SOME TEACHERS MOVING AWAY FROM THEIR PROFESSIONAL CODE OF ETHICS IN UGANDA AND WHY

Like any other professional person, a teacher is supposed to observe a certain code of conduct which bind him/her whether he/she goes in the world.

However, it is very surprising to find that some teachers are deviating from these principles in the following ways;

  • Some teachers no longer carry out guidance and counseling to their students which is required of them. The reason given is that they have inadequate time as many are part time teachers.
  • These days as reported by mass media many male teachers are found having sexual relations with their female students which may end up into unwanted pregnancy. The reason could be that they are paid little wages which may not enable them have housewives who need a lot of care financially compared to students.
  • Many times teachers are involved in instigating and leading strikes in schools which is unprofessional. The reasons for such cases could be barked of co-ordination and respect to the school administration and also failure to approach the employers.
  • Some school teachers are disloyal to their superiors which is also a sign of lack of discipline on the side of teachers. The cause of this is largely financial problem agreed for administration posts.
  • Many teachers are no longer maintain a sign of confidentiality that is very often some students are found making fun of teachers because they expose to them their social and financial problems.
  • Some teachers poison their students by giving them under close or close of content. Sometimes they give false information to students. The reason could be drunkardness, inexperience, delayed payments or quarrels with other people.
  • Some teachers deliberately desert their students at the time of great need while the teacher should show great kindness and friendship. For example during or towards UNEB exams. This may be caused by delayed payments to the teachers or if he/she is a par time teacher.
  • There are some teachers who aren’t acting exemplary for the students for they smoke, drink alcohol and walk to disco with them which causes low respect. The cause may be lack of self- respect.
  • The professional relationships between some teachers and their students are poor ignoring to attend to the students’ problem even when the teacher is around. The cause of this may be extending the family problems to school.
  • The teachers are minding less today to assist students morally and spiritually. This could be so because these teachers themselves are also undisciplined spiritually.
  • At times teachers lack proper methods of imparting knowledge to the students. The cause of this may be teacher’s shyness or failure to go to refresher courses.
  • In some schools, teachers don’t create good teaching and learning environment and instead create aggressive life for students which make them hate him/her sometimes this may be the natural character of the person.
  • Some teachers don’t keep up to date information as required by their ethics. That is they don’t read issues concerning social events 9research) for the well- being of their students. The reason may be lack of machines or access to the internet, radio, Television or is too busy.
  • Many times, teachers lose their professionals by engaging in cheating of exams. Some end up being caught and imprisoned bosses that he/she teaches so well.
  • Some teachers also loose the spirit of professionalism through forging marks for students. It may be caused before a male teacher coning a female girl or a teacher had no line for actual marking.

THE GENERAL PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS WHILE TRYING TO LIVE UP TO THEIR ETHICS

  • Teachers face many problems which at times don’t enable them to maintain their ethical standards. These problems rotate around political, social and economic issues.
  • The attitude of the society towards the teachers. For example when students pass well you are praised by the society but when they fail, you are blamed or incompetent.
  • The low levels of payment serve teachers are paid less compared to the work done and the standards on cost of living in the country this leads to start part timing.
  • There is high levels of immorality among the students today, that is many have been exposed to pornography while at home and sometimes at school it becomes so hard for the teachers to mold those students to the expected levels.
  • The increased population of learners today due to Universal primary Education {UPE} and Universal secondary Education {USE} has made it hard for some teachers to remain too ethical. That is handling individual students problem is not easy.
  • The transfer of teachers from one school to another has caused a lot of disorganization between them and administrators because they may find new systems where they go.
  • The poor infrastructures in schools have hindered teachers’ performance and observation of their ethics. Teachers develop a sense of I don’t care and only teachers for formality.
  • The contrast mismanagement of schools has also made teaching become unprofessional. It is common to hear schools striking students being supported by teachers because they all have similar demands for the administration.
  • Delayed payment of teachers’ salaries is a big problem they face at their work places. These have caused many to start dodging lessons and even get in sexual relations with students that they want to compensate themselves.
  • Lack of job security is one of other problems teachers face. They may not commit themselves fully to the service of the school because there is no security of their job tomorrow.
  • Lust for sexual play has forced many male teachers to ignore their professional ethics and go in with female students.

MEDICAL ETHICS

This is one of the most delicate professions in the world because it is concerned with human life preservation.

ETHICS OF MEDICAL DOCTORS (CODES OF CONDUCT)

After studying as doctors and qualifying in the profession they take an agreement known as hypocritical oath in which they vow to preserve life in all ways possible.  The following are some of codes of conduct which doctors follow in their profession;

  • A doctor should never help an individual however desperate an individual may be to procure – abortion.
  • At all costs a doctor is supposed to preserve life to the patients or clients who come to him or her.
  • A doctor should never use medicine to kill or finish one’s life intentionally for example using expired drugs or over dose.
  • A doctor should never carry out Euthanasia (mercy/silent killing) because of prolonged payment.
  • Doctors should always be trustworthy dependable or reliable. He/she should have honesty and humanity all the time.
  • A doctor should never request for holidays where work of treating the sick is in great need.
  • A doctor should use the safest medical instrument to treat the sick.
  • A doctor should be in position to accept defeat or ignorance of the complication instead of gambling around with one’s life. That is to say, should immediately refer to an expert in that area.
  • They should maintain good relations and relations between themselves and the history of the patients. They deal with in other words they should preserve the clients’ secrets.
  • A doctor should feel free to tell the patients what she/he is suffering from so as the sick looks for a quick and better medical care.
  • A doctor should observe the law of justice (equality). That is to say, giving fair treatment to all sexes, colours and tribes.
  • A doctor should never be involved in sexual emotional actions especially with their patients.
  • A doctor should carry out proper administration of the medicine that is not over dose.

THE CONTROVERSIES OF MEDICAL DOCTORS

This means the ways how doctors have violated their medical ethics as noted below;

  • It is a common behavior of doctors today helping young girls mostly and sometimes mostly women to remove unwanted pregnancies.
  • Displaying secrets. It has been a common behavior of today doctors going in public exposing the sickness status of some of their patients.
  • Many doctors today are caught carrying out euthanasia to the patients who seek assistance from them claiming that they no longer hope for life in future.
  • These days doctors have gone ahead to challenge God the creator by manufacturing human like creatures.
  • Doctors engage in sexual relations with their patients many times today especially with women who may fail to pay the hospital bills and look attractive to him.
  • Some doctors violate their ethics of preserving life all the time by refusing to care for the patients who may approach them with very little money or nothing. For example this led to the death of a woman in Mityana hospital in 2010.
  • In some hospitals and to some doctors in particular they exercise gender discrimination in giving appointments and treating the sickly.
  • Some doctors don’t want to accept defeat and instead pretending to be treating the sickness whom they are not surely of treating the sick which leads to death of some patients.
  • There are doctors who have led to death of many sick people because they have failed to administer proper medication.

EUTHANASIA (Mercy, Silent, Gentle Killing)

This term means a practice mostly carried out by doctors whereby they help the patient living with a long life sickness. For example cancer, AIDS to end his/her life in peace instead of continuing suffering too much.  The action may be done by the doctors with the request of the patient him/herself or a request from the person caring after the patient.

WHY EUTHANASIA IS CARRIED OUT

  • The increased level of suffering which a patient may get/may force him/her to request for termination of his/her life by the doctor.
  • Financial constraints may cause a patient’s care taker to go for euthanasia for such diseases like T.B, AIDs, asthma, lung cancer which need a lot of finances for one to be treated.
  • The need to save time may cause care taker to request the doctors to carry out euthanasia such that they save time to do other business after noticing that the sick may not recover.
  • The interest of the patient may also determine carrying out Euthanasia. For example in some countries like USA they have what is called a living will whereby they would demand a doctor not to put them on life support system in case they are terminally ill.
  • The distance the patient and care takers move to reach the health centre in addition to the terminal illness may annoy the sick or the care takers and hence one of them is requested for euthanasia to save time.
  • The absence of proper care can also lead to euthanasia or medication in case ne has failed to build proper treatment or medication is too expensive to maintain proper life. Then the sick may end up into requesting for a gentle death.
  • Mercy killing sometimes occurs to soldiers at war in a situation where one of the soldiers has been hindered and can’t move on fast with others in order to avoid revealing secrets from the opponents the commander may kill him completely.
  • In a situation where one of the thieves may be captured by police the colleagues may decide to kill him instead of giving out information to the authority concerning the escapes.

CHRISTIAN TEACHING ABOUT EUTHANASIA

  • It is a sin before God because it involves killing which man isn’t supposed to do.
  • A person who planned to carry out the act should simply pray to God if he/she s undergoing serious faith. God may save him/her instead of terminating life.
  • Christianity opposes the idea basing on the teaching in Gen 1:28 that produce multiply and fill the earth whereas the act is denying that responsibility.
  • Still Christians oppose the act of grounds that medical doctors are supposed to preserve as per their oath they take before at the time of confirmation.
  • Christians dislike the act of mercy killing basing their argument on the book of Psalms which encourage believers that in whatever suffering they undergo should remain repentant and prayerful but not to kill themselves.
  • A Christian is supposed to follow the examples Jesus Christ endured a lot of suffering but never terminated him like until it reached his last hour. (Mark 15:3ff)
  • Doctors are called upon by Christians to apply wisdom when dealing with patients which wisdom is given through seeking God. (James 3:12)
  • Christians should advise doctors to avoid being money minded which can cause them accept carrying out mercy killing looking for money.
  • A Christian should preserve and respect the image of God in which they were formed but deciding to die undermining God’s image.
  • It teaches against mercy killing emphasizing the use f preserving human rights including right to life.

LEGAL ETHICS (LAWYERS)

This is concerning with the principles that governs judges or lawyers at work. They include the following;

  • A judge should never be corrupt. That is to say, not accepting bribes even if promised promotions because a bribe may make him/her a biased judge.
  • He should take his judgment basing on available evidence and what the law requires.
  • He should have command reasonable authority to judge without being intimidated or influenced by anybody aside.
  • A judge should have reasonable qualifications in the law studies.
  • A judge should use the best and safest ways of bringing cases without using any forgery.
  • He/she should be impartial. That is to say, judging cases not basing on sex, rank, wealth, appearance and many others
  • He should admit false documents/admit false witnesses as they way of winning the case.
  • The lawyer shouldn’t intimidate the clients.
  • He should preserve secrets of the customers especially when investigations are still going on.
  • Judges should look at one another as complements in other words co-workers but not competitors or enemies.
  • A judge should be expected to follow the correct legal procedures. That is to say, not convicting a person until proved guilty.
  • A judge should avoid acting emotionally because this may make him take a biased judgment.
  • A judge shouldn’t handle cases under the influence of intoxic drugs. That is to say, cocaine, marijuana, kuber and many others

HOW JUDGES/LAWYERS VIOLATE THEIR ETHICS

  • Some lawyers pull out of the cases because they develop emotional feeling towards the accused. They don’t want to convict her for that matter even when the case is against her.
  • Many judges these days are corrupt whereby the accused or clients give them some money to favour them in the courts of law proceedings.
  • The judges who are known to intimidate people who are in courts of law forcing them to accept a defeat even when they would be innocent.
  • There are some judges who set up firms or businesses using other people’s papers. In other words they are not fully qualified in that situation.
  • Some judges distance themselves from the public claiming they are so special.
  • To some judges they take a decision before collecting reasonable evidence required to give final judgment.
  • Many judges today expose the secrets of accused even before the actual time needed comes.
  • Instead of consulting one another for a well- being of their businesses, they tend to compete among themselves even small issues.
  • There are some lawyers who don’t bother and decide to come to the court of law while drunkard.
  • Some other lawyers or judges do not follow the legal procedures of first examining the case before taking final decisions.

THE CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS ETHICS

The codes of conduct for Christians especially for the church leaders are based on the bible teaching about the morality of Christians therefore a Christina ethics constitute the following;

  • They should obey God’s commandments at all times in order to remain holy.
  • Christians should not be greedy for material wealth because even the bible says such wealth vanishes any time as according to James’ teaching.
  • They should worship one true God; love him with all their hearts.
  • A Christian should avoid being involved in acts of corruption and bribery as they are un Godly behaviours.
  • A Christian should never be discriminative in like but instead treat all the people equally as clearly.
  • The Christians should avoid bearing false witness or gossiping falsely.
  • A Christian should never help other people takes cases to courts of law instead he should be forgiving.
  • A Christian should not commit set abuse which disgrace God’s image. For example adultery, fornication, prostitution and many others
  • A Christian should use his conscience based on the guidance of the Holy Spirit to make or take proper decisions or choices.
  • A Christian is obliged t live a prayerful life for other people’s image and ideas.
  • A Christian should acre for the needy like the widows, orphans just as Jesus cared for them.
  • A Christian should fight laziness and be hard working like God as the bible condemns laziness.
 
Yaaka Digital Network ©, a Ultimate Multimedia Consult product
X