ENG6: PUNCTUATION P.6

Primary Six level punctuation and its usage

ASPECT: PUNCTUATION

LESSON ONE: CAPITAL LETTERS

Aa   Bb Cc  Dd  Ee  Ff  Gg  Hh  Ii  Jj  Kk  Ll  Mm  Nn Oo Pp  Qq  Rr  Ss   Tt  Uu   Vv  Ww  Xx  Yy Zz.

USES OF CAPITAL LETTERS

  1. Beginning of sentences

e.g. The table was cleaned.

  1. To start proper nouns

e.g Mukasa, Kampala, August, December, Tanzania, Friday, Mt. Rwenzori, Doctor, Teacher, Easter, Christmas.

Mr. Mukasa came from Mbarara on Sunday.

  1. When writing I as a pronoun in any position of a sentence. e.g Mary and I passed the exams very well.

I was told to come very early in the morning

  1. To introduce a direct speech sentence e.g.

I said, “I shall come tommorrow”

“The books were bought yesterday.” said the teacher.

  1. When writing pronouns refferring to God.

e.g. Everything was created by God and He decided all of them to be in Hs image.

  1. The names of Almighty God should be written beginning with capital letters and pronouns refffering to God.

e.g. Jesus Christ, Allah, God the Almighty, Jehovah, the messiah.

  1. Capital letters are used for peoples’ initials e.g Y.K. Museveni, I.K Musaazi, A.M. Obote.
  2. It is used for titles of books. e.g. The Nile English Course.
  3. It is used for titles of plays. e.g That’s Life Mwattu.
  4. When writing newspapers e.g. The New Vision, The Monitor.
  5. When writing titles of songs g The Uganda National Anthem.
  6. When writing titles of poems and every line of poetry e.g The stubborn child.
  7. When writing titles before the proper noun e.g

Princess Diana

Omukama Iguru

Kabaka Mwanga

  1. When writing names of streets and avenues e.g

Luwum street

Kimathi Avenue

FULL STOP (.)

Uses of a full stop

  1. It is used at the end of every negative and affirmative sentence or statement. e.g My father has gone to town.
  2. It is used whn writing initials of people e.g J.B. Walusimbi.
  3. When writing abbreviations e.g. A.D, Maj. , N.B
  4. It is used in writing internet and e- mail addresses e.g http:// oup.com

LESSON TWO

QUESTION MARK (?)

  1. It is used at the end of an interrogative statement e.g where are you?
  2. It is used for rhetoric questions. These are questions that have obvious answers of either yes or no.

E.g. Can you match God’s Glory? Definitely No.

Isn’t water necessary for life? Yes of course.

  1. Question marks are aslo used after question tags. She is clever. Isn’t she?

EXCLAMATION MARK (!) (Uses of How and What)

  1. It is used after an exclamation sentence

e.g what a fat girl Jane is!

  1. It is used with exclamatory words

e.g Oh! Hullo! Alas! Ah!

APOSTROPHE (‘)

1. It is used to show possession in nouns

e.g That is Mugisha’s pen.

2. It is used to show contractions.

e.g They do not know him.

3. It is used to form plurals of letters, figures or any other items.

e.g 3’s, 5’s, T’s and P’s

COMMA (,)

A Comma  is used in queston tags e.g. We are going home today, aren’t we?

  1. A comma is used in speeches to separate the speech tag from the words of the speaker. e.g. She asked, “ Where have you put the money?”
  2. It is used to separate a relative clause form the main clause e.g The animal, which was being chased by the whole village was killed.
  3. Kampala, the city of seven hills, is located in the southern part of Uganda.
  4. A comma is used addresses, salutations and subscriptions in letter writing. e.g Dear Jane, Yours faithfuly, Yours sincerely,
  5. It is used when writing figures with more than three digits e.g. 1,555,555, 10,000, 24,000
  6. It is used to seprate some words and phrases e.g. nevertheless, however, therefore, infact, of course, for instance, on the other hand, besides, on the contrary.
  7. A comma is used to separate words written in series e.g Benz is a car which is small, comfortable, balck and from Germany.
  8. It is used to separate items in a list e.g. orange, mango, lemon.
  9. It is between an adverbial clause which is a long phrase and the main clause. e.g Inspite of the harsh purnsihment she went through. Joan managed to pass her examinations.

LESSON FOUR

SEMI COLON (;)

  1. It is used to separate titles, names and figures which are just listed. It can also work in place of a comma e.g. Titles: the following people are useful to the nation:  the president; the ministers; the teachers; the nurses. Figures 30,000; 60,000; 150,000.
  2. It can be used if you want to avoid using the words “and” and “but” e.g. she went and looked for the lost pen; she didn’t find it.

SAFETY ON THE ROAD

LESSON ONE

Vocabulary :    bend, crossroads, cyclists, first aid, hand signal,                    pedestrians, pavement, junctions, motorists,

Roundabout, traffic police, side path, zebra crossing.

Activity :          Use the words first aid, hand signal, junction, motorists.

  1. The driver made a …….. to show that he was turning right.
  2. Drivers should not take over at the ………..of a road.
  3. Drivers should be careful not to knock ………down.
  4. He was given ………after getting in an accident.
  5. We met John at the road.

LESSON TWO

PICTURE INTERPRETATION

Traffic lights, road signs

Activity

  1. What type of road users do you see in the picture?
  2. Name the type of vehicles you can see in the picture.
  3. What is the purpose of the green light?
  4. What road sign should be put along the road to show that there is a healthy centre ahead? MK Pupils Book 6 pgs 4 -6.

LESSON THREE

STRUCTURES: The use of ….as soon as….

  1. g There were no more cars coming. The pupils crossed the road.

The pupils crossed the road as soon as there were no more cars coming.

  1. The use of ….because….

E.g. The car knocked Hamza down. Hamza’s bicycle had weak brakes.

The car knocked Hamza down because his bicycle had weak brakes.

QUOTATION MARKS (“   “)

(Shaping of opening and closing quotation marks)

These are also called inverted commas.

  1. They are used to enclose the actual words said by somebody in direct speech. E.g. The teacher said, “You are going to learn about punctuation marks.”
  2. They are used when one wants to be specific with certain names. E.g. The Newspaper of today “The New Vision” has news about Kony rebels.

HYPHEN (-)

  1. It is used to separate a prefix ending in a vowel form a word beginning with the same vowel. E.g co-operation, re- election, pre- eminent.
  2. It is used between two numbers or dates to include between the mentioned items. E.g pages 100 -500

Years 1980 – 1989

  1. It is used to form a compound form a prefix e.g.

anti- Uganda

Pre- colonial

  1. It is used for joining words to form a compound word from two or more other words. E.g Tea pot

Call – box

Time table.

  1. It is used to form a compound from two other words that are separated by a preposition g son – in – law

Princess – of – Africa

Pearl – of – Africa

  1. It is used when writing out compound numbers e.g.

Forty night

Thirty – six.

  • The use of ….must…. e.g. The policeman must help pupils to cross the road.
  1. The use of “where must……….” E.g. Where must pedestrians walk?

Pedestrians must walk on pavements.

  1. The use of ….should not…. E.g. You should not stand behind a parked car.

LESSON SIX

COMPOSITION WRITING

PRE COMPOSITION: REVISION QUESTIONS ON PUNCTUATION

In about four paragraphs write a composition about the causes of road accidents.

Guidelines :     Definitions

Causes of road accidents

How to avoid road accidents

Write a letter to the traffic officer about the causes of road accidents.

Stages of official letter writing.

NOUNS

A noun is a naming word or name of anything. Types of nouns:- common nouns, proper nouns, collective nouns, abstract nouns.

LESSON ONE

PROPER NOUNS

These are real or particular names of peope, places, animals e.g John, Mary, Okello.

Jinja, Kampala, Nairobi, Kololo, Mukono, Mbale

Uganda, Kenya, Asia and Mt. Kenya.

Animals

Cows                           Gazu

Dogs                            Jack

Cats                             Robin

Days of the week: Monday, Wednesday

Months : June, July

COMMON NOUNS

These are names of things found every where e.g papers , girl, boy, man, suit, pen, radio, house, hotel

Activity

Underline the proper nouns in these sentences

  1. Dr. Milton Obote was the president of Uganda in 1982.
  2. The Bible is the commonest book.
  3. Kampala is the capital city of Uganda.

LESSON TWO

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

These are names given to groups of things collected together. E.g.

  • A swam of bees.
  • Herd of cattle
  • A crowd of spectators
  • A suite of furniture
  • A bench of Bishops
  • A host of angles.

LESSON THREE AND FOUR

ABSTRACT NOUNS

Abstract nouns are names of things which donate an idea of state. They can not be seen, felt or touched. They can not also stand on their own. They are formed from other words like adjectives, verbs e.g. beautiful, ugly, poverty, patience, age, death, power, truth

FORMATION OF ABSTRACT NOUNS FROM VERBS

VERB ABSTRACT NOUNS

Sit                                            seat

Speak                                      speech

Choose                                    choice

Accuse                                    accusation

Abolish                                    abolition

Punish                                     punishment

Pay                                          payment

LESSON FIVE AND SIX

Formation of abstract nouns from adjectives and other nouns.

Adjectives abstract nouns

Kind                                         kindness

Lazy                                        laziness

Poet                                         poetry

King                                         kingdom

Friend                                      friendship

Man                                         manhood

Slave                                       slavery

War                                         warrior

Baker                                      bakery

High                                         height

LESSON SEVEN

SINGULAR AND PLURALS OF NOUNS

Formation of plurals by adding s, es, and ies.

Singular  Plural

Book                                        books

Key                                          keys

City                                          cities

Church                                    churches

Negro                                      Negroes

Lady                                        ladies

Hero                                        Heroes

Photo                                       photos

Embryo                                   embryos

Potato                                      potatoes

Mango                                     mangoes

Radio                                       radios

Piano                                       pianos

Nouns that end in y preceeded by the vowel, add s to form the plural e.g key         –    keys

Boy –    boys

Monkey – monkeys

Donkey – donkeys

Nouns that end in y preceded by a consonant add ies to form plural e.g party         –           parties

Lady           –           ladies

Baby           –           babies

Story          –           stories

LESSON EIGHT

Formation of plurals by adding “ves” to nouns that end in “f” orfe”

Singular                                             Plural

Knife                                                    knives

Wife                                                     wives

Calf                                                     calves

Loaf                                                     loaves

EXCEPTIONS

Roof                                        Roofs

Chief                                       Chiefs

Hoof                                        hoofs

Handkerchief                          handkerchiefs

Reef                                        reefs

Dwarf                                      dwarfs / dwarves

Scarf                                       scarfs/ scarves

LESSON NINE

Nouns that have the same singular and plural form

Deer                            deer

Sheep                          sheep

Fish                             fish

Furniture                      furniture

Common nouns that are always in plural form just because they are in pairs.

Trousers                                  shorts

Compasses                             binoculars

Knickers                                  pliers

Spectacles                              barracks

Scissors                                  pants

Common nouns that end with letter s but are not in singular form

News                                       mastitis

Tuberculosis                            politics

Mumps                                    athletics

Economics                              draughts

Mathematics                           civics

LESSON TEN

Compound nouns whose first word takes the plural form

Singular   plural

Father – in- law                                   Fathers – in – law

Master – on – duty                              masters – on- duty

Maid – of – honour                              maids – of – honour

Officer – in – charge                           officers –in- charge

Member – of –staff                             members – of – staff

Commander-in-chief                          commanders-in-chief

Compound nouns that change both parts into plural form.

Singular   plural

Man – servant                                     men- servants

Woman –driver                                   women – drivers

Man- friend                                         men- friends

Man – driver                                        men – servants

Nouns which are made up of a noun and a preposition

Singular                                             plural

Passer- by                                           passers- by

By- law                                                by-laws

On-looker                                            on-lookers

Up-stair                                               up- stairs

Compound nouns with a hyphen

Singular   plural

Mouse- trap                                         mouse-traps

Head-phone                                        head-phones

Foot – path                                          Foot – paths

Egg- plant                                            egg- plants

Compound and common nouns without a hyphen

Singular   plural

Spoonful                                              spoonfuls

Mouthful                                              mouthfuls

Plateful                                                platefuls

Handful                                               handfuls

Mugful                                                 mugfuls

Headmaster                                        headmasters

Workman                                            workman

LESSON ELEVEN

UN COUNTABLE NOUNS

These are names of things which can not be counted. E.g. blood, chalk, money, rubbish, information, trade, sugar, bread, water, soap, charcoal, sand, wood.

Changing uncountable nouns to plural forms.

A jerry can of water                jerry cans of water

A piece of chalk                       pieces of chalk

A litre of milk                           litres of milk

An item of news                      Items of new

A cup of tea                            cups of tea

A piece of wood                      pieces of wood

A bar of soap                          bars of soap

LESSON TWELVE

ASPECT: ARTICLES “a” , “an” and the

Content: Use of  “a”, “an” and “the”

  1. Article “a” is used before a countable noun e.g

A car, a man, a boy, a match box, a chair.

  1. It also begins with a vowel letter whose sound is consonant e.g a European, a university.
  • It is also used to refer to an incident taking place for the first time e.g. I saw a boy chasing a hen.
  1. “An” is used with words bearing vowels sound like “H” e.g an hour, an heir, an honest man
    • Give me an orange please
    • Have you ever seen an elephant?
    • That is an honourable member of parliament.

Article “an” is used for nouns that appear for the first time just like article “a” e.g. an accident has happened at the railway station.

N.B Article “an” is not used with proper nouns like human beings e.g. you cannot say “an Agnes”

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE “THE”

  1. “The” is used to refer to a noun appearing for the second time.
  2. It can be used with both singular countable nouns and nouns that start with vowel letters. E.g. the egg, the axe, I met a shabby boy and the boy was a thief.
  3. “The” is used to refer to one important event or person, place or ceremony e.g.  the River Nile, the Caribbean , the zulu, the airport.
  4. It is also used when referring to proper nouns e.g. the Bible, the Quran, the argentine.
  5. “The” is also used to specify nouns in a point e.g. I like a dog with the short tail.
  6. “The” can be used to replace a possessive noun e.g. “her car” becomes “the car” bearing in mind that the persons communicating are aware of the owner of the car, and the car itself.

ARTICLE “SOME”

It is used with plural countable nouns as well as non countable nouns. Article “the” can as well be used.

Plural countable nouns                       un countable nouns

Some boys                                          the flour

Some pencils                                      the paraffin

Some girls                                           the milk

Some juice                                          the juice

Some sugar                                        the sugar

Some soils                                          the soil

Use of “any”

  1. It is used where a Yes answer is expected e.g. will you bring me some milk?
  2. It can be used to mean not all sentences and questions e.g.
    • Have you any work to do?
    • I don’t have any work to do.
    • It can also be used on conditional clauses e.g if you find any insects in the food, don’t pay for it.
    • It can be used with the meaning “no matter which” e.g. send any person to collect your suit.

Activity

Use either “an”, “a”, “any” , “the” and some in each other space below.

  1. He eats …………………………egg every morning
  2. ………………..chair is made out of wood.
  3. ………………..Nile is the longest river in Uganda?
  4. Will you please lend me ……………money?
  5. I don’t mind ………one of you can do this job.

NOUNS

GENDER: This is the fact of being male or female. Gender can be identified in three ways.

Gender can be identified in three ways

  1. Gender formed by adding a prefix e.g

Masculine                                            Feminine

Cock – sparrow                                  hen- sparrow

He – goat                                            she- goat

Pea-cock                                            pea – hen

 

  1. Gender formed by adding a suffix e.g

Masculine                                            Feminine

Actor                                                   actress

Heir                                                     heiress

  1. Gender formed form a completely different noun

Masculine                                            Feminine

Drake                                                  duck

Bull                                                      cow

  1. Neuter : These are nouns which are nether female nor masculine. E.g. window, stone, table, desk, book etc

ASPECT SIX

LESSON ONE

PRONOUNS

These are words which can be used in place of a noun.

Kinds of pronouns

  • Subjective pronouns e.g. I , we , he, she
  • Objective pronouns e.g. me, you, her, him
  • Adjective pronouns e.g. my, your
  • Possessive pronouns e.g. mine, yours, hers, his
  • Reflexive pronouns e.g. myself, oneself, herself
SubjectiveObjectiveAdjectivePossessiveReflexive
1st person singularIMeMyMineMyself
2nd person singularYouYouYourYourYourself
3rd person singularHeSheItOneHerItOneOnesIt is
Its
Himself
Oneself
1st person pluralWeOurselves
2nd person pluralYouYourself
3rd person pluralTheyTheir

LESSON TWO

CONTENT:

SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS AND OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS Activity: Identify by underlining subjective pronouns in the sentences given

  1. He killed a lion
  2. You and I are going to school tomorrow
  3. It will bite you
  4. They were ten in number.

Identify objective nouns by underlining them in the sentences given

  1. She beat him yesterday.
  2. John took her
  3. We helped them last year.
  4. Mary and her brother always work for him

LESSON THREE

CONTENT: ADJECTIVE AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Identify and underline possessive pronouns in the given sentences.

  1. The cat of theirs went on following them.
  2. All the mangoes are mine.
  3. Their book belongs to him. It is his.
  4. Our lessons were taught by the son of hers.

LESSON FOUR

ASPECT CONTENT: REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS

ACTIVITY: Form reflexive pronouns from the given pronouns

My –

Her-

Him –

One –

It –

Fill in the gaps with the correct reflexive pronoun.

  1. Jonathan clapped hands by …………
  2. One clapped hands by …………………

LESSON FIVE

CONTENT

PLURALS OF THE PRONOUNS

Re – write the sentences changing the underlined words into plural form

She is playing it form the football field

This is my book.

ASPECT

VERBS AND TENSES

CONTENT: PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE (EVERYDAY TENSE)

Verbs are doing words.

Kinds of verbs

  1. Regular verbs
  2. Irregular verbs
  3. Main verbs (principal verbs )
  4. Helping verbs
  5. Transitive verbs
  6. Intransitive verbs

REGULAR VERBS

These are verbs which take “ed”, “d”, or “t” in their past tense.

Regular verbs which take “ed”

Present simple          Past simple                Perfect

walk                             walked                         walked

wait                              waited                          waited

Regular verbs that  take “d”

Present simple          past simple                perfect

believe                         believed                       believed

escape                        escaped                      escaped

move                           moved                         moved

change                        changed                      changed

Regular verbs that take “t”

Present simple          past simple                perfect

mean                           meant                          meant

dream                          dreamt                         dreamt

Irregular verbs

These are verbs which do not take “d”, “ed”, or “t” or irregular verbs that drop one “e” and “t” is added at the end.

Present simple          past                             perfect

go                                went                            gone

tear                              tore                              torn

Irregular verbs that change vowel “I” to “a” in past simple and “u” in perfect tense

Present                       past                             perfect

drink                            drank                           drunk

ring                              rang                             rung

sing                              sang                            sung

Irregular verbs that change “I” to “u” both past and perfect

Present                       past                             perfect

dig                               dug                              dug

sting                             stung                           stung

Verbs that simply change completely

Present                       past                             perfect

sit                                 sat                               sat

shine                            shone                          shone

Irregular verbs that  don’t change at all

Present                       past                             perfect

put                               put                               put

cut                               cut                               cut

 

Verbs that double letters in the continuous tense.

Present                                   continuous tense

swim                                        swimming

split                                          splitting

Exceptional words

present                                   continuous tense

say                                          saying

draw                                        draw

Verbs that end with “ie”

In the continuous tense these change “ie” toy and “ing” is added.

Present           continuous    past     perfect

tie                    tying                tied      tied

LESSON THREE

CONTENT: Present Simple tense (Everyday tense)

Negative statements

Activity : Change  these sentences into negative form.

  1. He speaks good English.
  2. I can repair this radio.
  3. She draws accurate angles.
  4. B is a curable disease.
  5. Bwindi is a penetrable forest.
  6. There are some boys in the field.
  7. There is some water in the pot.
  8. It takes a longtime to study a degree.
  9. It is a long way from Jinja to Kampala.
  10. They have a lot of money.

LESSON 4

Interrogative statements

 

LESSON FIVE AND SIX

Present simple tense: Active and passive voice

Activity: Change these sentences from active into passive voice.

  1. Kato plays football.
  2. The timekeeper rings the bell on time.
  3. She sells mangoes everyday.
  4. The doctor warns James aganst smoking.
  5. Cars carry people.

Change these sentences from passive  voice to active voice

  1. Mangoes are sold by John everyday.
  2. We are taught English everyday.
  3. This song is sung by the choir every Friday.
  4. Coffee is grown by Brazlians.

LESSON 7

LESSON 8,9, AND 10

CONTENT: PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Activity: Use the words in the brackets to complete the sentences in present continuous tense.

  1. I ………………….not going to school. (to be)
  2. They are …………very fast. (run)
  3. Musa is ……….to me. (lie)
  4. Why are you ………………..your friend? (hit)
  5. The sun ………………….brightly now. (shine)

 

Re write the following sentences in present continuous tense

  1. Musoke buys milk from the milk man.
  2. The children fetch water.
  3. He collects all our books.
  4. The farmer harvests all his crops.
  5. My mother makes pots out of clay.

LESSON 11

Negative statements

Activity: Change the following sentences into negative form.

  1. She is learning English now.
  2. The dogs are barking at him.
  3. We are eating some oranges.
  4. We are dancing now.
  5. The shop keepers are selling some sugar.

LESSON 12

Interrogative statements

Activity: Change the following sentences into interrogative

  1. Baker is eating an apple.
  2. I am revising my science notes.
  3. They are learning English.
  4. James is climbing up the pole.

LESSON 13

CONTENT: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

  1. Activity : Change these sentences to passive voice.
  2. She is reading a novel.
  3. Tom is teaching us.
  4. Martin is throwing a stone.
  5. The girls are plucking flowers.
  6. The timekeeper is ringing the bell.
  7. Change these sentences to active voice.
  • A whistle is being blown by Ali.
  • Our house is being painted by the builder.
  1. We are being taught by the teacher now.
  2. The baby is being fed the house girl.
  3. The mats are being woven by the P.6 girls.

QUESTION TAGS

Activity: Supply question tags to the given statements.

  1. She is sewing her dress, …………………?
  2. I am singing a nice song, ………………….?
  3. We are spending a lot of money,………………….?
  4. Moses is taking pencils out of the cupboard,…..?
  5. It is raining now, ………….?

ASPECT 9

ADJECTIVES (Definition)

Adjectives are words that describe nouns and pronouns more. e.g tall, short, small, big, fat, nice.

Kinds of adjectives

  1. Demonstrative adjectives: These are adjectives which show or emonstrate he noun e.g that, those, these.
  2. Personal pronoun adjectives: Thse are personal pronouns used as adjectives e.g. his, her, your, my, our, its, their.
  3. Quantity adjectives: These show how many / much a noun is e.g. one, two, three.
  4. Quality adjectives: These refer to the goodness or badness of the noun. e.g. good, bad, beautiful.
  5. Colour adjectives: They stand for the colour of the nouns e.g yelow, blue, green, red, black.

 LESSON  2 AND 3

Formation of adjectives

Activity: Form adjectives from the nouns

Circle               –           circular

misery                         –           miserable

child                 –           childish

woman            –           womanhood

danger             –           dangerous

mountain         –           mountainous

LESSON  4 AND 5

Activity : Form adjectives from the verbs

Force               –           Forceful

Talk                 –           talkative

continue          –           continuous

mourn              –           mournful

use                  –           useful

harm                –           harmful

LESSON 6

CONTENT:    PROPER ADJECTIVES

These are adjectives formed from proper nouns.  e.g.

Uganda           –           Ugandan

Kenya              –           Kenyan

Tanzania         –           Tanzanian

Germany         –           German

LESSON 7 AND 8

CONTENT: COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives can be compared in three degrees:

positive, comparative and superlative.

  1. Use of “er” and “est” in degrees or comparison

Positive          comparative               superlative

rough               rougher                        roughest

tall                    taller                            tallest

strong              stronger                       srtongest

Regular adjectives which take “r” and “est”

Positive          comparative               superlative

fine                  finer                             finest

safe                 safer                            safest

Regular adjectives which take “more” or “less” and “most” or “least”

Positive          comparative               superlative

beautiful          more beautiful             most beautiful

important         more important           most important

handsome       more handsome          most handsome

Irregular adjectives which change completely in comparison.

Positiive         Comparative              superlative

bad                  worse                          worst

good                better                           best

LESSON 9

CONTENT: POSITIVE DEGREE

The use of “as” ……”as” in positive degree. e.g.

  1. John is near the school. Joseph is also near the school.
  2. My mother is two metres in height. My father is two metres in height.
  3. My mother is as tall as my father.

LESSON 10

CONTENT : comparative degree

This is used when comparing two things, sides, parties, which are different E.G

Rose beats Mary in size.

  • A leopard beats a lion in roughness.
  • A leopard is rougher than a lion.
  • Of the two animals, a lion and a leopard, the leopard is the rougher.

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE

This is used when nouns being compared are more than two. e.g

  • All the children are smart but the head beats all of them in smartness.
  • The teachers live far away from the school. Mukasa beats them in distance.
  • Of all the teachers, Mr. Mukasa lives the furthest.
  1. Activity : Use the superlative degree
  2. Of the triplets, Tom is the ………….(handsome)
  3. Kyabaggu is the …………..person among the others. (healthy)
  4. Who is the ………….. among the three boys?(tall)
  5. Jackie is the ………..girl in the school. (Discpline)

LESSON II

Content: Double comparative

Here, one uses two clauses where each starts with article “the” followed by an adjective in comparison in comparative degree. e.g

  1. If you go high, it becomes cool.
  2. The higher you go, the cooler it becomes.
  3. If it is done soon, it will be good.
  4. The soooner it’s done, the better it will be.

Activity: Use the ……..the………in the sentences.

  1. As you stood very far you become small.
  2. If you come early, you will be busy.
  3. If you work hard, you will score highly.
  4. As you grow older, you become wiser.

LESSON 12

Content: Order of adjectives

Number                       opinion

Size                             shape

age                              colour

origin                           material

Purpose                       noun

e.g. The ladies are beautiful. The ladies are brown. The ladies are young. The ladies are long –legged. The ladies are from Asia. The ladies got married.

The ten beautiful long-legged young brown Asian ladies got  married.

Activity: Join these sentences using the order of adjectives

  1. I saw a girl, she was brown. She was from Belgium. She was ugly. She was young.
  2. I solved numbers. They were very good. They were fifteen.
  3. The chief has three daugters. They are tall. They are talkative. They are highly educated.
  4. She is a Ugandan. She is talented. She is long- legged.

LESSON 13, 14, 15

ASPECT: verbs and tenses

Content:  Past Simple Tense

Regular verbs formed by adding “ed”

Present                  Verbs                     Past participle

cook                      cooked                  cooked

look                       looked                   looked

point                      pointed                  pointed

Verbs that have their ending consonants doubled.

Present             Past simple              Past participle

stop                 stopped                       stopped

drop                 dropped                       dropped

clap                 clapped                       clapped

prefer              preffered                     preffered

 

Verbs that don’t change

Present            Past simple               Past participle

burst                burst                            burst

cut                               cut                               cut

hit                    hit                    hit

cost                 cost                 cost

broadcast        broadcast        broadcast

 

LESSON 16

CONTENT: PAST SIMPLE TENSE

ACTIVITY: Use the verbs given in past simple tense

  1. He ………………. to Mityana yesterday. (walk)
  2. Alice ……………….with her friends yesterday. (play)
  3. He………three years in France when he was a young man. (spend)
  4. He ……………his keys at home. (leave)
  5. Mubiru ……………his car at a very high speed. (drive)

Negative and interrogative statements E.g

  1. I was made to lie down yesterday.
  2. I wasn’t made to lie down yesterday.
  3. He got a first grade.
  4. He did not get a first grade.

Activity: Change these sentences into negative form.

  1. The teacher marked our books yesterday.
  2. He took a long time waiting for you.
  3. She organised the classroom very well.
  4. He went to the beach last weekend.

Interrogative statements

  1. The birds made nests on the tree.

Did the birds make nests on the tree?

  1. A lion chased a hunter seriously.

Did a lion chase a hunter seriously?

  1. The teacer arrived at noon.

Did the teacher arrive at noon?

  1. The baby cried all night.

Did the baby cry all night?

LESSON 17

CONTENT: Active and Passive voice e.g.

  1. The dogs chased a goat.
  2. A goat was chased by the dogs.
  3. It ate a rat last week.
  4. A rat was eaten last week.

Activity: Change the following sentences into passive voice

  1. They stole the old man’s mangoes.
  2. Kato bought a nice pen.
  3. She baked a cake last Saturday.
  4. Grandmother visited us on Monday.
  5. He wrote a letter to the headteacher.

Change the following sentences into active voice e.g.

  1. Football was played yesterday by Sam.
  2. Sam played football yesterday.
  3. Food was cooked by Norah last night.
  1. Norah cooked food last night.
  2. Tom dug a deep pit last week.
  3. I drew a picture yesterday.
  4. She collected our books yesterday.

LESSON 1.2

ASPECT: VERBS AND TENSES

CONTENT: Future Perfect Tense

Here we use either “shall have” or “will have” plus the perfect of the main verb. e.g.

  1. I shall have understood tenses by the end of this topic.
  2. He will have taken a bus to Malindi.

 

LESSON 3

CONTENT: Negative sentences

  1. I shall have understood tenses by the end of this topic.
  2. I shall not have undertsood tenses by the end of this topic.
  3. He will have taken a bus to Masindi by the time we reach their.
  4. He will not have taken a bus to Masindi by the time we reach there.

LESSON 4

CONTENT: INTERROGATIVE STATEMENTS

Change to interrogative form.

Examples

You will have gone by the time the office opens.

Will you have gone by the time the office opens?

  1. We shall have listened to the teacher for half an hour by the end of the lesson.
  2. Shall we have listened to the teacher for half an hour by the end of the lesson?

LESSON 5

CONTENT: Active and Passive voice

Changing statements from active to passive voice

Examples

  1. We shall have ridden a bicycle by the time he comes back.

A bicycle shall have been ridden by the time he comes back.

  1. My mother will have mopped the house by the time I go back.

The house will have been mopped by the time I go back.

LESSON 6

CONTENT:  QUESTION TAGS

Examples:

I shall have cleaned the desk by next week, shan’t I ?

The manager will have arrived by mid day, won’t he?

Activity: Give the correct question tags to the following statements.

  1. We shall have taken tea by breaktime, ………?
  2. The car will have broken down by the end of the journey, ……………?
  3. I will have seen the king, ……?
  4. She will have arrived the afternoon, …………?
  5. We shall have been paid by tomorrow, ….?

LESSON 1, 2

ASPECT:  SPEECHES

CONTENT: DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Speeches are divided into two:

  1. Direct speech
  2. Indirect speech

DIRECT SPEECH

This is when we quote the speaker’s words

Position of the speech tag.

  1. At the beginning of the sentence e.g. James said, “Jemima is a bad girl”
  2. In the middle of the sentence
  3. In the middle of the sentence e.g “Jemima, said James is a bad girl.”
  4. At the end of the sentence e.g. “Jemima is a bad girl.” said James.

LESSON 1,2

How different words change

Direct speech            Indirect speech

now                             then

today                           that day

tomorrow                     the following day/ next day / day after

yesterday                    the previous day, day before

last week                     the previous week

next week                   the following week

next day                      the following day

Ago                              there

here                             there

this                               that

will                               would

can                              could

must not                      was not/ were not to

must                            had to

come                           go

you                              him/ her / they

us                                them

I                                   him/ her

our(s)                           their(s)

me                               her/ him

my                               hers/ his

we                               they

bring                            taken

anybody                      somebody

present simple             past simple

present perfect            past perfect/ past simple.

Activity: Detailed English Grammar BK 1 page 77 Exercise 65.

LESSON 3

CONTENT: Changing from direct to indirect speech in present simple tense

Present simple tense changes to past simple tense. e.g.

  1. He said “I drink water everyday.”

He said that he drank water everyday.

  1. He says, “I drink water everyday.”

He says that he drinks water everyday.

LESSON

CONTENT: Reporting statements in the present continuous tense

Present continuous tense changes to past continuous and “now” changes to “then”,”today” to “that day”. E.g.

He said that he was drinking that water then.

Jane said, “Iam taking these books home now”

Jane said that she was taking those books home then.

LESSON 5

CONTENT: Reporting statements in the present perfect tense

Present perfect tense changes to past perfect tense e.g.

  1. Jane said that, I have bought these books already.

Jane said that she had taken those books already.

  1. The teacher said, “I have spoken to you about your dressing.”

The teacher said that he had spoken to her about her dressing.

 

ASSIGNMENT : PUNCTUATION P.6 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

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