REACTION AGAINST APARTHEID
Well as some Africans e.g. the Inkhatha freedom party co-operates with the apartheid regime, the majority resisted.
Those who resisted include the ANC leaders e.g. Albert, Nekron, Mandela, Walter Sisulu etc.
The pan African congress (P.A.C) under Robert Sobukwe also resisted just as the mine workers led by Clement Kadalie also resisted.
ANC was the largest and best known national movements in South Africa.
It was formed in 1912 as the South Africa native congress
Dr. Xuma was the first known elected president of ANC in 1940.
AIMS OF ANC
- It was formed to encourage mutual understanding among various sections of people in South Africa i.e. among the Africans, coloreds and whites.
- It aimed at defending the liberties and freedom of all those oppressed by apartheid.
- It aimed at uploading and defending the human rights of all South Africans from the violation of whites e.g. Africans were being forced to move with passes.
- It was formed to act as one voice against the oppression of whites
- It was to fight for the independence of south Africa under the majority rule
- It was to fight the economic slavery of the Africans by raising their standards of living
- It was to destroy the political monopoly of the whites’ nationalist party by involving blacks in the politics of South Africa.
- In 191955 A.N.C allied with Indians, coloreds and some liberal whites to form the congress alliance which later adopted the freedom charter.
- It wanted to destroy apartheid that had made Africans second rate citizens in South Africa.
O.A.U was formed on 25-05-1963 at Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.
It pressurized western powers that were selling arms to South Africa to stop.
O.A.U tried to weaken the military strength of South Africa by supporting rebels against her regime
It also opposed the participation of African sportsmen and women in competitions with countries with sporting links with South Africa.
O.A.U formed a committee of liberation based in Tanzania whose duty was also to liberate South Africa from apartheid.
It also issued the Mogadishu declaration (1971) and the Dar-es-salaam declaration of 1975 aimed at ending racism in South Africa.
O.A.U opposed dialogue with South Africa and the Bantustans set up to fool the world that South Africa was free.
Member states of O.A.U were freely encouraged to accept A.N.C guerillas to train in their territories e.g. Uganda and Libya.
O.A.U pressure led South Africa to improve some conditions in south Africa for Africans and even improved on her relationship with some African countries.
It maintained the diplomatic isolation of South Africa
Members voiced their anti-apartheid feelings in international Fore which also produced positive results.
24 member countries in 1976 boycotted the Olympics in New Zealand because South Africa was to participate.
Member countries contributed a certain percentage of their G.D.P i.e. 0.4% towards the liberation committee.
Some African countries like Tanzania and Zambia contributed soldiers and money towards fighting apartheid.
O.A.U leaders like Nyerere and Kaunda got diplomatic help of kicking South Africa out of the common wealth in 1960
O.A.U supported the imposition of economic sanctions of South Africa
O.A.U advised and thus prevented member countries from dealing with South Africa
All the above thus showed that O.A.U secretariat strongly condemned it.
WHY O.A.U FAILED TO ACHIEVE HER OBJECTIVES
- Many member states failed to contribute towards the liberation committee and even to O.A.U itself.
- Ideological differences among member states (socialists vs. capitalists) divided the member further.
- Many member states had internal problems to worry about
- South Africa was militarily stronger than all the African governments.
- South Africa was very rich economically and could thus manage financing all her fights ably.
- Military coups in members countries distorted the continuity and flow of the anti-apartheid struggle
- Besides member countries always conflicted with one another diverting resources and concentration
- Not all O.A.U members were committed towards the struggle
- Some opportunistic members like Malawi and Zaire collaborated with South Africa.
- European countries like Britain and France continued strongly supporting south Africa
- Even in the UN the stronger members like Britain ensured that the sanctions against South Africa were not properly implemented.
- A.U lacked an army and thus a high command to enforce her resolutions
- The Africans in south Africa were also divided i.e. Inkatha was somehow sympathetic to the whites
- The south African whites repeatedly invaded the frontline states and thus weakened them
- South Africa also killed her great opponents both within and outside like Samora Machel
- The frontline states like Mozambique and Angola had their internal opponents (RENAMO and UNITA) supported by South Africa.