SCI/P/4: SANITATION

This Unit is about Sanitation and Germs

SANITATION

  1. The general cleanliness of our environment
  2. The way we keep our environment clean.

Importance of sanitation

  1. Prevents the spread of germs.
  2. Promotes good health in the community.

Activities under sanitation

  • Sweeping the compound, house, etc.
  • Moping the house, classroom
  • Slashing bushes around our homes, school, road sides, water sources.
  • Picking and burning rubbish.
  • Proper disposal of feaces and urine.
  • Draining stagnant water around our homes, school.
  • Dusting tables, chairs
  • Removing cobwebs from the kitchen, latrines and houses.
  • Digging water channels along the roads, in school and home compounds.

Items used in keeping proper sanitation

  1. Brooms
  2. Rake
  3. Mop/rag
  4. Water
  5. Soap
  6. Slasher
  7. Bins
  8. Waste basket
  9. Rubbish pit
  10. Scrubber
  11. Spade
  12. Dryer

GERMS

A germ is an organism that causes diseases.

 

Types of germs

  1. Virus
  2. Bacteria
  3. Worms
  4. Protozoa
  5. Fungi

 Where germs are found

  • Faeces and urine
  • Water
  • Soil
  • Air
  • Under dirty long finger nails
  • On dirty clothes
  • On dirty beddings

N.B. Germs are found everywhere.

GERMS EXPLAINED IN THE VIDEO BELOW

How germs enter our bodies

  • Through eating contaminated food
  • Through the nose when we breathe in
  • Through open wounds and cuts
  • Through skin contact with infected persons
  • Through sharing clothes with an infected person
  • Through vectors

THE 4FS

It is the path of germs from faeces to the inside of our bodies.

It stands for;

  1. Faeces
  2. Flies
  3. Fingers
  4. Food

Control of the spreading of germs

  • Boil water for drinking
  • Wash hands before eating food.
  • Wash hands after visiting a toilet.
  • Destroy the breeding places of vectors by clearing bushes, draining stagnant waters, etc.
  • Kill the vectors by spraying
  • Prepare food in a clean place
  • Cover food
  • Have proper disposal of faeces and urine
  • Have proper disposal of garbage
  • Give health education to the people
  • Have all children immunized.

THREE SIMPLE RULES TO FOLLOW SO AS TO REDUCE THE SPREAD OF GERMS

 ROTTING/DECAY

Meaning

The breakdown of organic matter by bacteria.

It destroys garbage heaps It requires warmth, darkness and moisture.

Importance of rotting/decay

  1. It destroys faeces in latrines and sewerage systems
  2. It produces humus from dead organic matter.

Dangers of rotting/decay

  1. Rotting produces a bad smell
  2. Rotting matter is a source of germs
  3. Rotting causes wounds to be septic.
  1. Common diseases caused by germs

Diseases Causative germ
i)      Trachoma Bacteria
ii)     Red eyes Bacteria
iii)   Cholera Bacteria
iv)   Typhoid Bacteria
v)    Dysentery Bacteria /Amoeba
vi)   Diarrhea Bacteria / Virus
vii)  Ring worm Fungus
viii)Chicken pox Virus
ix)   Diphtheria Bacteria
x)     Pneumonia Bacteria
xi)   Tetanus Bacteria
xii)  Measles Virus
xiii) Polio Virus
xiv)Whooping cough (pertussis) Bacteria
xv)  Scabies Itch mite
xvi)Malaria Plasmodium (protozoa)
xvii)  Sleeping sickness Trypanosome (protozoa)
xviii) Rabies Virus
xix) Typhus fever Ricketsia

 

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