SECOND ANGLO-BOER WAR
The second Anglo Boer war was the last clash between the Boers and the British. It’s sometimes called the Gentleman’s Whiteman’s war. It was fought to determine the master of South Africa and solve the long misunderstandings between the Boers and the British.
CAUSES OF THE WAR
- Presence of war mongers i.e. Kruger on the Boer side, Chamberlain and Alfred Milner on the British side.
- The poor past military record of the British encouraged the Boers for example they had defeated them in the first Anglo Boer war Jameson’s raid.
- The Zulu had also humiliated the British at Isandihlwana in 1879.
- The long held suspicion between the Boers and the British since the day of the great trek
- The Boers were determined to defend their hard won economic and political independence
- The rise of Boer nationalism championed by ultra-nationalists like Paul Kruger
- The British feared that the Germans would ally with the Boers to push them out of South Africa.
- Rise of British imperialism and desire to federate south Africa
- The scramble for the mineral wealth of south Africa
- The British attempts to follow up and surrounding the Boers in natal, Transvaal and Orange Free states.
- The increased number of the Uitlanders and Kruger’s refusal to honor their political and economic rights
- The re-election of the nationalistic hard line and determined Kruger caused excitements.
- The failure of negotiations between Milner and Kruger over the Uitlanders left war as the only alternative.
- The economic war between the Boers and British e.g.
- The British over taxed Transvaal goods.
- In 1887 Kruger constructed a railway line into Portuguese Mozambique cutting off trade with the British.
- Kruger’s action of closing all the roads to the cape annoyed the British.
- Kruger’s extension of the voting period, banning of English and closing British schools annoyed the British.
- The British wanted to wash away the previous humiliations by the Boers except from the Germans.
- The alliance of Transvaal and orange free states plus promised aid from natal and cape encouraged the Boers.
- Milner’s stationing of troops around Transvaal after the murder of a Uitilander by the Boer man.
- Kruger’s ultimatum (intimidating order) of 48hrs annoyed the British.
- Kruger’s preferential treatment of Germans annoyed the British.
- Failure by Kruger to punish a Boer farmer who had killed a Uitilander.
- The role of the South African league which was made up of imperialistic minded British settlers who kept on advocating for strong action against the Boers especially after 1895.
THE SECOND ANGLO-BOER WAR IN VIDEO
ON THE AFRICANS
- Loss of lives, over 20,000 Africans died and more 20,000 Boers died in the camps.
- Depopulation because in total over 200,000 people died.
- Destruction of property especially the farms
- Disruption of agriculture and trade
- Starvation, famine and diseases
- African chiefs lost land and Africans were disarmed.
- Africans mineral workers suffered greatly because they were punished for deserting work during work.
- Africans totally lost hope of getting back independence
- Suffered in the concentration camps
ON THE WHITES
- Boers were totally defeated
- Boers became victorious on paper after the Vereeniging treaty
- Boers lost independence as they were placed under British rule
- It led to the South African union.
- The Boers were to be compensated with 30 million pounds.
- The British were to release all Boers from concentration camps
- The whites were to control the politics of south Africa
- Boers were to stop discriminating British goods
- Kruger was sent the exile where he died in 1904
- The British stopped supporting the rights of the Africans.
- It increased Boer unity, solidarity and nationalism
GENERAL CAUSES OF THE ANGLO-BOER WARS
- Mistreatment of Uitlanders
- Scramble for mineral wealth
- Long held suspicion and hatred among the two.
- Rise of Boer nationalism
- Presence of war mongers e.g. Paul Kruger, Cecil Rhodes, Canarvan and Chamberlain.
- Rise of British imperialism
- British where surrounding the Boers i.e. from the south they were at the cape. Botswana from the west.
- British were always following up the Boers since the great trek
- The poor military record of the British encouraged the Boers.
- High taxes and economic enmity between the two.
COURSE OF THE SECOND ANGLO-BOER WAR
- It was fought by two parties i.e. Boers and British
- When the British assembled their troops on the Boer boarders the Boers also started mobilizing for war.
- On 9th October 1899 Kruger issued the famous ultimatum giving the British 48 hours to withdraw or face war.
- After the 48hours, Kruger declared war because the British had not withdrawn.
- The British were so ill prepared for this war yet the Boers had even united in preparation for the war.
- The Boers easily crashed the British in Natal and the cape.
- Later the happy Boers conquered and occupied Lady Smith in Natal, Kimberly and Mateking of the Cape.
- Initially the Boers used hit and withdraw and later after weakening the British used conversional war.
- But towards the end of the war. The Boers adopted Guerilla war.
- The Boers had modern German arms.
- But then the over ambitious Boers demanded for a full surrender of the British forces at Lady Smith.
- This gave the British enough time to receive new and more soldiers from England, Australia, India and Sudan.
- The most important arrival came from Sudan led by Lord Kitchener
- Later the British generals i.e. Robert and his successor Kitchener started smiling.
- In 1900 the British occupied Bloemfontein in the capital of Orange Free State recaptured Mafeking, Kimberly and occupied Transvaal.
- By September 1900 the major fighting was over and Kruger had fled to Europe.
- After September 1900 the Boers resorted to Guerilla war.
- The Boers even attacked the cape civilians
- The British replied with brutality and burnt everything before them and imprisoned all Boer civilians.
- The concentration camps held by 1902 about 120,000 Boers and 100,000 Africans.
- By 1902 when the war ended 10% of the total Boer civilian population had died in these concentration camps.
- Finally hunger and increasing African threats forced the transvaalers to surrender.
- But the majority in O.F.S continued fighting.
- The second Anglo Boer war was one of the most survived wars in South Africa (Africa).
- It lasted for about 2 and a half though on African soil it was completely a white man’s war and African only acted as cooks and luggage carriers.
- The Boers were led by many generals e.g. Botha, Smats, Hertzog, DelarRey, Dewet.
- The Vereeniging treaty of 1904 stopped the war.
EFFECTS OF THE WAR ON THE AFRICANS
- Africans were put into concentration camps
- Destruction of property
- Africans lost their lives
- Destruction of agriculture leading to famine
- Africans lost land
- Africans lost British protection
- Africans lost their arms
TO THE BOERS
- They were put in concentration camps
- The Boers lost their lives
- Lost their independence
- Lost their leader Kruger
- Boers were compensated
- Signing of Vereeniging treaty
- Boers got fertile land
- Dutch language gained equal status
- Boers were promised independence
- Boers gained more than the British.
TO THE BRITISH
Took over the Boer states
THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT THE SECOND ANGLO BOER WAR