This unit deals with sentence construction to inform story composition.


cyclist                                    first aid

pedestrian              driving

motorist                   carelessly

traffic police                       recklessly

zebra crossing       scene of accident

accident                   cross-roads

sign post                  junction

driving school       dmc, level-crossing

  • Learn the pronunciation, spelling and meaning of the above words.
  • Use them in meaningful sentences.
  • Refer to SST and other sources to study different road signs and their meaning.(MK 6 Pg 5)
  • Discuss different causes of road accidents and how to avoid them.
  1. Structural Patterns

(1)  ——————should not

e.g  Children should not play on the road.

People should not tether animals near roads. etc—-

(2) —————– must —————–

-Parents must help their children cross the roads.

-Drivers must respect road signs etc—-

 (3) —————– as soon as ——————–

The driver stopped the car.  The lights had turned red.

The driver stopped the car as soon as the lights turned red.  Etc…


Highway – a main road

Code – written rules.

The Highway code – the official rules for road users.


When crossing the road

Look left, look right, look left again, If it is safe, cross but don’t run.

Written exercise

In not less than 150 words, write a composition about an accident

Imagine you saw/experienced a road accident.  Write a composition about it in not less than 150 words.


1- title

2- where it took place and when.

3- people and vehicles involved, assistance given, how the police came in , etc—-

4- conclusion (your feelings)




crossroads                          road humps                       patient

junction                               careless                    patiently

traffic lights                                    careful                      roundabout

(i)   read and pronounce the vocabulary correctly.

(ii)  construct meaningful sentences.

(iii)  mention any dangers you have ever seen on the road

(i) ……………..

(ii) ……………..

(iii) …………….

Form nouns from the following words

(i)  careless ……………..

(ii)  careful ………………

(iii) patient ……………….

Use the correct form of the word in brackets.

  1. The driver was ____________injured in the accident.(critical)
  2. We sustained a lot of _______________after the accident.(injury)
  3. The _____________loaded lorry caused traffic jam along Jinja Road. (heavy)
  4. A friend of _______________got an accident yesterday.(me)
  5. My father is a very __________driver. (skill)

Structure.  first ______next ____________then.

Study the example below.

First look right, next look left then right before crossing the road.

First wash your hands next pray then begin eating your food.

Study the following activities and then use the

Structure___________first ________next _______then to describe then __________

  1. fetching water from the well
  2. preparing breakfast
  3. writing an examination
  4. crossing the road.

The pictures A – F tell a story.  Study them carefully and write one sentence to describe what happening in each picture.  You may use the following words to help you.

Children, approaching, ambulance, doctor, running, lying, playing, first aid, treating, giving, carry ball 

Fill in the blank spaces with the correct words chosen from the box.


Last …………………., there was a fatal accident in Mabira forest along Kampala – Jinja Highway.  The ……………….was caused by a ……………….driver.  He did not also have a valid driving………………….

This driver had been driving the taxi at a very high speed.  At the same time, he wanted to overtake at the bend, a trailer that was carrying petrol to Kampala………….,there was  a head-on collision with a Tata Lorry registration No. UED 188D.  The Total lorry was carrying sugarcanes to Lugazi  Sugar works.  Nine……………died on the spot and others were ……………………injured.

Immediately, the ……………………police was called.  The O.C traffic Lugazi came to the scene.  He blamed the driver for the accident.  The O.C advised the passengers to be vigilant on the road at all times.

After they had been given first …………, the casualties and the dead were rushed to Kawolo…………….for treatment and post mortem.

eventually                           aid

passengers                          critically

traffic                                                hospital

accident                               permit

Christmas                            drunken


Safety on the road (guided conversation)

(a) Vocabulary

 Officer, destination, cause, accidents, speeding, permit, offences, bribe, favour

Learn the pronunciation, spelling and the meaning of the above words.

Construct meaningful sentences using the words.

(b) Use the correct form of the word given in brackets to complete each sentence below.

  1.  Every driver on the road must have a driving …………… (permission)
  2. Do traffic police officers ………………….. some errant drivers?(favourite)
  3. Driving cars at a high speed …………….. fatal accidents.(cause)
  4. Does………………….cars cause accidents?(speed)
  5. Please, learn the correct………………of all these words.(pronounce)

(c) Structure: ………………should not……………….

 Read the following examples

  Children should not play on the road.

Drivers should not drive at a high speed.

We can use the structure to give a warning if someone is doing something wrong.

Construct five correct sentences from the table

PedestriansMotoristsCyclistsThe traffic police officerRoads

Buses and taxis

   Should notAccept bribesPlay along the roadRide while drunkThrow stones at vehiclesDrive recklessly

Be narrow

Be over loaded

Below is a guided conversation between the O.C and a taxi driver. Complete it by filling in what you think were the O.C’s questions.

O.C: Traffic arrests a Taxi driver

O.C: _________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: Good morning, officer.

O.C: ________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: I am thirty three years old.

O.C: ________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: Yes, I have a driving permit.

O.C: ________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: No, officer, this taxi is not mine

O.C: ________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: It belongs to my uncle.

O.C: ________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: There are eighteen passengers in the taxi, sir.

O.C: _________________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: I am coming from Kasese.

O.C: _______________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: This taxi is licensed to carry fourteen passengers.

O.C: _______________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: I am sorry officer. I know very well that over loading and speeding are very serious offences and cause accidents.

O.C:  _______________________________________________________________________

Taxi driver: Please officer, don’t take me to court now. Do me a favour. There is something for you, sir

O.C: Shut up your mouth! Officers don’t take bribes.




argue                                     proposer                 opposers                 conclude

argument                            secretary                 inquire                     current speaker

audience                              chairman                 inform                                  previous speaker

speaker                                motion                      opinion                    point of order  

  • Learn the pronunciation, spelling and meaning of the above words.
  • Construct meaningful sentences using the above words

(b)  Structure …………..unless……………

 Read the sentences below.

  • My friend will not debate unless he is an opposer. Unless my friend is an opposer, he will not debate.
  • Unless means if ……………………not. It is used in negative statements.

Rewrite the following using…………unless……………..

  1. My father will not come to school if he does not get the money.
  2. The headmaster will attend the debate only if we invite him.
  3. You should study hard. You will pass the test.
  4. If we don’t complete the work, the teacher will punish us.
  5. He will not go to Dubai if he doesn’t get a visa.

Guided Composition.

Below is an incomplete passage.  Read it carefully and fill in the blank spaces correctly with the given words in box.  Each word should be used only once.

 ……………….in schools is a very interesting activity.  Debating promotes self expression, critical thinking, reasoning and confidence among learners.   It also prepares children for further formal discussions and studies.  Learners express their……………..freely and develop the  ………………of debating.

The teacher in charge of the debating……………….usually suggests two or three…………for the debate then the pupils themselves choose the one they like most.  Sometimes the pupils suggest the motion themselves.

After selecting the motion, some of the pupils propose while others oppose  the motion.  The proposers and …………..organise their…………..who are always  referred to  as principal or main speakers.  Then the different speakers prepare themselves for the debate.

The debate is chaired and controlled by the ……………………..During the debate, the secretary records the ……………..raised by both sides.  Each speaker is allowed three minutes and the timekeeper takes note of the time allocated.

The audience cheers and applauds the speakers from the sides they support.  The audience raises points such as ‘point of inquiry’, ‘point of …………’ and point of order’ among others.  When the debate is about to end, the chair person calls upon one speaker from each side make a ……………..Lastly, the secretary announces the points each side has declares the …………………..and the losers.

winners, motions, club, information, chairperson, opposers, debating, skills, speakers,

conclusion, points, opinions.



point of order                                            argument                motion

speaker                                            inquire                     debate

secretary                                         chairperson

argue                                                 opinions

  • Read and pronounce the words correctly.
  • Construct meaningful sentences using the above vocabulary.
  • Discuss different advantages of debating and how to learn debating.

(b) Fill in correct word to complete each sentence below

  1. The ……………is the over controller of the debate.
  2. All my ……………….were different from his.
  3. The ………………….we debated last week was very challenging
  4. There are always …………………….in a debate.

(c) Discuss the roles of the following people in a debate

(i)  chairperson…………

(ii)  secretary……………

(iii) chief whip ………

(iv) timekeeper …………

Structure         whereas ……………..

Read the sentences.

The girls will oppose the motion whereas the boys will propose it.

Sonsomola recorded the points whereas Okecho chaired the debate.

Join the sentences using whereas.

  1. Tom is very short. His brother is very tall.
  2. Some pupils are hardworking. Others are lazy.
  3. John likes cakes. Stella likes cakes.
  4. The opposers gave many points. The proposers gave very few.
  5. Tom came late. Bosco came early.

Written exercise.                Free composition.

In not less than 150 words, write a composition about a debate you have attended in your school.  The guidelines below may help you

  1. title
  2. when and where the debate took place
  3. Which classes participated.
  4. Who proposed / opposed?
  5. Which side had more points
  6. who announced the winners
  7. conclusion.

Discussing motions

Imagine that you have been given a motion ‘CORRUPTION HELPS A COUNTRY TO DEVELOP VERY FAST’ write a composition about the motion either opposing or proposing it. Remember that for each point you suggest , must be written in a paragraph form.

 Friendly letter.


Communication      Letter          ,stamp,  envelope

Friendly       informal                   affectionately

(Study the words above)

  • To whom do we write friendly letters?

Friends parents relatives etc—–

  • What do we write about?


Parts of a friendly letter.

  1. Address Heading this shows place of residence or place of work, Box number, town or city and sometimes country.


Muyenga lake view residence,

P.O. Box 66,


  1. The date: It helps the receiver to know when the letter was written and whether it is still necessary to read it.

e.g 31 march, 2008

  1. Salutation(greetings)

Note: You must be polite and address the person according to the way you are related.

e.g  Dear Mummy,

  1. Body: It is where the actual reason for writing the letter is the content. Be organize .Each paragraph carried a different idea.
  1. Complimentary close, Ending the letter. It shows that you have come to the end.

It has to be in line (related to) to the salutation.

e.g  Since you began with

Dear mum, you have to end with your (loving)son/daughter,

  1. Write your name at the end.

Study the above parts and next time you write a letter include all of them.

Class discussion:

Find the right End statement for the following:

Dearest Linda,                               Dear Cousin Mary,

Dear Uncle,                                     Dearest Patricia

Dear Grandma,                             Dear Aunt Jane,

Oral Exercise:

Rearrange the following parts to make a good letter.  Don’t forget the paragraphs.

  1. Dear Mum,
  2. I’m very well at school and I have joined the Home Economics society. Hope by Easter, I will have learnt enough to bake a cake for the family.
  3. Your loving daughter,
  4. Sky-way Boarding Primary School,

P.O. Box 13,


  1. I hope you are fine. How is everybody at home?  Did Jolly join Namagunga or Gayaza for senior one? Please, let me know so that I can write to her.
  2. Barbra Matovu.
  3. 14 March, 2008
  4. with love from,
  5. Please, send my greeting to dad, Anita and all my friends.
  6. May God bless you.
  7. b) Write on the board a reply to this letter. Take note of the parts discussed.
  8. c) Address an envelope for the letter above.

Written Exercise

  1. Rearrange the following sentences to make a letter. Remember the paragraphs. (Use block form)

1-  The examinations were easy.

2-  Abdalla and sons,

P.O. Box 7,


  1. During their stay, Nabila did the cooking.
  2. Secondly, last week, we had guests at home.
  3. Have a nice stay in Mombasa and have fun.
  4. My dearest mum,
  5. They were from Kisumu and they stayed for two days.
  6. First, I was busy with my examinations.
  7. Please, forgive me for not replying soon.
  8. I hope I shall pass them well.
  9. 21st march, 2008.
  1. Read the letter from Barbra to her mother in the discussion exercise, then read the letter of reply the class wrote on the board.

Imagine you are the one who wrote the first letter and write a letter to your sister, Jolly, in senior one.

  1. Address an envelope for you letter.



market                      mall               super-market

shop                          kiosk             butcher’s

dairy                         book-shop   stationer’s

butchery                  stationery    stationery

vendor                     hawker         customer

trader                                   merchant     stationer

bargain                     change          balance

shopping(n)                       profit             loss

cheap                                    dear               expensive

Learn the spelling pronunciation meaning and usage + parts of speech of the above words.  Use some of them in meaningful sentences.


How much ————————- ? (uncountable)

How many ————————- (countable)

Do you have any ——————– ? Yes, I have  some ——————-.  No, I haven’t any ————–(Note: Use of some and any——- class discussion:

Talk about places you visit to buy things.

-Name items found at each place. E.g. butcher’s meat.

Stationer’s –  stationery

-Talk about the services and how people in different places welcome their customers.

e.g Market as  compared to a super  market.

Who gets the money at a market, a mall, a supermarket? etc———-

  • From which place do you want to buy goods and why?
  • Who of these traders find life very difficult and why?

Read the following dialogue

Ali:       Which market are you going to’ Musa?

Musa:  I’m going to Nakasero market?

Ali:     What! Why did you choose Nakasero?  I hear it is the most expensive market in

this area.

Musa:  I chose Nakasero because they sell high quality food, you can never find rotten

things.  There is also less noise as compared to Owino.

Ali  :  But there is a big heap of rubbish infront of the market. I buy my things from the

inside market which is cleaner.

Ali:     What about the prices?

Musa.  I’d rather buy expensive but clean food stuffs. You may think Owino is cheaper,

but when you buy dirty food, you can contract diseases and  treatment will cost

you much.

Ali: Thank you my friend.  I will buy from Nakasero right from today.

Class discussion. What have you learnt from the dialogue.

-Give some reasons why people buy from particular markets.

– What do you want about the market you buy from? What don’t you like about it?

Written exercise

Fill in the missing words from the list given.


You should ——————spend money without —————– for it.  This will help you to ———–only on what you need.

Do people budget for —————-the money they spend on ——————-. Somebody comes in the home selling bungles and you buy.  Next somebody knocks on your door selling———and you buy!  Do you know that at times you are paying for ———- ? Do you know where those people place their baskets, buckets or tins of —————-.

When they are visiting the latrines where do they wash their hands after peeing  in a nearby bush! Don’t they use the ———–hands to touch the samosas they are selling to you!.

————————-, buy food stuffs only in clean places.  If —————-avoid buying cooked, fried or roasted food. You can buy food from a ———— and prepare it in a clean environment in your own home.

never            remember              samosas

spend                        possible                 dirty

budgeting     market                    diseases

hawkers        eats

Imagine you went to Owino Market with the driver and the house helper last Christmas season to buy food stuffs for Christmas.

Write a short composition about the same.


-Introduction: what happened before the shopping e.g. drawling a shopping?  List and other preparations.

Part. I: How you traveled to the market and what you saw on the way.

Part II: In the market: Talk about the market, the people you found there and what they were doing what you bought and from whom, the type of service you were given etc.

Part III: Were you successful? Did you find the prices pocket friendly? What was the comment from the person who sent you?

Conclusion:  what did you learn?




man     woman    girl      boy      conductor    pilot      driver     nurse    plumber

vendor     maid       etc.

(Find as many nouns as possible)

  1. b) animals: bull       cow     heifer       donkey      Kangaroo
  2. c) things tables     trees,  buses etc.

Descriptive pronouns

Long      short       plump       balding          muscular        able-bodied         slender

Behaviour             talkative                        noisy

greedy                          sly            slender


Class discussion:

Describing people, animals, birds and things.

Appearance: ugly   beautiful   brunnete,  handsome pretty,   good-looking  etc—-

Figure:   tall   short      well-built    mascular,  broad-shouldered

Face:  round   oval square  freckled etc——

Shape:   plumb, slim,  fat,  thin,

Features:  moustache,  bald-headed,  round  face,  beard

Hair:  long, thinning, wavy, curly, blond (blonde)

Eyes,  blue, brown, hazel,  big small  etc——-

Animals: spotted, piebald  etc—————

Revise the order of adjectives to help you describe people e.g  Peter is a tall slim man in his mid-thirties.

  • The cunning fox couldn’t catch the fat black cock.
  • The young blue eyed girl failed to swim down the swift running river.

More Oral  exercises

Tell the class about your friend, father, mother, pet, bed, best wear, house, car.

Imagine you met a stray dog (one without a home) one early morning and it chased you.  Write a composition describing the dog and the whole process.

Follow the following points.


Part I:      One day as I was going ————————–

Part II:       Describe the dog, what it did when it saw your, your reactions, etc——–

Part III.    What you decided to do from their.

Use as many adjectives, adverbs and some other interesting phrases to make your composition interesting.


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