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As soil profile is the vertical arrangement of various soil layers or horizons. The layers can clearly be seen in a well developed or mature soil since they differ from each other in colour, humus content particle size and mineral composition.
The organic matter layer; contains relatively un decomposed organic matter in various stages of decay.
The top soil horizon; is the one immediately below the organic material and is characterized by:-
The subsoil horizon; the minerals leached from the top soil are deposited here that is why it is called the illuvial layer. It is usually reddish organs in colour due to high content of calcium and silca.
The substratum; these are course particles under going a slow weathering process. They are too compact that water can rarely pass through and there is no organic matter. Only a few of trees can go down to this layer.
The Bed stratum; this is the solid rock that has not been weathered and sometimes under ground water accumulates on top to form ponds. Sometimes the sub and bed stratum are known to form parental material or rock strata.
The exact thickness and composition of each soil horizon changes from place to place and from time to time depending on:-
Importance of soil profile on crop production
THE VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT SOIL PROFILE
Soil structure is the way individual soil particles are packed , arranged or aggregated to form lumps or clouds.
Types of soil structure
There are horizontally arranged plates like structures on top of each other. They may occur in any part of the soil profile on the surface they occur as surface.
Crust but are also common in sub soils.
When the prismatic structure is eroded, the corners are founded to form the columnar structure. It’s also common in sub soils of arid and semi arid regions.
Irregular four or six faced three dimensional aggregates common in sub soils of heavy clay soils in humid area.
Those are around aggregates which are porus common in the tap soil horizon and subjected to rapid changes.
Rounded soil aggregates that loosely and can be shaken apart very porous, common in top soils that are cultivated and rich in organic matter.
Factors that influence the types of soil structure
The influence of soil structure on crop production
Ways through which soil structure may be destroyed.
Ways through which good soil structure may be maintained.
THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT THE SOIL STRUCTURE
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