Definitions and Terminologies
Definition of Selection: Some writer divides this process into twodistinct functions. On one hand it is the process of selection to mean identification of the most suitable candidates which may entail either selection from outside the service or selection from inside the service. The process of identification involves examination and other parameters established to distinguished one applicant from the other. But in all, selection is defined as a personnel function whose applicants amongst others whose function includes examinations, eliciting the qualities of peoples purpose which is to identify the most suitable have made a bid for employment. These are interviews and other parameters used for recruitments. The definition given above maintains a distinction between recruitment and selection.
Recruitment ends with the applications of those who have made a bid (submitted applications) to work in the organization (secure employment).
Examination and their types
Examinations: Examinations is a merit system that aids in the selectionexercise. The cornerstone of the public personnel programme is the process of selection by means of competitive examinations, a process by which favouritism was to be excluded and the goal of securing the best man for every job achieved. The second one is “oth er factors being equal, examinations can spell the difference between a top-notch service and a mediocre one. No merit system worthy of the name can afford to take less than a fully professional approach to examining applicants for employment. In today’s government, with its world- shaking responsibilities and its vast range of occupations and skills, nothing less than the best examination system is advocated for.
Criteria for Effectiveness of Examinations: There are three criteriafor the effectiveness of examination as a selection tool.
The first on is objectivity. An employment examination is objective if it succeeds in identifying those characteristics of mind and skill necessary to the given purpose.
The second criterion is validity. An employment examination is valid if it measures what it purports to measure. A valid examination would rate prospective employees in exactly the same relationship to one another as they would stand after final on the job.
The third contend is reliability, which has to do with consistency with which the examination serves as a measuring instrument.
Systematic Evaluation of Education and Experience
Under this type of examination system the evaluation of education and experience is also a kind of examination which can differentiate among candidates as to their degree of fitness for a position or occupation.
Here there is the appointment of an academic personnel who is to evaluate education and experience by assigning weights to each element of education e.g. first degree 5 points.
Second class upper 2 points. Second class lower 1 point.
Done this way, whether or not the applicants appear before the employer for a further examination, a differentiation can be arrived at amongst competing candidates.
O. Glenn Stahl refers to this as “paper and pencil tests” and says they are included in examinations for which aptitudes, intelligence or concrete knowledge is prime determinants. They are most useful in cases where no experience is required. As a method, they hold greater promise of objectivity than many others.
Depending upon the use to which it is put, written test maybe divided into two – The essay and the short–end questions no rmally known as objective. The essay type, more susceptible to subjectivity than the other type is used where literary skill is being measured. The short answer type, much easier to administer once constructed and less liable to subjectivity is used in testing intelligence or specific knowledge.
Performance Tests: Performance tests is that which demands anamount of job demonstration of knowledge, especially skills that distinguishes them from other types of test is that they employ some kind of performance other than writing or speaking. The most common examples are tests for stenographer, typists, mechanics and drivers etc.
Reference Checks: According to Stahl, candidates may meet allrequirements in terms of education, experience, qualifications have an excellent written test record, and skill but unsuitable for employment by reason of character, temperament, quality of performance or similar factors which cannot be fully weighed in the formal testing programme. It is for this purpose that the reference checks are useful. The most common method is the making of questionnaires to the candidate’s former employers or acquaintances.
But if the numbers of those involved is not too large, it is advisable to do the reference checks before embarking on other evaluation process. However where the number is large and mainly for management positions, such checks are done as a final or close to the final step.
Physical Examination: Physical examination is an employment stepfound in most businesses which can vary from a very comprehensive examination and matching of an applicant’s physical capabilities to job requirements to a simple check of general physical appearance and well-being.
The first objective of this examination is to ascertain if the applicant is physically capable. The second objective is to safeguard the organization against untimely claims that may arise through deaths of unhealthy new entrants to the organization. The third objective is to prevent communicable disease from entering the organization.
This examination is usually the last step in the selection process and the results of the examination forms the first items to be submitted by the successful candidate as he is being “documented” pr ior to induction into the organization.
Ibrahim Omale defines recruitment as “that process which starts from getting an applicant interested enough in a job and in a particular organization to write and application, and the process stops when his application has been received in the organization. Thus recruitment is the salesmanship which organizations do for themselves and the various jobs they have for filling”. Recruitment can furth er be defined as the effort to attract sufficient and suitable potential employees to apply for vacancies in the organization.
The Field of Recruitment: There are various areas that is open to thepublic as recruiting agencies.
Availability of potential employees in the school system thus depends on their areas of emphasis e.g. College or University of Education to recruit Teachers and Lecturers.
The Schools: These are the largest markets from which thepublic as well as private agencies choose their work force. Here we have the Universities and the Polytechnics.
Citizenship: Ordinarily potential employees in the public sector service of a country are limited to its citizens. The area open to public agencies for recruitment is the generality of its citizenship although limitation relating to place of origin and age does limit the size of potential employees.
Place of Origin: It is usual, in order to prevent “monopoly” ofjobs by only a particular sector of society to require that jobs be spread. In the Nigerian case it is referred to as “Quota System”. To do this requires representation by all areas concerned and therefore, even if the best potential employee comes from a given place, if it is not the turn of the place, or if the place has exhausted its share, this places a limitation on it.
Age Limits: Although the entire citizenry of Nigeria providesthe market for potential employees, not every Nigerian is employable on the basis of age limits. Currently no one below the age of 16 maybe employed in government. Also no one above 50years maybe given a tenure job in the Civil Service. Tenure job is a concept where a particular job especially in the public service barring all other circumstances is attached a time limit.
The traditional methods of recruitment are advertisement in Newspapers, Magazines, Pasting of Notices on Bulletin Boards of Public Buildings and other Centres of congregation and Circulating Information to individuals, organizations, and institutions that might be expected to be in touch with suitable applicants.
This represents the organizations Code of Conduct in this area of activity. A typical policy statement for recruitment in an organization maybe as follows:
– Advertise all vacancies.
– Reply to every job applicant without the minimum of delay.
– Aim to inform potential recruits in good faith about the basic details and job conditions of every job advertised.
– Aim to process all applications with efficiency and courtesy.
– Seek candidates on the basis of their qualification for the vacancy concerned.
– Aim to ensure that every person invited for interview will be given a fair and thorough hearing.
The Organization should not:
– Discriminate unfairly against sex, race, religion or physical disability.
– Discriminate unfairly against applicants with a criminal record.
– Knowingly make any false or exaggerated claims in its recruitment literature or job advertisements.
When once the candidate reports for duty, the organization has to place him initially in that job, for which he is selected. Immediately the candidate will be trained in various related jobs during the period of probation of training. The organization generally decides the final placement after the initial training is over on the basis of candidate’s aptitude and performance during the training probation period.
Probation period generally ranges between six months and two years. If the performance is not satisfactory the organization may extend the probation or ask the candidate to quit the job. If the employees’ performance during the probation period is satisfactory, his services will be regularized and he will be placed permanently on the job.
Placement is the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned and his assignment to that job. It is matching of what the supervisor has reason to think that can done with the job demands (job requirements). It is matching of what he imposes (in train, working conditions) and what he offers in the form of payroll, companionship with others promotional possibilities etc. It is not easy to match all the factors to the new employee who is still unknown to many. So the new employee is placed as a probationer until the trial period is over.
Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he/she first joins a company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work.
Introducing the new employee who is designated as a probationer to the job, job location, surroundings, organization, various employees is the final step of employment process. Some of the companies do not lay emphasis on this function as they view that this function will be automatically performed by the colleagues of the new employees. This is more so in educational institutions. This process gains more significance as the rate of turnover is higher among new employees compared to that among senior employees.
This is mainly because of the problem of adjustment and to adapt ability to the new surroundings and environment. Further, absence of information, lack of knowledge about the new environment, cultural gap, behavioural variations, different levels of technology, variations in the requirements of the job and the organization also disturb the new employee. Further induction is essential as the new comer may feel insecure, shy, nervous and disturbing. This situation leads to instability and turnover. Hence induction plays pivotal role in acquainting the new employee to the new environment, company rules and regulations.
Generally, the new comer may expect opportunities for advancement, social status and prestige, responsibility, opportunities to use special aptitudes and educational background, challenges and adventure opportunity to be creative and original and a lucrative salary. But jobs with low initial challenge inadequate feedback, inadequate performance appraisal results in reality shock. Induction is necessary to reduce reality shock.
Lecture, handbook, film, group seminars are used to impart the information to new employees about the environment of the job and the organization in order to make the new employee acquaint himself with the new surroundings.
Source National Open University of Nigeria