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NASH6: THE ALGERIA REVOLUTION OF 1954-1962

This unit is about the Algerian Revolution of 1954-19962 after 8years of the intense power struggle by Ahmed Ben Bella and his friends like Belkachem Krim an ex- service man.

THE ALGERIAN REVOLUTION (Decolonization of Algeria 1954- 1962)

Algeria was ruled by France from 1830 but got independence in July 1962 After 8 years of intense armed struggle, the struggle as initiated by the front for national liberation.

   Algerian War of Independence

The FLN was formed in 1954 by Ahmed Ben Bella and his friends like Belkachem Krim an ex- service man. The struggle took the form of Guerilla war fare involving the use of Ambushes for radio attacks, attacks on French administration posts, railway lines, bridges and it involved a number of people

CAUSES FOR THE WAR OF LIBERATION

The desire by the Algerians to gain complete independence and freedom from foreign rule. The Algerians had been ruled by the Romans, Moors, Turks, Arabs and the French from 1830 so a sovereign state ruled by Algerians.

The influence of world war 2 . During World War 2, many Algerians fought in various battles along side the French in Europe, in Algeria and Eastern Asia. The war veterans like Ben Bella and Belkachem Krim were exposed to democratic ideas, liberalism. They leant new tactics of warfare, leant bow to use modern weapons and this initiated them to begin the war of liberation in order to establish democratic rule.

French intensions to retain Algerian a white man’s country. In 1955, Acues Soustelle the French governor in Algeria the need for armed struggle to get rid of French rule.

Forced labour and land alienation. The Algerian locals suffered from, forced labour which was enforced by the SAS (Section Administrative specializes) using cruel means and yet most of the people had lost their land to the white settlers and had no alternative means of economic production. As a result of this oppression, the Algerians decided to take up arms to decolonize their country.

The religious differences between the French and Algerians.

Algerians who were basically Moslems greatly resented the rule by the French whom they regarded as infidels so they decided to fight a war of liberation as a form of Jihads.

The French Racism and discrimination. The French despised the local Algerians and they preferred the European settlers. The settlers were given Automatic citizenship at Birth, qualified to get top government posts, were given arms for their protection and this annoyed the Berbers, Arabs and the Kabyilia who were not allowed to vote They were confined to blow paying jobs, poor housing and sanitation condition and only qualified as citizens if they were assimiladas, for seek Algerian culture and were good Catholics.

Erosion of Algerian culture by the French. When the French began to rule Algerian in 1830, they introduced- Christianity and the French missionaries taught against were turned into churches and cathedrals and as a result the Algerians wanted a decolonization of their country so that they would revive Algerian Catholics.

The defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1945, the French were defeated and this forced them to withdraw from indo- China this Indicated to the Local Algerians that the French could be defeated through military means. This gave courage to the Algerians to start the liberation war bearing in mind that the leaders of the Revolutionary movement like Belkachem Krim and Belkachem Krim had fought in World war 2.

The rise of modern nationalists, Modern nationalities like Ben Bella, Ferhart Abbas who were radicals wanted the independence of their country. They sensitized the local people about the need for independence, formed political parties, appealed for unity, they collected funds both internally and externally with the main intention of dislodging the French just like the predecessor nationalist Abdel Kader had dome.

The cruelty of the French. On 8 may 1945, during the day celebrations, some Algerians Decided to demonstrate for better conditions and against French colonization, The French police short many of the demonstrators and the demonstrators killed about 100 French officials. The French in reaction used jet fighters to bomb the towns of Sitif, Constantine and Kabylia in which 20,000 Algerians Were in About a Week. Such cruelty convinced the Algerians to begin a armed struggle and expel the French so that they would have independence and be free from French cruelty.

The failure to get independence through constitutional means. The French in order to maintain Algeria banned political parties, Trade Union activities and rigged elections so that only the colons, and the collaborator locals qualified for elections to the French National Assembly in 1946. This convinced even the gradualist like Ferhart Abbas 2 join with the others into armed struggle against the French.

The Influence of the Egyptian revolution. The Egyptians being Arabs and having almost a similar culture were looked at as after 1952 initiated the Algerian struggle and Nasser as the Egyptians ruler provided ,oral support to the nationalists, he allowed them to uses Radio Cairo and to establish . A government in exile there and after the Suez canal crisis, he allowed them to have the arms seized from the French and the British.

The independence of Morocco and Tunisia in 1956. Between 1945 and 1946, the French gave independence to many of their former colonies including indo China, Syria and Labanon, In 1956 they decolonized Morocco and Tunisia. This initiated the Algerians to demand for their independence as well.

The works of liberal writers like Franz Fanon “Wretch of the Erath “Fannon was psychiatrist or a Martincan from the Island of Martinique and in his book the Wretch of the “Earth” he criticized French oppression, exploitation and discriminator This echeed the earlier writings of Victor Hugo who wrote about fundamental human rights which were not being in Algeria . This influenced the young intellectuals at Algiers University who became the propagators of the liberation struggle.

The rise of pan Arabism in North Africa. This was a movement intended to bring closer Arabism in North Africa so that they would increase their cooperation with the Arab states in the Middle East. In 1923, Messali Hadji formed the North Africa star which later became the Algerian people party. It comprised of radical socialist Algerians who were full of Pan. Arlabist ideas .Since there would not be closer cooperator between the Arab states with the French still in Algeria. The Algerian nats desired to get rid of the French who were a stumbling block.

The Atlantic charter of 1941 which provided that all Colonial people’s had a right to regain their independence and that all countries had a right to choose the kind of Government that they should be ruled under. The charter sparred the desire of Algerians to be independent from French colonial rule.

Western education helped to expose the Algerian students ideas a of Liberalism. Liberty and fraternity and liberation struggle western education also gave rise to the Evolues who were against [policy of Assimilation who were discriminated against in the army and the civil service and all this increased the burning desire of industries from French colonial rule.

THE PROGRESS OF THE LIBERATION STRUGGLE

In 1947 , Mossali Hadji and other young radicals belonging to the Algerian people’s party formed the “ Organization” secretre” (O.S) as an under ground movement began collecting funds for insurrection/ rebellion against French colonial rule./ His friends included Ben Bella and Belkachem Krim but some of them were arrested in 1950.

In 1952 in March, Ben Bella escaped from Blida jail and travelled to Cairo where he joined other expelled Algerians in March 1952.

In, March 1954, the survivors of the O.S formed committee Revolutionaries pour (Unite la Action (C.R.U.A) as the fore runner for the FLN (Front liberation Nationale) the intension was to start preparations for the war of Independence in Algeria. The FLN was composed of nats from all over Algeria and so it was, a mass or national liberation movement.

In November 1954, the FLN fighters struck in 70 different places in the country but more especially in the Aures markets in the East.

The Algerian fighters made attacks on French Police stations, on the army camps, on French administrative posts, the Railway lines and the Bridges. From The Aure Markets, the spread to the Kabylia 1955.

In July and August 1956, all the nats leaders met in soumman valley and formed   the military using of the FLN which was called the ALN (Armee liberation Nationale ) to consolidate the areas taken by the Rebels.

Colonel Boumedienne Houari was made the of the ALN in 1960.

The nats opened external delegations in Cairo and Tunis to mobilize for external support and they received support from Egypt, Russia and China. The FLN also mobilized support from the general union of workers in Algeria. The FLN formed the provisional government of the republic of Algeria in 1958.This government started negotiating with De Gaulle, the French president for the Decolonization of their country.

The negotiations went on four years and in March 1962 a Cease fire agreement was signed between the French government and the FLN leadership at Evian in Switzerland with Belkachem Krim as the leader of the provisional government and the French officials.

In April 1962, the French organized for a referendum in which they (Algerians ) were to decided whether to be independent or remain under France. 90% voted for Independence under the FLN.

In July, another referendum was held in which 99.7% voted for self rule by Algeria in September 1962, independence elections were held and were won by the FLN so Algerians were given independence under Ahmed Ben Bella as president and Houri Boumedienne as the commander in chief of the army and minister of defense.

FACTORS WHICH FACILITATED THE SUCCESS OF THE LIBERATION

A celebration to mark the independence of Algeria in the summer of 1962.

The role of political movements especially. FLN which provided competent leadership which coliated for external support inform of finance, ammunitions and training.

The FLN presented the Algerian international forums its leaders made diplomatic contact with important politicians in Europe and all these increased sympathy in the Algerian case , which caused France to give Algerian independence in 1962.

The FLN opted for military action rather than constitutional means in the struggle for independence after they realized that peaceful methods weren’t effective so between July 1956 and August 1954, the leaders of the FLN met in the summan valley and arranged for the formation of the Armee Nationale de liberation (ANL) as the military wing of the FLN. It was the military activities of the FLN especially its guerilla attacks on French positions which undermined French confidence and compelled the French Government to grant independence to Algeria.

The FLN leadership in 1954 made contact with Abdel Nasser of Egypt and in 1956, he gave them arms, funds, food, and other Suppliers which aided the liberation struggle.

The FLN leadership established external delegation wings in Cairo and then Tunis which enabled the revolutionaries. To stay in torch with their supports in Eastern Europe, Arab states, communist socialist countries from whom they mobilized a lot of support which aided the liberation struggle.

The external bases also helped to act as safe havens from which the Algerian revolutionaries would plan for successful Guerilla attacks against the French in Algeria.

The FLN organized for the training of guerilla fighters in Algeria, Egypt and China, this increased the military competence of the fighters and the constant attacks on the French position their hold on Algerian in 1962.

The FLN chose the uses of mountains as a bases from which to launch Guerilla attacks, the first base was in the Aures markets in the East of Algeria , a western base in the Kabylia mountains. The mountains made it difficult fir the French this use armed struggle to fight the Guerillas leading to the success of the liberation struggle.

The FLN leaders in 1955 attended the Bandung conference in Indonesia from where they got into contact with Asian and Arab nationalists and leaders into contact with Asian and in their liberation struggle like Mac Tsetung of China who later helped them with funds arms and trainers.

The FLN leadership worked in cooperation with the General Union of workers in the struggle against the French rule.

The union urged the workers in Algerian to spread anti-French propaganda and this made task of mobilization easy for the FLN.

The FLN leadership in 1958 formed the provisional government for the Republic of Algerian where base was in Cairo, to pressurize the French government to give independence. I t was this government in exile which was recognized by the Afro- Asian states as the legitimate organization of the liberation struggle which led to Algerian independence.

The FLN started negotiations with De Guelles government which resulted into the Evian talks and agreements of March 1962, which marked an important step for the struggle for independence.

The FLN established and supervised librated zones in which it introduced socialist reforms. It established schools, clinics, recreational centers, local council, redistributed land to peasants and l those reforms enhanced mass support for the struggle.

The FLN helped to run the provisional government between March and April 1962 which prepared the country for the independence. It was this provisional government that organized the people for the referendum of April. 1962 and July 1962 which led to the independence lections in September 1962 which actualized the independence of Algeria.

Other factors

The geographical set up of Algeria which favored the guerilla welfare. Being a desert, Algeria is characterized by extremely high temperatures, dust, drought and strong winds. It also has sand dunes and is widely open. This environment was hostile to the French who often fell into rebel ambushes due to ignorance of the land scape. The freedom fighters were familiar with the environment and could hide in the mountainous areas and sand dunes. The knowledge and mastery over the environment gave the freedom fighters advantages over the French thus making the success of the revolution inevitable.

The coming to power of General Charles de Gaullein 1958 as leader of France Un like his predecessor , de Gaulle was committed to ending the Algerian war. Using his liberal and anti – colonial stance, he declared a ceasefire with the FLN and started peaceful negotiations and the stand off. He organized a referendum for the people of Algerian to choose between. Total independence and continued association with France 99.7% of Algerians voted for complete independence, which the Gualle granted in September 1962. De Gaulle started rapid expansion of education and increased the number of Africans working in the public service. Therefore, on coming to power, De Gaulle worked hard to grant independence to Algeria in order to end the senseless and financially unviable war.

The established of librated zones in areas under FLN control. The FLN started reforms and normalized life in all areas it captured. Social services such education; health care and recreation were started in liberal zones. Land grabbing, forced labour and high taxes were abolished. Additionally, revolutionary committees were set up in liberated zones to mobilize the masses against the French .This did not only make the revolution. Popular areas controlled by the French into liberated Zones. Support for the revolution increased as the masses hoped for better life if the revolution succeeded.

Furthermore, women played a significant role in the success of the revolution, Women enrolled as fighters, some acted as spices who got information about the French and passed it on to the freedom fighter. Women also used veils to hide guns, genocides, bombs and other ammunition meant for the FLN. The rural women grew the food which the freedom fighters. At some point, the French became suspicious of women and Begun to unveil them in public. This angered the people of Algeria and increased their determination to regain independence.

The good military strategy and tactics of the freedom fighter. The FLN launched a Guerilla style struggle for independence against the French in November 1954. Using hit and run methods, the Algerians launched on three fronts targeting French police arty army garrisons and other administrative and economic establishments. After successful attacks; the rebels withdrew and hid the Mountains Leaving the French army with no enemy to fight. The surprise attacks caused many deaths and causalities and left the French confused over what to do, the French who were accustomed to conventional welfare were disadvantaged by the guerilla welfare making their defeat the reality.

The French brutality and violence against all Algerians. Served to increase support for the revolution. Following the declared of the war of independence, the French visited violence and brutality upon all the people of Algerian including innocent women and children.

The French indiscriminately bombarded and destroyed entire villages, peasants were forcefully removed from their land and heard into concentration camps in order tap cut off land and herded into concentration camps in order to cut off rebel support. Several innocent Algerian were arrested , tortured, imprisoned , Murdered for the simple reason of demanding freedom and independence .It also made the French unpopular.

The strong and charismatic leadership of Algerian nationalists. In the 1950’s the Algerians struggle was in the hands of competent, charismatic , energy and strong leaders such as Ben Bella , ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadji .The above leaders were highly respected and followed in Algeria. They mobilized masses o support the rebellion travelled widely in search the nation above self. They established the FLN and its military wind the declared war against the French in 1954. The leading nationalists provided leadership which was quite instrumental in the success of the Revolution.

The success of the Egyptian revolution. After the Suez canal crisis of 1956, Nasser increased his support to the liberation struggles in Africa. He handed over to FLN large amounts of arms and ammunition captured from the British and French. He offered Radio Cairo to the FLN to mobilize and polities the masses. Egypt morally and financially sustained the Algerian struggle for independence Above all, the success of the Egyptian revolution inspired Algerians to think that with determination they would also succeed. The FLN was founded and had bases in Egypt from where it fought against the French.

The establishment of guerilla training and hiding bases within Algerian, where it establishment permanent bases. The bases were used for recruitment, training and urban arods. Gradually, the freedom fighters captured urban areas. Gradually, captured the capital city, Algiers, The establishment of internal bases was a strategic advantage to the FLN and reduced a hitting range against the French.

The Mal administration of Algeria by the French made of French unpopular and instead increased support to the war of independence through their entire stay in Algeria; the French introduced forced labour, grabbed land, over taxed the Algerian and introduced Christianity to replace Islam. The French colonial administrators and settlers were arrogant and openly insulted the Algerians. By the time of the outbreak of the revolution, the Algerians were fed up with over a century of suffering and wanted French overthrow. They therefore throw all their support behind the struggle for independence.

The effective anti- French propaganda propagated by the FLN through Radio Cairo. The FLN began on anti- French campaign which blamed the French for all the sufferings of Algeria. The nationalists too called upon the masses to unite for the common cause of independence. The Radio became the only effective mechanism of mobilizing the Algerian masses.

Radio Cairo and the Voice of free Algerian exposed the misdeeds of the French and inspired masses to Rebel against the French colonial establishments.   The Radio therefore, played a key role in the success of the Revolution.

Massive support for the Revolution by the Algerians .Almost all the Algerians supported the struggle. They equally affected by the French colonial rule and they agreed to out a side their differences in order to support the revolution. They joined the war as fighters some provided financial and material needs while others spied on the French and provided information to the FLN.

Support from the communist world played a crucial role in the success of the revolution. The former USSR, China and Cuba extended military aid to the FLN. Ben Bella confessed socialism and solicitated massive aid from the communist Block. Such aid was put to effective use infighting the French.

Independence of countries neighboring Algeria. The French granted independence to Morocco and Tunisia in 1956, Egypt and granted independence to Morocco in 1956, Mali and Mauritania in1960.

The Independence enjoyed by the neighboring countries / nations inspired the people of Algeria to work tooth and nail to achieve their own independence .Independent countries too provided support to the Algerian struggle for Independence . All this culminated into the success of the Algerian struggle for independence.

The UNO also played a role in the success of the Algerian struggle for independence. French atrocities in Algeria drew attention of the rights and indiscriminate bombing of Algeria as soon as possible. With such support from the UNO, the Algerians were encouraged to fight harder leading to the success of the revolution.

The French concessions to Algerian. The out break of the struggle for independence forced France to grant some reforms with hope of stopping the rebellion. Algerian representation in parliament was increased, many Algerians were employed in the public service and educations and health services were improved. However, such reforms encouraged Africans to intensify the war of independence to achieve complete independence, In other wards the people of Algeria fought for complete independence and not reform in the colonial system.

Leading pan – Africanists such as Nkuramah and Nasser played a key role in the success of the revolution. They condemned colonial rule, influenced world opinion against France and encourage the Algerians to fight on. The Pan – Africanists convinced the UNO to condemn French brutality in Algeria and worked towards the isolation of France until she granted Algeria independence. This pressure bore results when Algerians became independent in September 1962.

EFFECTS OF THE ALGERIAN REVOLUTION.

After fighting the libration struggle for 8yrs, the Algerians prevailed against the French and this compelled the French government to give Algeria independence. A new political situation was ushered in which resulted into fundamental changes.

Algerians got the status of an independent sovereign state. From September. 1962, the politics of Algerians was placed into the hands of the FLN. With Ben Bella as resident.

Establishment of a democratic government where the president ruled with a constitution under Ben Bella (1962- 1965) and Bouncedinne in 1965.

Land reforms were carried out where land formerly belonging to the foreigners was distributed to Algerians so the Algerians were no longer squatters. Absentee land lords were compelled to give part of their land to the tenants. These land reforms fastered increase in agricultural reforms.

Establishment of socialist villages to encourage production and faster unity. The people were grouped in very large villages by 1979, very many (190) Lorgo socialist villages had been established.

Cooperatives were set up to provide quality seeds, credit and fertilizers to the farmer and help in marketing produce. This enabled the government to provide social a menities like schools, water or services at reduced costs.

There was improvement in the working conditions, forced labour was abolished, wages were increased, rural development was under taken and this helped remove the problem of rural – urban migration as a result of the liberation struggle, employment was expanded and employment opportunities were open to all on basis of most competent rather than discrimination. This helped to reduce on the unemployment level in the country.

The relationship between France and Algerian became harmonious. It opened up anew phase of co-operation between the to states. Algerians remained France – phone country and continued receiving assistance from France. All sorts of colour discrimination were ended.

Algeria held democratic elections and for the 1st time in history, the voting was basen on the UN principle of Adult universal suffrage and on the basis of one man, one vote. This pleased the people because they could participate in elections.

The liberation war led to entrenchment of Islamic fundamentalism where the Muslim fanatics wanted forced conversion of every one in Algeria, strict observance of the sharia law, closer co-operation with the Arabs states both in North Africa and Middle East. Fundamentalists vowed to fight against neo- colonialism. This picture of Islamic fundamentalism has remained a strong feature in the policies of the MAGREB states especially Algeria.

The war of libration led to the formation of the MAGREB Union, a geographical economic and political economic and political union of the Arab states union, was intended to ensure the preservation of Independence of the MAGREB states.

French racism and segregation in Algeria came to an end because most of the colonies and settlers fled the country. They Algeria got top jobs in the civil services, they dominated the government posts and were no longer segregated against by the French.

The war of liberation resulted into the nationalization of the former property of the French, Logo plantations, factories buildings, and other businesses were seized from the French and , controlled by the government and redistributed to the Algerians.

The status of women in Algeria was improved. The women were allowed to vote and be voted for. They were allowed to work in schools and industries. They were given education opportunities institutions of higher learning , they were appointed in the civil services and on the cabinet, they were allowed to wear veils if they wanted and this generally improved on their lives.

There was revival of Algerian culture; Ben Bella’s government ended the hated assimilation policy. Arab replaced French as the national language and the medium of instruction. Berbers and Kabyla were also taught in schools and local languages.

It led to the creation of law and order. The new government created a new coherent, disciplined army and police force which were used to keep law and order in urban centers to defend the Berbes, fight the rebels and defend the national of Algeria.

Algeria adopted a socialist ideology where the central government tried to ensure economic and social equitability for all Algerians. The policy was started by Ben Bella and continued by Boumedience.

The war resulted into unity of all Algerians. During the struggle for independence, all the Algerians had been persuaded to work together to dislodge the French whether, they were educated or not, Arab speakers, Berbers or Kabyloa and the unity created during the struggle continued after independence.

The Liberation war led to increased ties between Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Ghana which contributed to the Expansion of African nationalism.

The Algerian struggle led to the re entry of Charles de Gaulle into power and the politics of France. The various governments of Pfmlin, Mollet and Gailland Failed to adequately deal with the problems of Algerians, the French army and colons.

As a result, the French population supported De Gaulle in the elections of 1958, in the hope that if he became the prime minister and later the president of the 5th French republic.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS

It led to loss of lives and destruction of property. Right from 8th may, 1945, riots up to 1962, the French reaction to Algerian nationalists was horrifying brutal, Nearly 1 million Algerians died in the struggle while many were wounded, About 8,000 villages were ram sacked (burnt) using palm bombs and heavy gun fire. A number of Europeans were also killed.

It created refugee problems, A number of Algerian nats fled to Libya to seek for Asylum. About 2m Algerians especially women and children became internally displaced. They were herded into re-groupment camps so as to separate them from of gueriles they suffered over crowding, hunger and diseases in these concentration camps. At the end of the war, about 1m colons went back to France.

It paved way for dictatorship in Algeria. Ben Bella become increasingly by limiting the people’s freedom of association of press and assembly. This was a return to the pre-voluntary days. Even his success or Boumedienne became, a dictator. A sad case of dictator ship was the nullification of the1992 election results.

The rise of the army factor in Algerian’s politics, owing to the great role they had played during the independence war, soldiers continued influencing post politics in Africa e.g in in1965, the army under colonel Boumedienne ousted an almost bloodless coup and power with fixed in the hands of the soldiers.

It failed to end neo- colonialism in Africa owing to financed economic and technical aid from their former colonial master. Soon, Africa became a member of the French community and European Economic Community (EEC) .This undermined the independence of Africa to the extent that in 1992, the French manipulated the domestic elections.

It led to economic revolution and stagnation. During the course of the war, the terrorists’ secret Army organization (OAS) of the French settlers destroyed schools, hospitals telephones, offices factories, vehicles, important, file, etc. The African urban guellira groups also grappled shops and restaurants , failed to manage them hence economic decline commenting on this Ben Bella said” When it entered the prefecture in Oran , I personally found just 7 employees instead of the 50c who had previously worked there”

It paved way for Islamic fundamentalism in Africa. This has led to increased levels of terrorism against Christians .It has tarnished the image of Africa a broad, led to the deterioration of the tourist industry and has reflected the bankruptcy of the principles of revolutionaries.

This is because they have replaced French Racism with Arab Racism against Christians.

Power struggle cropped up between the guerilla leaders who commanded the six military districts (wilayes) during the liberation war. Each of these leaders had supported and wanted recognition. Many ex- soldiers still passed guns and perpetrated urban terrorism and robbery.

It destabilized traditional family life in Africa. A big number of men died in the wars leaving about half a million widows in 1962 and between 250,000-300,000 orphans. Women were forced to move without veils during the war and some took to begging prostitution and theft during and after the war.

There was real break down of social order and elders lost their lives.

It soured the relationship between Morocco and Algeria. This was due to the support Algeria gave to the POLOSARIO.

It divided pan Africanists whereby the radical Casablanca group supported the FLN’s military activities while the Man-rovia group called for negotiations between the FLN and the French this division was only bridged in may 163 at Addis Ababa with the formation of the OAU (Organization of African unity.)

OBSTACLES /FACTORS WHICH DELAYED THE ALGERIAN LIBERATION STRUGGLE.

The struggle for independence took and long years because of the following;

The French policy of assimilation created a class privilege Africans , the assimilados who were given freedom from arbitrary arrests they could vote , were assured of employment , both in Algeria and France were vote , were assured of employment, both in Algeria and France were educated and generally regarded themselves as French men and were opposed to the liberation war. They collaborated with the French by providing the FLN, ALN and the nationalists. This made it difficult for the liberation fighters and nationalists to achieve quick success.

The police of divide and rule, when the French come to Algeria in 1939, their administration tended to favour the Arabs against the Berbers, Bediuns and Kabylia during the liberation struggle, the Arabs spied on the Berbas and the nationalists’ activities which delayed the liberation struggle.

The disunity among the local people. The Arabs despised the Berbas and the KABYLIA so the 3major groups wouldn’t have collective effort to carryout concerted action against the French from the very beginning of the struggle.

French military superiority. The French technologically advanced they manufactured their own arms and ammunition, they could manufacture fighter plans. Bombs compared to the FLN and ALN who depended on the good will of the outside to help them military .As a result, the liberation fighters were defeated in many of the battles by the French colonial troops and defeated in many of the battles by the French colonial troops and this delayed the success of the struggle.

The attitude of the youth and some educated Algerians. Some educated Algerians some of them were opposed to the liberation struggle against the French because they regarded it as a sign of backwardness and struggle against civilization so they didn’t support the liberation struggle until after 1958.

The lack of common approach to the struggled for independence, some of he nationalists like Ferhart Abbas wanted constitutional and peaceful means in the struggle for independence. They were opposed to the use of force and armed confraction which was advocated by Ben Bella and Boumedience. This caused disunity until the events of 1958made Abbas and Messali Hadji realize that war was the only means in the struggle for independence.

The existence of large numbers of European settlers, by 1959. There were more than 10,000 settlers in Algeria. They owned a lot of land, many business which they didn’t want to let go of incase Algeria became independent so they farmed a local militia which reinforced the French army and the local people and this force was too strong for the FLN fighters to achieve success in a short period of time.

The internal power struggles between fighting groups. Before to 1960s, when Boumedianne took central command of the FLN, the fighters fought on tribal basis under guerilla commandos, known as the Wilayes. Ecah Wilaya had his own strategies and areas of operation and this undermined the joint effects of coordination which was needed in fighting the French and achieving success in a short period.

The harsh French reaction to opposition. The French administration in Algerian took harsh measures against the Algerians any opposition to their rule and to any demand for land. The French bombed villages, they killed demonstrators in large numbers, they imprisoned nationalists, unveiled the women and all these activities under mined the morale of the liberation fighters and the nationalists and discouraged local support for the guerilla fighters and liberation struggles.

The delay of foreign support although the FLN was formed in 1954, it French atrocities compelled the nationalists t establish an external base in Switzerland. The delay in military financials and moral support made the FLN unable to prevail over, the French in Algeria affectively until after 1958.

The parties’ reforms carried out by the French in Algeria, in 1955, the French in face of Increased FLN activities and the demands for reforms starting making some reforms in the hope that these would satisfy the Algerians. The French administration allowed some political parties to operate, they increased the number of Algeria representatives on the French National Assembly, and they relaxed some of the laws regarding forced labour and Freedom of movement. These reforms ruled the Algerians into thinking that they would get independence through the same means so the sprit of fighting for independence was relaxed until 1958.

The poverty of the local people, the local people i.e Arabs Kabylia, Berbers were poor. They did not have the funds to sponsor the large scale FLN mobilization activities. They did not own radios or news papers in which they spread Anti- French propaganda as a result, even by 1958, the majority of the Algerian population did not understand the need for the armed liberation struggle against the French. This mean’s that only the urban population and the elites and their numbers were too small to be efficient.

The creation of concentration (Protected) camps by the French. As the guerilla war intensified, the French headed the local people into protected villages to cut off contact and support of the local people to the guerilla fighters and delayed their success.

The European solidarity. The European countries together with America who dominated the UN were reluctant to condemn French colonialism in Algeria . They were reluctant to help Algerians because as fellow whites, they held prejudice that the Berbers and Kabyalias in Algeria were backward. And un able to govern themselves. Some of them like Britain also had colonies and supported French stay in Algeria. This solidarity was broken in 1958 when the French air force bombed Tunisian villages killing large number of people on the pretext that the villages harboured FLN fighters. This action roused international condemnation towards the French and from then, the UN started dealing harshly with the French compelling them to leave Algerian.

ASSIGNMENT : MARKS :   DURATION : EXPIRED