HEA1: THE BANTU MIGRATION

This unit about the migration of Bantu and other Different origins of people to East Africa.

THE BANTU MIGRATION

Bantu are a race of people believed to have an origin and moved to settle in East Africa. They have a common prefix “Ntu”

WHY THE BANTU MIGRATED TO EAST AFRICA

They were looking for water and pasture for their animals.

Diseases such as Nagana for animals

Population increase in their area

Search for fertile soils for farming.

Conflicts and misunderstandings (civil wars)

Good climate for farming

External conflicts from their enemies

Famine and drought

Love for adventure

Need to spread their culture

Wanted to find new place for iron working

It was fashionable to move ( the order of the day)

FACTORS THAT DETERMINED THEIR SETTLEMENT IN EAST AFRICA

Lakes and Rivers for fishing, with fertile soils for farming and water

Good climate

Savannah grasslands used for animal pasture

There were no conflicts in East Africa

There was enough land for settlement

East Africa had iron deposits for their iron working.

COURSE OF THE BANTU MIGRATION

The Bantu entered E. Africa from the West. It was gradual and it took them a long time.

The first group to arrive was the Interlacustrine / Western Bantu. They entered E. Africa in about 1000AD between Lake Albert and George. They settled in the Western part of Lake Victoria. They established themselves into rules or leaders and formed Kingdoms.

They were then followed by the Western Tanzanian Bantu. They entered through the Western Tanzania from Shamba (Katonga Province) in around 1800AD and settled in Western Tanzania and Central. They include Nyamezi, Hehe etc. They were cultivators, the Nyamezi took on trade and became very good traders.

The coastal or island Bantu

They included Mweru, Kamba,Taita, Chagga. They are believed to have left the homeland in first century and they settled in the Eastern coastal areas between Lamu and River Juba. They dispersed and others went to a place called Shungawaya 1300-1600AD. They dispersed again into the interior of E. Africa. Others moved on to the Kenya Islands.

Central Tanzanian Bantu

They entered through the South West and settled in Central Tanzania. They lived and intermarriage with the people who the found there.

A MAP SHOWING THE BANTU MIGRATION

Image result for course of the bantu migration

EFFECTS OF BANTU MIGRATION

They introduced new methods of farming like Kiteme (slash and burn), irrigation and mulching

They introduced iron smelting /working

They introduced new cultures

They increased the population to the areas where they settled

They introduced civilization

They introduced new games like hunting

They introduced new languages for easy communication like Luganda, Lusoga, Runyankole etc.

They had intermarriages leading to new tribes

They introduced the centralized system of government

They introduced barter trade

They introduced new methods of fighting and new fighting weapons like the short stabbing spear instead of a long throwing spear, cow hide, shields etc.

 

 

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