Bantu are a race of people believed to have an origin and moved to settle in East Africa. They have a common prefix “Ntu”
WHY THE BANTU MIGRATED TO EAST AFRICA
They were looking for water and pasture for their animals.
Diseases such as Nagana for animals
Population increase in their area
Search for fertile soils for farming.
Conflicts and misunderstandings (civil wars)
Good climate for farming
External conflicts from their enemies
Famine and drought
Love for adventure
Need to spread their culture
Wanted to find new place for iron working
It was fashionable to move ( the order of the day)
FACTORS THAT DETERMINED THEIR SETTLEMENT IN EAST AFRICA
Lakes and Rivers for fishing, with fertile soils for farming and water
Savannah grasslands used for animal pasture
There were no conflicts in East Africa
There was enough land for settlement
East Africa had iron deposits for their iron working.
COURSE OF THE BANTU MIGRATION
The Bantu entered E. Africa from the West. It was gradual and it took them a long time.
The first group to arrive was the Interlacustrine / Western Bantu. They entered E. Africa in about 1000AD between Lake Albert and George. They settled in the Western part of Lake Victoria. They established themselves into rules or leaders and formed Kingdoms.
They were then followed by the Western Tanzanian Bantu. They entered through the Western Tanzania from Shamba (Katonga Province) in around 1800AD and settled in Western Tanzania and Central. They include Nyamezi, Hehe etc. They were cultivators, the Nyamezi took on trade and became very good traders.
The coastal or island Bantu
They included Mweru, Kamba,Taita, Chagga. They are believed to have left the homeland in first century and they settled in the Eastern coastal areas between Lamu and River Juba. They dispersed and others went to a place called Shungawaya 1300-1600AD. They dispersed again into the interior of E. Africa. Others moved on to the Kenya Islands.
Central Tanzanian Bantu
They entered through the South West and settled in Central Tanzania. They lived and intermarriage with the people who the found there.
A MAP SHOWING THE BANTU MIGRATION
EFFECTS OF BANTU MIGRATION
They introduced new methods of farming like Kiteme (slash and burn), irrigation and mulching
They introduced iron smelting /working
They introduced new cultures
They increased the population to the areas where they settled
They introduced civilization
They introduced new games like hunting
They introduced new languages for easy communication like Luganda, Lusoga, Runyankole etc.
They had intermarriages leading to new tribes
They introduced the centralized system of government
They introduced barter trade
They introduced new methods of fighting and new fighting weapons like the short stabbing spear instead of a long throwing spear, cow hide, shields etc.