CHINESE REVOLUTION OF 1949
China is one of the largest countries in the world covering a total area of 9.7km2 with a total population of about 1.4 billion people. By 1900, china was ruled by the feudal government of the Manchu dynasty.
The Manchu dynasty was destroyed by the revolution carried out by Sun-gst-sen. He, however, stepped down for Yuan-shi-Kai.
In 1815, the Japanese entered China and defeated the Chinese. This resulted into a public demonstration leading to Yuan`s death.
The government of Yuan-shi-Kai was defeated by a rebel movement that took to the bush to wage a guerilla war against Chaigo-Ka-Shek`s government.
Mao Zedong’s struggle was based on the idea that China was predominantly (basically) a peasant society. Mao defeated the Japanese together with Chiango`s government in 1949.
He established a communist government in china called the popular resistance of China.
CAUSES OF THE REBELLION
There was a need to end feudalism in China most of the land in china belonged to the nobility class, the peasant class were landless hence leading to the revolution.
The Chinese wanted representative democracy. The retired of the ruling dynasty that characterized by absolute rule.
The presence of the Japanese and American imperialists in China who exploited the economy.
The oppressed and reactionary government of Chiang-Kai-Shek which succeeded the Manchu dynasty led to the revolution.
The young educated Chinese were angered by the low standard of living of the Chinese.
Poverty and famine became a big problem.
Constant wars and insecurity which didn’t give people a chance to work.
The government of Chiang had become extremely terrorist, oppressive and corrupt.
The influence of the socialist ideology which was readily supported by the Chinese led to the revolution.
The disunity that existed on China led to the rise of intellectuals like Mao Zedong who said that they needed to fight for a strong and united China.
Most of the Chinese were unemployed; they could easily follow any leader like Mao Zedong who promised them land and better payment.
The Japanese occupation of Mance came in 1937 made the situation more volatile and plan for a revolution.
The general confusion in the country and hopelessness of the situation led to economic instability and a terrible economic crisis leading to a revolution.
EFFECTS OF THE REVOLUTION
- After winning a protracted people war in 1949, Mao Zedong took over power after overthrowing Chiang-Kai-shek.
- Mao introduced communism based on marxism (socialist ideology)
- Mao introduced land reforms, for example, landlords were expelled and land redistributed.
- He introduced “the green revolution in China “is joining together farms and plantation which resulted into an increase in agricultural production.
- Peasants were mobilized to carry out land reclamation, irrigation, tree planting etc.
- He brought about industrial development where emphases were put on the production of capital goods rather than consumer goods.
- Mao launched a public health campaign that greatly reduced health problems in China.
- Literary campaigns were launched and by 1960, illiteracy had reduced in China.
- Chinese culture was revived and reserved through indoctrination progress.
- There was an impanation of women. In feudal China, women were considered the property of men.
- The communist victory further intensified the cold war in China.
- China was an ally of the U.S.S.R and refused to recognize the new communist regime.
- China now had one of the fastest-growing economies in the world as it has reached technological advancement.
- Thousands of people were killed as landlords were massacred.
- Property worth millions were destroyed.
- The green revolution in agriculture led to the creation of co-operatives over the country.
- The new communist regime setup better economic policies which led to the reduction in inflation, unemployment etc.
- The revolution led to an increase in the number of investors in China.
- The people received education as opposed to the past where only the members of the rich class received school education.
- Mao managed to unite all the revolutionary forces over the country and he became the founder of modern China.
- China became one of the most top and powerful in the East and became a permanent member of the security council of the UN militarily China became a nuclear power.
- It led to the industrialization of industries and other factors of production.
THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT THE REVOLUTION