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CAUSES OF THE REBELLION
The Gogo rebelled becuae they feared to loose their social, political and economic independence.
They probably rebelled because they wanted to preserve their land.
The Germans disrespected the Africans and their way of life and forced the Gogo to rebel.
The root cause of this rebellion was as a result of the son of a local Sultan grinning at Carl Peters place while he was having breakfast. The boy was wiped and the Gogo were upset and planned for war just like the Germans
COURSE OF THE WAR
The Sultan whose son was wiped tried twice to settle the problem but Carl Peters refused this and was determined to show the Gogo who the germans were.
He ordered that villages should be looted and huts set ablaze. Any thing that would be found would be burnt down and he also asked for help from neighbouring Nyamwezi which was quickly sent because of the promise that any huts looted from the Gogo would be sent to them therefore the nyamwezi were part of the looted.
He advanced on the gogo villages and the Gogo were soon defeated and surrendered.
RESULTS OF THE REBELLION
There was great loss of lives in the rebellion
Furture rebellions were minimized as a result of the fear of what the Germans would do to the people if they rebelled.
German power over the Africans increased because the Germans had weakened them.
Though the Africans were afraid to rebel they haed the Germans even more because of their harsh rule.
A lot of property was destroyed and this lowered the standards of living of the people.
There was a beakup of traditional societies and families due to the instabilities caused by the rebellion.
THE MAU MAU REBELLION (1951-60)
Mau Mau is an abbreviation which stands for “Muzungu Arudi Ulaya Mwafrica Apatte Uhuru”. It was a rebellion organized by the people of Kenya against the colonial administrative from 1951-1960 under the leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta, Oedan Kimathi, Waruhui Itote etc.
It was formed in 1946 by the Kenya land freedom fighters (army) together with the forty group and Kenya African Union (KAU) KLFF was composed of dissatisfied ex-servicemen who had returned from the second World war, the forty group comprised of elders (Aneke) and KAU was to political organisation led by Kenyatta. These three groups emerged and adapted to slogan Mau Mau.
The objective was to use violent means to remove Europeans and Asians from Kenya and to get independence in the shortest time possible.
The formation of Mau Mau coincided with the return of Kenyatta from Britain in 1947. He first became the chairman for KAU, he was seen as the leader for African nationalism and he also began to organize the Kikuyu educational unit which was intended to arouse the Kikuyu politically. The leaders of the Mau Mau then got into contact with Kenyatta.
CAUSES OF MAU MAU
The Kenyans had lost their independence and sovereignity. The desire for independence by the Africans in Kenya led to the Mau Mau. They had been oppressed for a long time under colonial rule and therefore wanted their traditional independence.
Africans were annoid with their exclusion from political participation i.e. were excluded from decision making process of their country. Their right to vote and be voted were violated by the colonialists. In the logical they were represented by missionaries who in reality didn’t represent African interests.
Africans were excluded from the main stream of the Kenya economy even if they tried to participate in their economy. They were restricted to peasant holding as plantation farming was reserved for the White settlers. They were not to grow profitable cash crops on large scale for fear that they would become rich and over throw the colonialists.
In addition it is the Asians who dominated the commercial sector and to see Africans run to shop was a miracle. It was against this economic domination that the Mau mau formed.
There was social discrimination and segregation i.e. there were schools for Whites and Asians and Africans were left to attend schools with poor facilities.
The only Africans who went for medical treatment were the poltes of the Whites African settlements where characterized by wretched social conditions like diseases, poor drainage, dirty water, slums etc. yet European quarters were carefully planned with top waters magnificient housing etc. the Mau Mau was therefore tough to correct this social economic importance.
There was rampant unemployment; the elite class found themselves in the group of redundant urban dwellers and yet Europeans with equivalent or less educated enjoyed employment benefits. No doubt therefore the Mau Mau had its origin in urban centres like Nairobi.
Land alienation provoked the Mau Mau, the White settlers took the best land especially the Kenyan highlands and the Kikuyu believed that their ancestors had left for them.
Forced labour also provoked the Mau Mau; Africans were conscripted to work in public projects like Hospitals, roads for little or no pay. They instituted migrant labour which detouched Africans from their families. They were employed on White farms with pay or no pay and the headmen were very harsh.
Amidst poverty was heavy taxation aimed at forcing Africans to grow cash crops which they would sell cheaply to Asians and also aimed at forcing Africans to accept paid employment.
Disrespect of the African traditional cultures by the Europeans e.g. female circumcision, polygamy etc
The 2nd World war veterans returned with new grievances and ideas for independence. They gave morale to the Africans and sensitized them about the suffering and they told the people thet they fought against such injusties s colonial dominations, land alienation and when they cause to Kenya, they could not accept the law standards of life they were thrown into when they saw Asians and whites swimming in splendid wealth.
The Kenyans had no freedom of movement; they were subjected to carrying of “Kipande” or identify cards which they considered burdensome.
The Mau Mau fighters are annoyed with the slow pace of constitutional reforms i.e. the preparation of Kenya for self government i.e. the Mau Mau fighters, KAU was taken as a slowest movement in demanding for independence it is for this reason they declared the military means.
Fear of Kenya becoming another South Africa, Rhodesia forced the Kenyan to rise up against the Europeans.
COURSE OF MAUMAU / RISING (1951-60)
The Mau Mau formed in 1946 from three groups, KLFF and KAU started off in 1951 by imposing an oath on the members. The oath bounded Kikuyu and other people in a variety of ways but most important was never to tell the colonial government about the affairs of the movement and the whereabouts of its members even if tit meant debts for a member who was being questioned.
Members of the Mau Mau started raiding shops of Asians and military armies to colonialists. They managed to burn villages for goods their headmen who were loyal to the cultural government. They began to murder Africans cause.
The Mau Mau fighters’ raided villages for goods attacked Europeans farms and killed many settlers and Asian business men.
In 1952, the Mau Mau fighters established their base of operation in Mt. Kenya and Abardares forests from there the movement spread to the highlands and to the rift valley. There was also a group of the Kikuyu in Nairobi in Nairobi who kept the fighters supplied with information about government strategies against the movement.
The colonial government responded by using the police and soldiers of KAR (King African Riftles) to stop Mau Mau but by October 1952, the colonial government admitted that it would not stop Mau Mau. In that month governor Evelyn Boring declared a state of emergency and asked for British troupes to be flown to Kenya.
The first five years of emergence were the worst for both KAR and the Brtish troupes failed to suppress the Mau Mau. More Europeans and African loyalists were attacked and killed. The Mau Mau leaders continued to get information from government circles and to get suppliers of food and five arms.
In the process, the colonialists government cricles and to get supplies of food and fire arms in government learnt that even some KAR soldiers and Policemen were members of the Mau Mau.
In the face of the above situation, the colonial government began to take more extreme measures. All the African political parties were burned and some Kikuyu leaders were arrested as the ring leaders of the Mau Mau.
In April 1953, Kenyatta was sentenced to 7years imprisonment as the key leader and organizer of the Mau Mau. Despite Kenyatta`s arrest, Mau Mau activities continued as the government forces penetrated the forest fighting became more fierce and savage, many government troupes and Mau Mau fighters were killed.
As the war progressed, hundreds of Kikuyu were herded off into emergence concentration villages to stop them from having any contacts with Mau Mau fighters.
Constant raids by police and government troupes were made in towns especially in Nairobi even in the highlands to capture the Kikuyu to take them to concentrated villages. They were hunted down even as far as K.U.A from Makerere University to the concentration villages in Kenyatta.
In January 1954, the general China war liberated one of the leading commanders of the Mau Mau activities in the Aberdare forests but he was captured in 1956 and sentenced to death.
Kimathi`s capture coincided with thedisintergration of the Mau Mau due to internal quarrels between the rural groups. However mapping up operations continued until 1960 when the emergency declared in 1952 was lifted by the colonial government thus the end of the Mau Mau.
EFFECTS OF THE MAU MAU
It led to massive death especially in Kikuyu land where the Mau Mau raged other then dying of cross fires; they also died of wretched conditions in the concentration camps.
There was wide spread famine as the population was constantly kept in run to the total neglect of agriculture.
The British also had violent methods scotched earth policy in which they burnt all food stores around any plant that the people could survive in.
The Kikuyu, Masai, Nandi etc. were displaced from their original paston while some of them were forced to concentrate in reserve camps.
Political leaders e.g. Kenyatta were imprisoned.
In 1952, the colonial government declared a state of emergence in Kenya.
Military leaders were arrested e.g. Kimathi, Itate (General China) and many supporters were also arrested e.g. 26,000 Kikuyu were arrested in 1954.
Clans and families disintergrated due to being loyal or disloyal to the Mau Mau cause
Prisoners suffered harsh treatment and bad living conditions
The Mau Mau shook the colonial government and began to initiate political reforms i.e. Africans were prepared for self government which was given in 1961 and eventual independence in 1963.
Africans were to participate in decision making process i.e. were elected to the legislative assembly had the freedom to form political organisations (KAU)
In the line of economic reforms, Africans were new allow to grow cash crops and organize trade unions, farmers associations were formed to advocate for better press.
Africans were allowed to join commercial sectors and this broke the Asian domination of commerce.
Land alienation was stoped; the settler was restricted to the Kenyan highlands only. Aquistion of land was to be dealt with the concent of African owners.
Forced labour was dropped and Africans were given the choice either to go for paid employment or not.
The elite group was employed in public services.
The social conditions of Africans were improved i.e. the educated Africans enjoy better housing, electricity, tap water or better schools, dispensaries were constructed.
The British realized that the use of harsh methods couldn’t be effective insecuring African loyality and accordingly even the Kipande system which oppressed Africans was abolished.
The squatter system was dropped when alienation was abolished however it surved in Kenyan highlands where the White settlers refused to move away.
Kenyatta and other MauMau leaders were later released to participate in government.
Africans interest gained supremecy over Asian and White settlers’ interest.
It led to the exodus of many White settlers to South Africa.
The Mau Mau symbolized and led to the development and growth of African nationalism against foreign influence.
REASONS WHY AFRICAN RESISTANCE EVENTUALLY COLLAPSED
Disunity; the Africans were not united some groups helped the Europeans against their neighbours for example Baganda against Kabalega of Bunyoro.
Loss of moral among the fighting forces led to quick collapse of the resistance e.g. the Hehe in 1894, some of Kabalega`s Abarusula surrendered after Colville`s defeat.
Existence of traitors; some of the people among the resisting societies collaborated with the hope of being rewarded and this led to the final collapse of the resistance in various societies.
Determination of the Whiteman; the imperialists used all means at their disposal to remain in control of their areas in East Africa.
Use of the scotched earth policy for example the British against the Nandi, Germans against Hehe greatly weakened African resistance.
Lack of sufficient arms; Africans didn’t have adequate supply of modern weapons but Europeans had machine guns, rifles etc and were able to break up the resistance of Africans.
Africans had poor methods of warfare for example they used pitched battles.
Existence of small African political units; Most of African communities were politically fragmented so they could easily be overcome by European forces e.g. most of the Nyamwezi chiefdoms were small in size.
Lack of standing armies; most African communities didn’t have standing armies which were in full time training the small forces mobilized for resistance could not stand European armies for long.
Lack of adequate preparation for war i.e. African armies didn’t have enough guns, hadn’t collected sufficient food for their armies in the long run this cuased to give in so easily.
Co-operation among the European powers; European powers usually c-operated with others to make it impossible for Africans to resist
Europeans use intimidation e.g. hanging rebel leaders and having installed fear ampng Africans they would eventually give in.
Natural disaster for example out break of typhoid, cholera among the armies would reduce their resistance ability and eventually they had to give in.
METHODS OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
This was a system used by the British in the Administration of their colonies under this system, the British made use of the traditional rulers and leaders to rule the Africans. They made laws and rules and the local rulers were charged with a duty to implement these policies. Usually, the British officails occupied the upper position of leadership and the Africans ruled at the lower level.
WHY DID THE BRITISH ADAPT INDIRECT RULE
The African leaders were accepted to the people and so could easily direct the policies of the colonial government.
It was a way of minimizing direct conflict with the Africans
The British government didn’t have enough funds to carter for big numbers of British officials in the colonial so they opted to use a few who would be paid and Africans as their counter parts.
There were many Africans languages which cuased a problem to the British administration so the only way to avoid language barrier was to use indirect systems of administration.
There was a poor transport system yet the area to be covers was quite large. In addition the British officials were ignorant of the geography of this area so they used Africa chiefs who knew the areas well and were used to the transport systems.
The system had been used in other areas with success e.g. Northern Nigeria so they opted for indirect rule.
Also some areas in East Africa had a similar system of administration especially the centralized societies.
The indirect rule was blessed by the presence of the collaborators who were willing to propagate the British administration in other areas.
The system would prepare the Africans for eventual self rule i.e. the use of indirect rule was to fulfill the Berlin conference which emphasized development of African territories in all areas i.e. social, political and economic.
HOW INDIRECT RULE WAS CARRIED OUT
It was most successful in centralized societies e.g. Buganda. The African leaders took up the lower positions while the upper positions were reserved for the British. At local levels like districts and counties, the African chief was the main actor. He was given policies by the central government which he passed to the lesser chiefs who inturn passed on the policies to the common man.
The lesser chiefs presided over the native law courts and applied African laws to rule the masses. However, in cases of resistance from the local people then British would step in.
It was still the duty of the chiefs to collect taxes for the colonial treasurer e.g. in Uganda, the colonial treasurer was in Entebbe.
The British colonial government appointed and posted a resident governor to Uganda and Kenya it was his duty to appoint district officaials.
STRUCTURE OF INDIRECT RULE
Protectorate government (Europeans) – Governors (Europeans) – Provincial commissioners (Europeans) – District commissioners (Europeans) – Country chiefs (Africans) – Subcounty chiefs (Africans) – Parish chiefs (Africans)
NB: the chiefs were graded according to their power and authority they were supposed to collect tax, maintain law and order and administer local justice. In some areas Baganda agents were used to implement direct rule. E.g Semei Kakungulu in Eastern Uganda, Jame Miti in Bunyoro although this caused resentment and later Africans were used.
African chiefs were paid government salary and traditional payment stopped e.g. tribute paid to Kings and Chiefs.
It should be noted that despite some short falls indirect rule was quite successful both in Kenya and Uganda. It was later adopted in Tanganyika after the First World War.
EEFECTS OF INDIRECT RULE
Denied the Africans participation in government at higher levels
Promoted intrusion of religions in Uganda politics especially as a result of use of protestants chiefs after 1900 Agreement.
Frequent rebellion outbreak due to divide and rule policy
It led to Uganda Independence with federal constitution which didn’t emphasise unity which has been a problem up to date.
It aided effective occupation in all parts of Uganda and confined the total loss of Industries in Uganda.
It created a class of Africans who ddnt think it was necessary to fight for independence, the few who got education and position as chiefs, clerk and jobs in civil services.
It led to development between regions.
It facilitated more evaporation of British civilization such as British culture, formal education, regions way of eating and way of dressing.
Introduction of cash crops growing e.g. cotton, coffee, tobacco which are new Uganda`s cash crops.
Introduction of policies like policies which were burden
There was infrastructure development which was used to facilitate effective administration.
Promoted tribalism and nepotism as each local group was supposed to cater for itself.
It saved Uganda from the pressure and implication of being a settler colony.
Promoted political disunity among the Africans
DIRECT RULE IN TANGANYIKA
POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION IN TANGANYIKA BTWN 1891-1914
Direct rule was the system used by the Germans after the German government took control over Tanganyika from the company. The Germans decided to use direct rule where German officials occupied almost all administrative post in Tanganyika.
REASONS WHY THE GERMANS USED DIRECT RULE
The Germans had taken over Tanganyika using force so they had to maintain the area through the use of their own people over Africans.
There was limited number of powerful chiefs who could have been used if they decided to use indirect rule.
They used direct rule because of prestige i.e. there was no power sharing with the Africans.
They used the system in order to foster maximum exploitation of resourcesof Tanganyika including labour and the natural resources.
The Germans feared to train the local people because they thought this could undermine the power of the White man.
The Germans feared competition of the British in the region and therefore decided not to use indirect rule.
They wanted to impose their culture and legal system effectively and this could not be done if they left the political power in the hands of the Africans.
The Germans used the system to ensure effective administration of the area because they didn’t trust the Africans to do for them a good job because Africans were considered to be lazy and dull.
The Germans used the system because they had enough manpower (army men) that were many in number and would be able to do the work.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE GERMAN ADMINISTRATION IN TANGANYIKA
At the top of the administration was the governor a position which was occupied by Julius Van Soden until 1906. The governor was appointed by the German councilor in Belgium and the governor was based in Dar es Salaam.
Next was the council of advisers and these mainly advised him on important matters. The council was made up fo 5 officail members who were government servants and 5-12 people who were mostly settlers. The governor had the following duties.
Below the governor and the council of advisers where the German district officials (German residents) who enjoyed a lot of freedom because they were far away from Dar es Salaam. The German residents had the following duties;
The German residents were assited by a small force at the districts.
The country was divided into 22 districts by 1914, 20 of the districts were civil and two of the districts were military districts i.e. Mahenge and iringa.
In Rwanda, Burundi and Bukoba which were also part of the German East Africa. the Kings were allowed to control their people though they ruled with the advice of the German residents in their area.
The German residents ruled with the help of the Arab- Swahili called the Akidas. The Akidas were in charge of the large villages each with a population of 20,000-30,000 people and the following were their duties;
Below the Akidas were the Jumbes who were headmen or leaders of the clans / small groups.
The German came out with a policy on land by the law of 1896 which started that all land was crown land except the one claimed by good chiefs, mission posts and land owners. The land law was followed by the creation of reserve in Meru and Kirimanjaro areas.
The Germans allowed in settler and these later demanded for forced labour.
The Akidas were hated by the Africans because they were forigners and mistreated them in their countries.
EEFECTS OF THE DIRECT RULE
THE MAJI MAJI REBELLION 1905-1907
This was a traditional religious rebellion inspired in Southern Tanganyika as its major area of occurance.
Based on the belief that the ancestors would help the warriors to withstand German bullest if the Africans themselves smeared themselves with magic water (Maji maji) which was a mixture of water and sorghum paste.
The waer was dispersed by a traditional religious medicine man Kinjikitile from his base at Ngarambe in South East Tanganyika.
THE CAUSES OF THE REBELLION
The forced cotton scheme that was introduced in 1902 where each village had to have the cotton field there was extensive or people would work communally. People hated the scheme because it wasn’t beneficial to them.
Taxation; the taxes (3 rupees hut tax) was un reasonably high to the Africans moreover the taxes were harshly collected.
The Africans hated the forced labour on European / german owned plantations and pub works.
Akidas were hatred because they were foreigners and they associated with all colonial hardships hence Africans desired to have them removed.
Lack of respect by Germans for Africans local customs German officials took dogs to the mosque and took women away from their husbands forcefully.
Desire for political freedom and recovery of the lost independence
Belief in traditional religion, that the German presence in their land was the cause of their problems and if the Africans took courage to fight, the ancestors would help to turn the German bullets into harmless if the Africans smeared with magic water.
Land alienation in the Meru and Kilimanjaro areas
Rise of African nationalism against German direct system of administration.
Africans resented the replacement of their traditional leaders with Akidas and Jumnes who were harsh and cruel.
Low or little gains from the cotton schemes in the relation of effect and sacrifice put in, Africans got only a third of the value.
German employers treated the Africans working on the plantation harshly and generally the conditions of work were poor. The workers were paid low wages or had no pay at all and were given no or little food.
Africans like the Ngoni wanted to avenge the death of their warriors who had been massacred by the Germans in 1891 at Boma.
The Africans wanted to maintain their traditional religion and yet the missionaries had conceived the German administration to burn sacred graves (traditional shrines) which they were Hovens of witchcraft.
The Ngindo were unhappy with German officaials who raped their wives.
THE COURSE OF THE RISING
It involves many groups in Southern Tanganyika include the Nugindo, Pagoro, Mbuga, Ngoni, Zaramo, Mutumbi, Benzi and the Luguru.
The rising started in the Pagoro area when the pagoro of Kitope refused to pick cotton in July 1905. At the same time the Ngindo joined the rebellion in their area and on 31st July 1905 the Mafumbi joined the rising and killed many Akidas and Jumbes drove many germans from the Matumbi lands / hills.
In September 1905, the Nguni were defeated by the German at Uwereba. The Africans started with drawing and resorted to guerilla welfare.
The German used scotched earth policy that burned the houses, farms and killed livestock to destroy the string of Maji Maji fighters.
Kinjikitile Ngwale and his assistants gave out the magic water, encouraged the fighters and at times directed the attacks against the Germans.
In 1907, Prophet Kinjikitile was captured and killed bringing the rising to an end.
EEFECTS OF THE MAJI MAJI REBELLION
Many Africans lost their lives about 15,000 Africans and 40 Germans died
Africans were militarly defeated leading to famine in Southern Tanganyika. This was realized when the Germans used the scotched earth policy.
Corporal punishments and public flogging were stopped by the German administration.
Africans lost their faith and trust in traditional religions and many of them were converted to Christianity.
This was true when they realized that the magic water couldn’t protect them from the German bullets.
After the rising, Germans decided to use other means to get what they wanted independence inclusive. They stopped violent means and resorted to diplomacy e.g. taking on education.
Tgermans changed their methods of administration e.g. disrespecting African cultures, use of harsh rule.
Theose Africans that collaborated with the Germans were rewarded for their effort e.g Zulu were given the war loot.
The Germans realized that the Africans were human beings so they relaxed some of their methods e.g. disrespecting African culture, use of harsh methods of collecting taxes and flogging of people in public hence stopped taking the Africans for granted.
Education was either improved in areas where it already existed or introduced where there was no official education policy.
Africans lost confidence and respect for their traditional leaders. This is realized when many of them died in big numbers.l iT
Africans realized that unity was important if they were to achieve what they wanted from colonialists.
After the rising, foreigners and leaders (Akidas amd Jumbes) were removed and replaced with educated young men from the mission schools. These maintained law and order under the control of the German residents.
There was disruption of trade between Southern Tanzania and the coastal areas.
The rising formed the base the present day Tanzania and nationalism since it provided inspiration to later nationalists e.g. Julius Nyerere, Kamona Oscar.
Economic decline in various activities e.g. Agriculture in South Tanganyika where the natives could hardly settle for any constructive activity in times of war.
After the rising, Africans were encouraged to grow cash crops on individual land ownings like cotton and sisal.
The rising led to hatred between participating societies and the Nyamwezi who were bathered to join and help although they had 3000 rifles at their disposal.
REASONS WHY THE MAJI MAJI WERE DEFEATEDyiH
The earth scotched policy used by the Germans weakened the Africans and made the rising fail. This is because the policy was so destructive; destroying the vegetation, property and so the Africans lacked the means of survival.
Africans had poor weapons e.g. the spears, the arrows, the bows compared to those of the Germans such as rifles and machine guns.
The Germans were able to get some mercenary forces made of Swahili, Zulu, Sudanese and Somalis who were willing to give support to the Germans. These out competed the Maji Maji warriors and as a result they were defeated.
Africans lacked military unity; the small ethnic groups fought separately and didn’t have one military commander strategy. This was an advantage to the Germans as they attacked such groups easily because of isolations.
The African leaders would give different commands. This left the warriors confused and so made it hard to defend their enemies.
Africans relied on subsistence agriculture so they lacked the financial means to support and sustain long term resistance against the Germans.
Missionary influence among the communities, schools the Nyamwezi made them reluctant to join the fighting groups and as result some Africans wouldn’t support the struggle.
The British secretly sent troupes to the Germans from their territories in Uganda and Kenya and this enabled the German to win.
Most of the Africans used poor methods of fighting skills such as the frantal attacks and this led to deah of many people which continuously weakened African forces.
The Germans were determined to continue ruling Tanganyika at whatever cost. They therefore fought vigorously leading to success.
Africans believed too much in traditional religion and they made adequate preparation to acquire the skills and arms.
Africans lacked standing armies that wre well trained, equipped and disciplined to fight successfully against Germans.
The reliance or traditional priests rather than the experienced soldiers to lead the wars and provide military guaidance led to the defeat of the Africans.
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