SCI/P/4: WEATHER CHANGES

This unit is about weather and how it works. it is studied in Primary four.

 WEATHER,

Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given place.
– It is also the condition of the atmosphere at a given time.

2. Elements/ factors of weather
i. Sunshine
ii. Temperature
iii. Cloud cover
iv. Rainfall
v. Wind movements
vi. Humidity

Elements of weather: Temperature Precipitation (rainfall, snowfall) Wind speed Humidity Cloud cover

3. Types of weather
i. Cloudy weather
ii. Rainy weather
iii. Sunny weather
iv. Windy weather

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT TYPES OF WEATHER

4. Weather instruments

These are instruments used to measure different elements of weather.

Weather instruments are found at the weather station

WEATHER STATION

A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate

WEATHER INSTRUMENT USE

This is a rain gauge

Rain gauge

Measures the amount of rainfall received in a given place.
Anemometer

Measures the speed of wind.

Wind vane

Shows the direction of wind.

Six’s thermometer

Measures the maximum and minimum temperatures of the day.

Wind sock

Shows the direction of wind.

this is a barometer

Barometer

Measures atmospheric air pressure.

Hygrometer

Measures the humidity in the atmosphere

Sources of water

Natural sources of water

i. Rivers
ii. Swamps
iii. Lakes
iv. Rainfall

 Artificial sources of water

i. Taps
ii. Tanks
iii. Bore holes
iv. Wells

Properties of water

i. It has no colour
ii. It has no taste
iii. It has no smell
iv. It takes the shape of the container

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT SOURCES OF WATER


uses of water to people and other animals.

– Used for cooking
– For drinking
– For washing cloths
– For watering crops
– Water is a habitat for water animals.

Uses of water to plants.

– It is used for germination
– For photosynthesis
– For transpiration
– It dissolves mineral salts.

Water in air

This is called water vapour

Formation of water vapour

i. Through evaporation from water bodies
ii. Through transpiration

Importance of water vapour

i. It changes into clouds on condensation which results in rain

Rain

The drops that fall down from the clouds in the sky.

Rainfall

The water collected on the ground from the rain drops

The water cycle

This is the process by which rain is formed.

It involves
i. Evaporation
ii. Transpiration
iii. Condensation

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT WATER CYCLE


Evaporation is the change of water from liquid to gas.

Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant to the atmosphere through leaves as vapour.

Condensation is the change of state from gas to liquid.

During the water cycle;

i. The sun heats the water bodies and vegetation
ii. Evaporation takes place from the water bodies and transpiration takes place in plants
iii. The water vapour rises up into the sky and condenses to form clouds
iv. The clouds become heavy and fall down as rain.

A—Heat from the sun
B—Evaporation from water bodies
C—Transpiration from vegetation
D—Condensation forming clouds
E—Rain

Clouds

Clouds are formed when water vapour in the sky condenses.

Types of clouds

i. Cirrus—highest and lightest clouds
ii. Stratus
iii. Cumulus
iv. Nimbus—heaviest clouds

Effects of clouds on the environment

i. Clouds block direct sunlight
This reduces the brightness in our environment.

ii. Clouds lower the temperature in our environment by reducing heat from
the sun.
iii. Clouds bring rain.

Effects of rain on the environment

i. Rain reduces temperature in the environment
ii. Rain reduces dust
iii. Rainfall softens soil.

Wind.

Wind is moving air.

Effects of wind in the environment:

– Strong wind is an agent of soil erosion.
– Strong wind breaks down crops and trees.
– Strong wind blows off roofs of houses.
– Wind is an agent of pollination.
– wind is an agent of seed dispersal.

Uses of wind to people and plants:

– used for sailing engineless boats.
– For generating electricity.
– For flying kites’
– For winnowing.
– Plants use wind for pollination.
– For seed dispersal.

Uses of sunshine in the environment.

– For drying harvests.
– For warmth’
– For solar electricity.

Effects of sunshine in the environment:

– Strong sunshine dries up water bodies.
– Strong sunshine dries up plants in the garden.
– Strong sunshine dries and hardens the soil.

Temperature:

– Temperature is the hotness or coldness of an object or place.
– The instruments used for measuring temperature are:
. six thermometer for measuring the highest and the lowest temperature of the day.
. clinical thermometer for measuring human body temperature.
– Temperature is measured in degrees.

The weather chart

1. It is a chart that shows the daily weather changes in our environment.
2. A weather chart is produced through observation and recording.

The elements of weather in a weather chart include;

1. How much rainfalls
2. How much cloud is in the sky
3. How strong the wind is
4. How hot is the sunshine
5. How worm or cool is the air in our surroundings.

Examples of a weather chart

Element of weather

Temperature

Cloud cover

Rainfall

Wind movement

Sunshine

PERSONAL HYGIENE

1. Personal hygiene is the way we keep our bodies clean.
It is the general cleanliness of the body.

2. Importance of personal hygiene.

i. It controls the spread of germs.
ii. It prevents bad body smell.
iii. It prevents skin diseases
iv. It prevents teeth diseases
v. It prevents lice, mites and ticks.

3. Ways of keeping good personal hygiene.

i. Bathing every day
ii. Cutting finger and toe nails short
iii. Brushing teeth every day
iv. Washing hands after visiting the toilet or latrines.
v. Washing hands after a physical task like digging, picking rubbish, etc.
vi. Washing hands before eating food.
vii. Washing clothes regularly
viii. Washing beddings regularly
ix. Combing hair daily.
x. Ironing clothes and beddings.

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT PERSONAL HYGIENE


4. Items used to keep the body clean
i. Soap
ii. Clean water
iii. Sponge
iv. Tooth brush
v. Comb
vi. Towel
vii) razor blade
viii) basin
ix) Sandals
x) Tooth paste

5. Dangers of poor personal hygiene.

i. The body smells bad.
ii. Jiggers, mites, ticks and lice can breed and affect the body.
iii. The teeth may develop tooth decay.
iv. Diarrhea diseases can spread easily.
v. Accidental injuries from long finger nails to self or others.
6. Diseases brought by poor personal hygiene.

DISEASES CAUSE

Tooth decay Bacterial
Scabies Itch mite
Dysentery Bacteria
Amoeba
Diarrhoea Virus
Bacteria
Ring worm Fangus
Trachoma Chlamydia

 

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ASSIGNMENT : WEATHER CHANGES P.4 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

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