Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given place.
– It is also the condition of the atmosphere at a given time.
2. Elements/ factors of weather
iii. Cloud cover
v. Wind movements
3. Types of weather
i. Cloudy weather
ii. Rainy weather
iii. Sunny weather
iv. Windy weather
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4. Weather instruments
These are instruments used to measure different elements of weather.
Weather instruments are found at the weather station
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate
WEATHER INSTRUMENT USE
Measures the amount of rainfall received in a given place.
Measures the speed of wind.
Shows the direction of wind.
Measures the maximum and minimum temperatures of the day.
Shows the direction of wind.
Measures atmospheric air pressure.
Measures the humidity in the atmosphere
Sources of water
Natural sources of water
Artificial sources of water
iii. Bore holes
Properties of water
i. It has no colour
ii. It has no taste
iii. It has no smell
iv. It takes the shape of the container
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uses of water to people and other animals.
– Used for cooking
– For drinking
– For washing cloths
– For watering crops
– Water is a habitat for water animals.
Uses of water to plants.
– It is used for germination
– For photosynthesis
– For transpiration
– It dissolves mineral salts.
Water in air
This is called water vapour
Formation of water vapour
i. Through evaporation from water bodies
ii. Through transpiration
Importance of water vapour
i. It changes into clouds on condensation which results in rain
The drops that fall down from the clouds in the sky.
The water collected on the ground from the rain drops
The water cycle
This is the process by which rain is formed.
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Evaporation is the change of water from liquid to gas.
Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant to the atmosphere through leaves as vapour.
Condensation is the change of state from gas to liquid.
During the water cycle;
i. The sun heats the water bodies and vegetation
ii. Evaporation takes place from the water bodies and transpiration takes place in plants
iii. The water vapour rises up into the sky and condenses to form clouds
iv. The clouds become heavy and fall down as rain.
A—Heat from the sun
B—Evaporation from water bodies
C—Transpiration from vegetation
D—Condensation forming clouds
Clouds are formed when water vapour in the sky condenses.
Types of clouds
i. Cirrus—highest and lightest clouds
iv. Nimbus—heaviest clouds
Effects of clouds on the environment
i. Clouds block direct sunlight
This reduces the brightness in our environment.
ii. Clouds lower the temperature in our environment by reducing heat from
iii. Clouds bring rain.
Effects of rain on the environment
i. Rain reduces temperature in the environment
ii. Rain reduces dust
iii. Rainfall softens soil.
Wind is moving air.
Effects of wind in the environment:
– Strong wind is an agent of soil erosion.
– Strong wind breaks down crops and trees.
– Strong wind blows off roofs of houses.
– Wind is an agent of pollination.
– wind is an agent of seed dispersal.
Uses of wind to people and plants:
– used for sailing engineless boats.
– For generating electricity.
– For flying kites’
– For winnowing.
– Plants use wind for pollination.
– For seed dispersal.
Uses of sunshine in the environment.
– For drying harvests.
– For warmth’
– For solar electricity.
Effects of sunshine in the environment:
– Strong sunshine dries up water bodies.
– Strong sunshine dries up plants in the garden.
– Strong sunshine dries and hardens the soil.
– Temperature is the hotness or coldness of an object or place.
– The instruments used for measuring temperature are:
. six thermometer for measuring the highest and the lowest temperature of the day.
. clinical thermometer for measuring human body temperature.
– Temperature is measured in degrees.
The weather chart
1. It is a chart that shows the daily weather changes in our environment.
2. A weather chart is produced through observation and recording.
The elements of weather in a weather chart include;
1. How much rainfalls
2. How much cloud is in the sky
3. How strong the wind is
4. How hot is the sunshine
5. How worm or cool is the air in our surroundings.
Examples of a weather chart
Element of weather
1. Personal hygiene is the way we keep our bodies clean.
It is the general cleanliness of the body.
2. Importance of personal hygiene.
i. It controls the spread of germs.
ii. It prevents bad body smell.
iii. It prevents skin diseases
iv. It prevents teeth diseases
v. It prevents lice, mites and ticks.
3. Ways of keeping good personal hygiene.
i. Bathing every day
ii. Cutting finger and toe nails short
iii. Brushing teeth every day
iv. Washing hands after visiting the toilet or latrines.
v. Washing hands after a physical task like digging, picking rubbish, etc.
vi. Washing hands before eating food.
vii. Washing clothes regularly
viii. Washing beddings regularly
ix. Combing hair daily.
x. Ironing clothes and beddings.
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4. Items used to keep the body clean
ii. Clean water
iv. Tooth brush
vii) razor blade
x) Tooth paste
5. Dangers of poor personal hygiene.
i. The body smells bad.
ii. Jiggers, mites, ticks and lice can breed and affect the body.
iii. The teeth may develop tooth decay.
iv. Diarrhea diseases can spread easily.
v. Accidental injuries from long finger nails to self or others.
6. Diseases brought by poor personal hygiene.
Tooth decay Bacterial
Scabies Itch mite
Ring worm Fangus