This unit is about the 1903 cotton being grown as a cashcrop with its base in Buganda and later Busoga principal area and also other Development of other industries in east Africa.


In 1903 cotton started being grown as a cashcrop with its base being Buganda and later Busoga principal areas.

In 1908, a cotton ordinance was issued through the governor Hesketh bell through which;

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  1. The governor got the authority to control cotton growing in Uganda.
  2. The farmers were to grow only the American plant variety which the government produced from Sudan.
  • Hand gins was banned
  1. The government brought all the hand gins and destroyed them
  2. Government bought 3 modern ginaries to ensure proper cleaning and maintaining of cotton to maintain its quality.

By 1910, cotton was the leading export crop in Eastern Uganda and Buganda as leading production areas.

By 1914, the central control and other measures had helped to produce variety of cotton that completed favourably on the world market.

Between 1914 and 1918, cotton exports fetched pounds 369,000. The settlers played a very small part in the production because 80% of the cotton was produced by Africans.

From 1914, Africans began to enter cotton buying and set up ginning industries in the 1930s and this was later opposed by the Africans and European businessmen and later brought problems in the 1950s. Besides cotton there was other crops including;


In 1914, coffee was bought as an export crop and the Arabic coffee was brought from Malawi and grown in highlands especially Mt.Elgon in Bugisu.

Robasta type was later introduced and grown mainly in Buganda from were it spread to other areas and became an important cash crop in the 1960s.

By 1962, cotton exports were about 120,000 metric tonnes value at pounds 293 millions


It became an important cash crop after 1911. Tea plantations were established by Asians and the first estate was by Naji Khadidas Metha in 1923. Tea Production rose from 5000 acres in 1945 to 25000 acres by 1965.

The Volume of tea in 1965 was 8000 tonnes valued at pounds 39 million.


it also became an important crop; by 1918, Uganda was producing crude sugar. In 1920, Metha opened up a 5000 acre plantaion at Kawolo were he established another sugar plantation at Kakiira near Jinja.

From then Uganda exported sugar to the neighbouring countries like Congo until around 1973.

Besides these, other crops like rubber, Simsim, Ground nuts, Chilli were also grown for export.

Hides and skins were also produced for export later.


Following World war 1, there was an economic slump in the 1920`s which made price of the cash crops fall which discouranged the farmers few settlers and exporters of the cash crop.

The Asian dominance of the business of import and export was greatly resented by the Africans. The Asians paid very low prices to the African farmers for their produce and the Africans began to demand a share in the cash crop export trade especially in 1950s.

Shortage of funds; the colonial government didn’t have sufficient research and other supportive services to the local farms.

Shortage of labour especially for the plantation owners

Reluctancy of some African farmers in some areas like Ankole was for a longtime they refused to embrace cotton growing.

Transport to the remote areas was hard because there were feeder roads which were all weather. Head portage and ox-cart were the later means used.

It was difficult to have informed quality output from the large number of peasants who were engaged in alarge number of production.

Animal diseases like rinder pest, foot and mouth disease killed at large numbers of livestock especially cattle and goats and this reduced the amount of income got from livestock rearing.

The Indian middlemen fixed unfair prices especially for imports and exports and this sometime brought protests from the Africans.


Copper industry started in 1925; mined Kasese, smelting done at Jinja and then sent abroad. By products were cobalt and sulphuric acid.

Tourism started 1955 when the government gave shs. 66520 to districts in which the national parks were situated i.e. Toro and Bunyoro. By 1964 about 13449 tourists had come to Uganda but the problem in Congo and the breakdown of the East Africa travel Association led to loss of the tourist business.

Coment in South Eastern Uganda factory was established at Toro and limestone was mined in Sukuru hills and also at Hima near Kasese. Cement and Phosphates fertilizers were also produced.

There were processing industries from cotton, sugarcane, leather, oils etc. Most industries were located at Jinja and Kampala to be near the source of power. In 1954 the HEP dam at Jinja was opened.

In 1951, the Uganda development of corporation (UDC) was established to foster industrial development

Later the government set up management and advisory centre to train business in modern techniques and business management.

Meanwhile the Indians controlled most of the trade e.g. imported goods needed by the Europeans and wealthy Africans. They bought production from the African farmers for reconcile in the export / foreign markets.


There was development of transport and communication networks. There were internal lines of the railway built linking the various areas of production in the country and external line linking Uganda to the coast through Jinja and Tororo feeder roads also developed.

The economic development resulted into the growth of urban centres along the transport routes and others development as collecting centres for produce e.g. mbale, Soroti, Kasese, Packwach, Jinja.

There was increase in the volume of import and export trade between Uganda and Britain.

The infiltration of Europeans and Indian traders into the country increades as more and more of them came into this country to set up shops and other business enterprises.

There was greater importation of motor vehichles, machinery and other manufactured goods from Europe especially Britain.

The growing and output of food crops declosed because farmesrs now concentrated more on cash crop growing.

Cash crop growers e.g. cotton farmers and exporters got from the sale of their crops and their earning to buy clothes, household items, pay taxes, educate their children and this led to improvement in their standard of living.

The influx of European manufactured goods into the contry deprived the locally produced commodities of market. This led to decline in local industries e.g. back cloth, manyacline, iron smithing etc.

The local people / Africans (most) became poorer as they had to pay the taxes imposed by pool tax.

Uganda was able to pay for her administration and from 1915, the Uganda treasury stopped replying on momey from Britain.

The Africans were marginalized in the new commercialized set up. They were not allowed to own ginning industries, buy cotton and engaged in whole sale and retail trade. This brought unrests and riots.


The Buganda agreenment of 1900 led to division of land among the local people and yet Buganda would have been ideal for European settlement.

The new boundary arrangement made between Uganda and Kenya in 1902 brought a large area suitable for European settlement.

The attitude of the British officails in Uganda; the various governors didn’t have a scheme to alienate land from the Africans so settlers lacked across a lot of land to estsblish plantations and build industries.

The activities of the missionaries; the missionaries working together with the British officails in Uganda urged the British government not to allow the European dominance in Uganda`s economy and this discouraged the settlers.

Distance from the coast; Uganda unlike Kenya was far from the coast, so the coast of transporting the settlers output and crops would have been enornemous leading to low gains. This discouraged the settlers.

The climate of Uganda; most Uganda had hot and humic climate not suitable for European settlement except Kigezi. Some parts of Mbale and Toro Kingdom yet these areas didn’t have friendly chiefs like in Buganda.

Limited number of settlers; by 1914, the settlers were very few, they did not have majority representation in the legislative assembly. As a result the laws that were made were not largely in their favour.

The rigidity of the protectorate government; in 1906, aland settlement committee recommended that Europeans should not be given land on easy terms. Any land acquisition / possession exceeding 1000 hectares had to be approved by the Governor. In 1908, the government severely limited sale of land by saying land should be sold at high market price and as a result only 2000 acres had been sold to European and Indians by 1914 limiting the number of settlers.

The cost of land; in 1912 the price of land rose form 10 shs to 75 shs per hectare and in 1915, although the canter commission made some recommendation that would have enabled settlers to get more land, the british colonial secretary A. Bonar refused to accept the recommendation so this deffered European settlement.

Shortage of labour; the settlers from the very beginning found it had to secure cheap labour and this discouraged European settlement.

Most areas had centralized leadership and non-compliant leaders and had shown resentment to foreigners e.g. in Kigezi, Bunyoro. The European administrators feared to impose settlers in such areas.

The economic slump of the 1920`s made; price of plantation crops like cotton, coffee and sisal full by more than 100%. The decrease in prices discouraged plantation coners because it reduced their profits and by 1935 most settlers had relocatd in Kenya.


The White settlers started coming in Kenya as early as 1896. The 1st Europeans were the Macqueen family and a few others.

From 1902, their numbers began to increase because of the encouragement of Charles Eliot, the British Commissioner who believed that the Africans didn’t have the ability to exploit their resources. Many of the settlers came form South Africa, Canada, Australia, Newslands and Britain.

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Some came for adventure and hunting e.g. the Macqueen family.

Charles Eliot from 1900-1904 encouraged the White settlers to come had settle in Kenya in order to extend British rule over the area.

The British foreign office drew up the settler scheme to settle the excess population.

The settlers were attracted by the good and cool climate of the Kenya highlands.

The British wanted the settlers to develop the area through which the railway line passed in order to make the railway pave for itself.

Some of them were attracted by the writings of explorers like Harry Johnston who in1884 made his base at Moshi and wrote to England inviting other settlers to come.

Britain wanted the settlers to stsrt economic activities to make the railway pave for itself mantainance costs.

The British wanted White settlement so as to have a strong colony purely founded on the principle of British tradition

The British wanted to exploit African land which they thought were free and redundant because of the mode of shifting cultivation and follow systems used by the Africans. The Europeans believed the Africans were too lazy to exploit all the land.

The settlers were attracted by the fertile volcanic soils with a lot of Agricultural potential for the growing of crops like wheat, cotton, tea etc.

The Brtitish desire to foster the stopping of slave trade made them encourage the settlers to be on the scene to ensure slave trade didn’t take place.

After World war 1, the British government wanted to settle the ex-soldiers in the freeland in Kenya as a reward to them for the work they had done during the war.

The settlers from South Africa wanted a place where they could settle after the 2nd Anglo Boer war of 1899-1902 in which their farms and property had been destroyed.

The British wanted to encourage legitimate trade through the growing and sale of cash crops.

The crownlands ordinance of 1902 which made it legal for the land officer to grant sale and lease unoccupied land for 999yrs to the Whites attracted large numbers of settlers into Kenya.

Some of the British were Aristocrats who couldn’t get land in Britain because it was expensive and yet in Kenya it would be sold between 7-25 cents per acre.

Some Europeans were unemployed and believed a new future life in Kenya as farmers and politicaians e.g. Lord Dolamere.

The official policy of land alienation where Africans foreply moved from their lands to make room for European settlers e.g. between 1904 the Kikuyu, the Komba, Meru, Nandi, Elgeyo, Masai and Taita had to move to create room for the White settlers.

In Kenya there was no missionary good will to protest against the policy of land alienation.

There was availability of cheap labour in Kenya because of the policy of taxing Africans which forced them to work for the Whites.

The boundary transfer of 1902 and the official policy in Uganda pushed to settlers to Kenya. By 1920, there were about 2000 settler families in Kenya.


In 1896, the White settlers began arising and among the 1st settlers was Lord Delamre.

In 1902, the crownland ordinance allowed the governor to grnat sale and lease of unoccupied land to the Whites.

In 1905, a new crownlands ordinance declared that all unoccupied land belonged to her majesty`s government.

Between 1904-1906, 11000 Kikuyu were moved from Kiambu and 3000 Kamba were moved from Mauttills. The Masai were also moved from their land in 1904 and the Nandi also had to move in 1903 making room for more White settlers.

In 1911, the Masai were ordered to vacate Laikipaia and move to a reserve of Ngong after an Agreement with Lenana, the Masi Laibon and the British.

From 1920, the returned soldiers’ settler scheme was introduced and this led to more land alienation for White settlemtn under Governor Edward Northey.


It got established in the Nyanza region, highlands of Western Kenya founded by the Hima ruler from the Chwezi who came from the West, who came found and settled at Imanya hills near Mumia 1800AD.

More immigrants arrived from 1550AD to 1660AD. These were thought to be Ethiopians and descendants of luo.

They desposed the Hima rule and replaced it with a hereditary ruler (Nabongo) and centralized mornachy (Kingship) in the whole modern Kenya with institutions similar to those of the main interlacustrine region.


The Nabongo was the political head with a prime minister called Omwikeziy and army commander Omusera.

The position of Nabongo was hereditary and the Kingdom was highly centralized just like any other Kingdom.

Kingdom was divided into 5 clans each ruled by a Muhima or a Luyia of the Hima.

In administration, the Nabongo was assisted by a council leader formed from various matters affectiong the Kingdom.

The Luyia had an age set system (people of the same age). Lithula were initiated at the same time and this involved circumcision and removing teeth from the lower jaw.


Wanga people were basically agriculturalists growing mainly cereals and vegetables.

They also carried out some pastoralism keeping cattle, goats and sheep.

The Luyia people traded with their neighbours like the Luo, Kikuyu and Masai who they exchanged grains for animal products.

Hunting and fishing were important economic activities among the Luyia clans that made up Wanga Kingdom. Elephants were for ivory.

Work was divided according to sex; men hunted, cleared land for cultivation, harvested and made beer.


Socially, the Luyia lived in small communities (Villages) grouped together into units called Olukongo which had about 500 members.

The leader of each Olukongo had powers, both political and religious.

Social organisation was based on clans. Clans were made up of age sets (Olubaka) people of the same age make up an age set and would go for initiations at the same time.

Several families made up a subclan and several subclans made up a clan, each clan had a totem and members of (age made upon age set and would go for initiation at the same time) clans wouldn’t marry each other.

Work was communual Luyia, digging, building and even ceremonies like marriage, initiation and at times of death, people worked and stayed together. This crated a sense of brotherhood and unity. The land of each Okukongo presided over all activities.

A luyia home was full of stools, pots, baskets, grind, stones, hoes and calabashes. They also wore skins of goats and calves and wrappers made of banana fibres or sisal.

Religiously the Luyia believed in a spiritual being called “Were” and could only be contacted through the spirits of the dead.

The ancestors were therefore happily respected and sacrifices were always offered to them. Diviners linked people to air.


He had a good source of food for his soldiers throught his period i.e. 1891-1898.

He was able to resist the Germans for that long because the Hehe culture was dominated by military values and if any man disliked war he was forced to do women`s work or act as a potter.

The Hehe State was well organized and Mkwawa`s policy of royal centralization strengthened the State.

The soldiers and officials were royal to Mkwawa and were rewarded accorgingly i.e. he would give them war booty (looted items).

The Hehe had built a powerful army using the familiar Ngoni tactics and weapons instead of using the gun which was new to them.

They usually avoided open battles thus reducing the effectiveness of the German artillery.

Mkwawa had decided to use the guerilla warfare having realized that he was loosing the war.

The geographical set up of the area made it possible for the Hehe to resist for so long i.e. the area was wooded whereby his men could easily hide.

Mkwawa had a highly fortified capital (Kalenga) were the soldiers would retreat after fighting.

The uniform language Hehe made it possible to identify the enemy and also easied communication.

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