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ENG/P/6 Nouns

This unit will help you to comprehensively understand nouns

NOUNS

Nouns are naming words. Nouns name places, people and things.

Classification of nouns

ABSTRACT NOUNS

These are nouns that only exist in thought or idea but do not have a physical or practical existence, i.e. they can neither be touched nor seen.

Examples

Joy, hatred, freedom, sadness, pride, peace, bravery, shyness, happiness, etc.

Formation of abstract nouns.

They are formed from adjectives, verbs, or other nouns. They are formed in different ways.

A VIDEO ABOUT ABSTRACT NOUNS

Abstract nouns formed from adjectives.

  1. Those ending with ‚Äďness
AdjectiveNoun
badbadness
thinthinness
uglyugliness
cleancleanliness
drydryness
eagereagerness
clevercleverness
talltallness
bigbigness
fatfatness
lazylaziness
madmadness
dulldullness
richrichness
strangestrangeness
slowslowness
bitterbitterness
newnewness
selfishselfishness
politepoliteness
quietquietness
heavyheaviness
shabbyshabbiness
roughroughness
brightbrightness
boldboldness
smoothsmoothness

 

Exercise

Form abstract nouns by adding ‚Äďness

AdjectiveNoun
quick
holy
good
busy
rude
happy
short
kind
sick
shy
hot
weak
smart
foolish
ill
  1. Abstract nouns that change the final ‚Äút‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúte‚ÄĚ to ‚Äúce‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúcy‚ÄĚ

Examples

AdjectiveNoun
distantdistance
innocentinnocence
lenientlenience
abundantabundance
patientpatience
ignorantignorance
intimateintimacy
expectantexpectance
urgenturgency
accurateaccuracy

Exercise

Form abstract nouns from nouns by adding ‚Äúcy‚ÄĚ

AdjectiveNoun
pregnant
absent
agent
violent
silent
important
efficient
constituent
present
relevant

 

Abstract nouns that have irregular formation i.e. they are formed differently.

AdjectivesAbstract noun
powerfulpower
true/truthfultruth
mercifulmercy
anxiousanxiety
healthyhealth
dangerousdanger
cowardcowardice
punctualpunctuality
enviousenvy
jealousjealousy
rapidrapidity
broadbreadth
justjustice
highheight
noblenobility
falsefalsehood
hungryhunger
timidtimidity
perfectperfection
generousgenerosity
priorpriority
specialspecialty
purepurity
greedygreed
superiorsuperiority

 

Exercise

Form abstract nouns from these adjectives.

Adjectivenoun
painful
dead
curious
poor
wealthy
able
difficult
wise
harmful
free

 

Abstract nouns formed from verbs.

  1. a) Abstract nouns ending in -tion.
verbabstract noun
explainexplanation
repeatrepetition
classifyclassification
completecompletion
celebratecelebration
administeradministration
opposeopposition
continuecontinuation
interpretinterpretation
donatedonation
pronouncepronunciation
complicatecomplication

Exercise

Form abstract nouns from these verbs by adding ‚Äďtion

verbsabstract noun
congratulate
accommodate
corrupt
introduce
communicate
compete
co-ordinate
eliminate
calculate
eradicate

 

  1. b) Abstract nouns ending in ‚Äďsion

Verbs                                                                                                               abstract nouns

permitpermission
decidedecision
concludeconclusion
invertinversion
confuseconfusion
circumcisecircumcision
explodeexplosion
provideprovision
admitadmission
expelexpulsion
convertconversion

 

Exercise

Form abstract nouns from these verbs by adding ‚Äďsion

verbabstract noun
divide
express
discuss
impress
possess
ascend
profess
diffuse
confess
collide

 

  1. c) Abstract nouns formed by adding ‚Äďment to the verb.
verbsabstract nouns
developdevelopment
requirerequirement
governgovernment
punishpunishment
advertiseadvertisement
statestatement
disappointdisappointment
embarrassembarrassment
agreeagreement
commitcommitment
encourageencouragement
replacereplacement
enlightenenlightenment
accompanyaccompaniment
astonishastonishment
commencecommencement
managemanagement
postponepostponement
advanceadvancement

 

Exercise

Form abstract nouns by adding ‚Äďment to the given verbs.

verbabstract noun
pay
excite
entertain
achieve
measure
enjoy
assign
move
amuse
employ
refresh
  1. d) Abstract nouns that add ‚Äďance or ‚Äďence

Examples

verbabstract noun
acceptacceptance
acquaintacquaintance
allowallowance
appearappearance
assistassistance
clearclearance
defydefiance
disturbdisturbance
deliverdeliverance
enterentrance
hinderhindrance
performperformance
resistresistance
confideconfidence
dependdependence
existexistence
interfereinterference
occuroccurrence
obeyobedience
prevailprevalence
resideresidence
defenddefence

 

 

 

  1. e) Abstract nouns formed in an irregular way.
verbabstract noun
adviseadvice
applaudapplause
approveapproval
arrivearrival
departdeparture
beginbeginning
behavebehavior
believebelief
betraybetrayal
choosechoice
deceivedeceit
conspireconspiracy
discoverdiscovery
flyflight
exclaimexclamation
grievegrief
growgrowth
hatehatred
injureinjury
deliverdelivery
inquireinquiry
laughlaughter
loseloss
marrymarriage
mockmockery
pleasepleasure
occupyoccupation
practisepractice
presspressure
prescribeprescription
prophesyprophecy
proveproof
pursuepursuit
lendloan
sitseat
succeedsuccess

 

  1. f) Abstract nouns formed from nouns.
Nounabstract noun
neighborneighborhood
kingkingdom/kingship
hillhillock
childchildhood
manmanhood
brotherbrotherhood
poetpoetry
friendfriendship
relationrelationship
slaveslavery
warwarrior
martyrmartyrdom
potpottery
bakerbakery
butcherbutchery
grocergrocery

 

APPLICATION OF ABSTRACT NOUNS IN SENTENCES.

EXAMPLES.

This morning, our teacher got no satisfaction with our cleaning. (Satisfy)

Use the correct form of the words given in brackets to complete the sentences.

  1. I shall take the given to me by my mother. (advise)
  2. My aunt made a in her business yesterday. (lose)
  3. She was very dirty because of her . (poor)
  4. Because of her , she was elected prefect. (clean)
  5. The the teacher gave was satisfactory. (explain)
  6. Their took place at St. Peter’s church. (marry)
  7. The teacher has shown a lot of towards us today. (Lenient)
  8. The room echoed with the of the women. (Laugh)
  9. The answer Nanziri gave was just a of mine. (Repeat)
  10. The children’s at the concert was excellent. (Behave)
  11. That pupil was given a front because of his stubbornness. (Sit)
  12. We are looking for as we put security. (Safe)
  13. After the of the game, all players got refreshment. (Complete)

 

 

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

These are nouns in groups from which describe a group or collection of people, animals and things or objects. They can be categorized as follows.

  1. Collective nouns for people

Description                                                                                                                collective noun

A group of worshippers                                                                                      congregation

A group of thieves/ labourers                                                                                 gang

A group of singers                                                                                                      choir

A group of soldiers                                                                                            army/troops

A group of bishops/ judges                                                                                        bench

A group of musicians                                                                                                   band

A group of dancers/ artists                                                                                       troupe

A group of servants/ teachers                                                                                    staff

A group of actors                                                                                                    company

A  group of rioters/ demonstrators                                                                             mob

A group of governors/ directors                                                                                   board

A group of beautiful women                                                                                         bevy

People watching a game/ match                                                                             spectators

People attending a debate/ concert                                                                       audience

People at a funeral                                                                                   mourners /cortege

People working in a plane                                                                                           crew

A collection of angles                                                                                                    host

A group of friends                                                                                                        party

A group of pilgrims                                                                                                         band

A group of players                                                                                                         team

A group of learners/ pupils                                                                                            class

A group of people gathered for a common purpose                                                  assembly

A group of jurymen on a case                                                                                jury/panel

A group of prisoners                                                                                                       gang

A group of people lining up                                                                                            queue

A gang/ coffle of slaves

A field of athletes

 

 

  1. Collective nouns for animals

A flock of sheep

A herd of animals

A swarm of bees

A team of oxen/ horses

A litter of kittens/ pupils/ rabbits

A pride/ troop of lions

A troop of monkeys

A clowder of cats

A plague of locusts

A nest of rabbits

A muster of peacocks

A gaggle of geese

A leap of leopards

A pack of wolves

A catch/ haul of fish (in a net)

A school of whales

A flock/ flight of birds/ a covey of birds

A herd of elephants/ buffaloes/ pigs

A collection of fowls/poultry

A brood of chicks

A shoal of fish

A swarm of insects / a plague of insects

A pack of asses

A collection of wild animals ‚Äďzoo

A kindle of kittens

A collection of pictures

A clutch of eggs

 

  1. Collective nouns for things/ objectives

A bundle of sticks/ faggots

A constellation/ cluster of stars

A fight/ squadron of aero planes

A library of books

A bouquet of flowers

A chest of drawers

A bunting of flags

A clutch of eggs

A set of furniture / rooms ‚Äďsuite

An anthology of poems

A forest of trees

A fleet of cars / ships/shops in a line

A collection of scholastic materials- stationery

Cups, plates, bowels, dishes- crockery

Forks, spoons, knives, etc.- cutlery

A collection of rays- pencils

A set of tools

A cluster of grapes/ nuts

A string / rope of pearls

A heap/ pile of stones

A flight of steps

A sheaf of arrows

A batch of bread

A packet of agarretes

A tuft of grass

A group of islands

A collection of stamps/ pictures

Exercise

  1. A) Fill in the gaps with the correct collective noun
  2. The baker burnt the first of loaves.
  3. The author has a large of books of all kinds.
  4. A steep of steps led to the studio.
  5. Jennifer presented the Queen with a of flowers.
  6. There is a new of furniture in the lounge.

6 The police has arrested a                 of thieves.

  1. Will you be able to meet the of musicians from town.
  2. He attended a meeting of the of directors.
  3. The tourists were chased by a of wolves.
  4. Besides a of sheep, we keep a of cattle.
  5. B) Use of collective nouns in sentences

A collective noun names a single collection of persons, animals or things considered together as one whole. Therefore collective nouns take singular verbs.

Examples

  1. The staff of Global Junior School is big.
  2. The public says that nobody cares about them

Note

When the verb is in the plural form, it suggests that there is more than one collection.

Examples

  1. There are many tribes all over the country.
  2. The police have arrested the murderer (We mean individuals police officers)

If we mean the police as a department then the verb must be singular.

Example:

The police is in control (to be)

Exercise: Complete the sentences with suitable verbs formed from those in brackets.

Complete the sentences with suitable verbs formed from those in brackets.

  1. Our team always done well. (having)
  2. The family gone for their holiday (having)
  3. Here the flamingos. (coming)
  4. The whole family concerned about it (being)
  5. A herd of cattle passing over there. (be)
  6. The orphans advised to work hard (to be)
  7. Do not ask what the government done for, but ask what you have done for it (have).
  8. That school one of the best ones at football in the country.
  9. The police trying to control the defence of the country for some time (be)
  10. The Afrigo band done well recently (have)
  11. The Afrigo band (is, are) well behaved members who (show, shows) respect to             (its, their) audience.

NOUNS

Parents and young ones.

Male parentFemale parentYoung one
father (human)motherbaby
bullcowcalf
dogbitchpuppy
boarsowpiglet
lionlionesscub
foxvixencub
tom-cattabby-catkitten
Billy-goatnanny-goatkid
ramewelamb
bull(elephant)cow(elephantcalf
cockhenchick
stallion(horse)marefoal
gaundergoosegoslina
drakeduckducklining
buck(rabbit)doeleveret/rack

To be continued.

 

parentYoung one
birdnestling
eagleeaglet
owlowlet
frog/toadtadpole
deerfaun
leopardcub
fishfry
tigercub
bearcub
butterflycaterpillar
hareleveret
swancygnet
whalecalf

 

Exercise

Complete the sentences with the young ones of the given creatures.

  1. The cat carried the gently by its neck.
  2. Nine lively were ranged by round the sleeping sow.
  3. When the sheep buated, the ran to her at once.
  4. The mother bear will defend her with her life.
  5. The goose hissed when Jill tried to pick up one of her .
  6. The teacher said that the would soon grow into frogs.
  7. The little could not keep up with the nanny-goat.
  8. The duck was swimming down the river followed by several of her .
  9. There were four young in the eagles nest.
  10. The which was with the deer was three months old.

 

Sounds made by creatures

creaturesound
dovescoo
turkeysgobble
geesecackle/hiss
parrotsscreech/chatter/talk
wolveshowl
oxenlow
owlshoot
grasshopperschirr
apesgibber
hyenasscream/laugh
rabbitssqueal
mice/ratssqueak
deerbell
horsesneigh/whinny
donkeys/assesbray
bearsgrowl
lambsbleat
pigeonscoo
dogsbark/growl
catsmew/meow/purr
cowsmoo/low
snakeshiss
bullsbellow
sheepbleat
pigsgrunt/squeal
goatsbleat
henscackle/chuckle/cluck
cockscrow
ducksquack
monkeyschatter
lionsroar
elephantstrumpet
beesbuzz/hum
eaglesscream

 

Sounds made by objects

bellstinkle/peal
bowstwang
brakesgrind
bulletspig
caneswhack/swish
chainsjangle/rattle
clockstick
coinsclink/jingle
corkspop
dishesrattle/clatter
doorsslam/bang
drumsbeat
enginesthrob/splutter
explosionsblast
feettramp/shuffle
gunsboom
hingescreak
hoofsthunder/clatter
hornstoot
kettlessing
leavesrustle
paperrustle/crakle
raindropspatter
sawsbuzz
silkrustles
steamwails
skirtsswishhisses
steamhisses
streamsbabble/murmer
thunderspeals/claps
trainsrumble
whipslash/crack
whistlesshriek
wingswhirr

 

Exercise

Complete each sentence with a correct sound.

  1. The children were awakened by the of the mice behind the cupboard.
  2. Several monkeys were excited as they swung from tree to tree.
  3. The snake and made a lunge at the man’s feet.
  4. The villagers could hear the of a large pack of wolves in the nearby forest.
  5. The little pig as the farmer seizes hold of him.
  6. With a of the whistle, the train entered the tunnel.
  7. The firemen raced towards their engine as the siren .
  8. Collin awoke to the of the raindrops against his bedroom window.
  9. The room was so quiet that the of the clock could plainly be heard.
  10. When the sheep , her two little lambs came running to her.

 

Homes of creatures.

Different creatures live in different places or homes

  1. A) Animals
CreaturesHome/Dwelling place
beehive
eagleaerie/eyrie
mousehole/nest
dogkennel
pigsty/pigsty
foxlair/earth
horsestable
rabbit(domestic)hutch
rabbit(wild)warren/burrow
sheeppen/fold
snailshell
waspnest
tigerlair
spiderweb
bearden
dovedovecote
cowbyre/kraal
lionden/air
birdnest
haredrey
squirrel

 

 

  1. B) People
Creaturehome/ dwelling place
kingpalace
monkmonastery
nunCovent/nunnery
prisoner/convictcell
soldierbarracks
vicarvicarage
queenpalace
rectorrectory
bishoppalace
orphanorphanage
parsonparsonage
scouttent
lumber-jacklog cabins

 

Exercise.

Fill in the home of the creature mentioned.

  1. A is a home of religious women.
  2. A dog’s should be waterproof and raised above the ground level.
  3. The large contained a fat sow and her ten piglets.
  4. Geoffrey has made a fine for his pet rabbits.
  5. Several doves had a lighted on the roof of their .
  6. The eagle had built its high up among the rocks.
  7. Although roughly built, the lumberjack’s was warm and dry.
  8. Most of the convicts in the were serving long sentences.

Gender nouns

Gender is the fact of nouns and pronouns being male and female, either male or female, and neither male or female. Therefore all living animals and nonliving (inanimate) creatures belong to the four types of gender.

Types of gender

Masculine gender which refers to male creatures e.g. boy, boar etc.

Feminine gender which refers to females creatures e.g. girl, sow

Common gender which refers to either male or female e.g. child, teacher etc.

Neuter gender means neither male nor female e.g. books, stones etc.

Exercise

Classify these common nouns under these categories.

Masculine                Feminine              Common                      Neuter

  1. Niece
  2. Husband
  3. Spade
  4. Scholar
  5. Nephew
  6. Bull
  7. Orphan
  8. Guest
  9. Nun
  10. Film
  11. Bride
  12. Grass
  13. Princess
  14. Travelers
  15. Hotel
  16. Mistress
  17. Monk
  18. Secretary
  19. Motorcar
  20. Friend
  21. Spinster
  22. Window
  23. Glass
  24. Patient

Masculine and feminine

These can be classified using gender opposites.

Pronouns

Masculine                                                                            Feminine                                                                                                     

He                                                                                                                             she

Him                                                                                                                           her

His                                                                                                                             hers

Himself                                                                                                                     herself

 

Nouns

Learn these gender opposites

 

Masculine                                                                  Feminine

Gentleman                                                                                                    lady

Wizard                                                                                                         witch

Bachelor                                                                                                                                      spinster

Nephew                                                                                                                                       niece

Prince                                                                                                                                          princess

Hero                                                                                                                                             heroine

Sir                                                                                                                                                  madam

Tutor                                                                                                                                              governess

Widower                                                                                                                                       witch

Lad                                                                                                                                                  lass

Bullock                                                                                                                                           heifer

Drone                                                                                                                                            queen

Mr.                                                                                                                                                   Mrs.

Bridegroom                                                                                                                                   bride

Peacock                                                                                                                                          peahen

Actor                                                                                                                                              actress

Murderer                                                                                                                                          murderess

Emperor                                                                                                                                            empress

Hunter                                                                                                                                               huntress

Instructor                                                                                                                                          instructress

Duke                                                                                                                                                  duchess

Prophet                                                                                                                                             prophetess

Manager                                                                                                                                            manageress

God                                                                                                                                                     goddess

Author                                                                                                                                                 authoress

Priest                                                                                                                                                    priestess

Mayor                                                                                                                                                    mayoress

Tailor                                                                                                                                                     tailoress

Host                                                                                                                                                       hostess

Shepard                                                                                                                                                shepherdess

Steward                                                                                                                                                   stewardess

Giant                                                                                                                                                       giantess

Master                                                                                                                                                     mistress

Son                                                                                                                                                           daughter

Jack-ass                                                                                                                                                    jenny-ass

Negro                                                                                                                                                       Negress

Traitor                                                                                                                                                      traitress

Sorcerer                                                                                                                                                   sorceress

Conductor                                                                                                                                                conductress

Waiter                                                                                                                                                        waitress

Tiger                                                                                                                                                           tigress

Patron                                                                                                                                                patroness

Landlord                                                                                                                                             landlady

Lord                                                                                                                                                    lady

He-bear                                                                                                                                              she-bear

Heir                                                                                                                                                     heiress

Postmaster                                                                                                                                       postmistress

Step-son                                                                                                                                            stepdaughter

Monk                                                                                                                                                  nun.

 

 

 

NOUNS AND NUMBER (PLURAL)

The word number means ‚Äėsingular‚Äô (one) or ‚Äėplural‚Äô (more than one)

Forming plurals of nouns

There are different ways of forming plurals of nouns

By adding ‚Äės‚Äô;

This is typical of most common nouns

Examples;

singularplural
deskdesks
penpens
cockcocks
sticksticks
doordoors
windowwindows
tabletables
chairchairs
bookbooks
carcars
spoonspoons
cupcups
plateplates
forkforks

 

2 .By adding ‚Äėes‚Äô to the singular. Most common nouns that end in s, x, ch, sh and o form their plurals by adding ‚Äėes‚Äô to the singular.

Examples:

singularplural
busbuses
gasgases
boxboxes
foxfoxes
churchchurches
benchbenches
watchwatches
brushbrushes
speechspeeches
bushbushes
mangomangoes
potatopotatoes
tomatotomatoes
echoechoes
glassglasses

 

  1. By changing y‚Äô to ‚ÄėI‚Äô before adding ‚Äėes‚Äô

Examples

singularplural
flyflies
bodybodies
lorrylorries
babybabies
skyskies
ladyladies
stysties
countycounties
countrycountries
citycities
dutyduties
factoryfactories
companycompanies
partyparties
treatytreaties
enemyenemies
storystories
berryberries
salarysalaries

 

 

Note:

Rule:  The letter proceeded by a vowel.

Singularplural
daydays
keykeys
boyboys
donkeydonkeys
monkeymonkeys
guyguys
toytoys
valleyvalleys
railwayrailways
turkeyturkeys
spraysprays
trolleytrolleys
rayrays
traytrays
exception:Pennies|pence
Penny

 

  1. Nouns ending in ‚Äėf‚Äô or ‚Äėfe‚Äô change these letters to ‚Äėv‚Äô before adding ‚Äėes‚Äô
Singularplural
leafleaves
loafloaves
thiefthieves
calfcalves
shelfshelves
knifeknives
wifewives
lifelives
wolfwolves
selfselves

 

NOTE:

The following nouns can add either ‚Äės‚Äô or ves

singularplural
scarfscarves/scarfs
hoofhooves/hoofs
dwarfdwarves/dwarfs

 

Exceptions:

Singularplural
roofroofs
chiefchiefs
handkerchiefhandkerchiefs
reefreefs
staffstaffs
golfgolfs
stuffstuffs
beliefbeliefs
proofproofs

 

Note; The above nouns just add‚Äės‚Äô to form their plural.

  1. Nouns ending in ‚Äėo‚Äô and take on (es) for their plural.

 

 

Examples

singularplural
heroheroes
flamingoflamingoes
buffalobuffaloes
volcanovolcanoes
cargocargoes
negronegroes

 

Exceptions;

The following nouns just add(s) for plural ¬†yet end in ‚Äėo‚Äô.

singularplural
radioradios
pianopianos
photophotos
solosolos
embryoembryos
iglooigloos
videovideos
bamboobamboos
studiostudios
dynamodynamos
silosilos
foliofolios
stereostereos
eskimoeskimos

 

  1. By changing the vowels;

Examples;

singularplural
manmen
womanwomen
footfeet
toothteeth
goosegeese
oasisoases
radiusradii
crisiscrises
axisaxes
aquariumaquaria
stimulusstimuli
basisbases
formulaformulae
bacteriabacteria
fungusfungi
focusfoci
syllabussyllabi

 

  1. Special formations (no rule applies)
singularplural
oxoxen
childchildren
louselice
mousemice
vertexvertices
indexindices

 

  1. Nouns that are always used in plural. (Pairs)

Examples:

Scissors

Trousers

Shorts

Pants

Knickers

Molasses

Spectacles

Tongs

Pliers

Binoculars

  1. Nouns that sound plural but take verbs in singular form.
    Nouns denoting subjects, tribes and disciplines remain the same in singular and plural.

Examples

News

Mathematics

Physics

Mumps

Measles

 

  1. 11. Nouns that have the same form for singular and plural
Singularplural
deerdeer
sheepsheep
furniturefurniture
luggageluggage
baggagebaggage
adviceadvice
informationinformation

 

Plurals of compound noun:

1regular formation (by adding‚Äės‚Äô to the noun)

  1. a) Noun plus noun then add ‚Äės‚Äô at the end of a compound noun.

Examples

singularplural
landlordland lords
book casebook cases
cross wordcross words
chest nutchest nuts
low landlow lands

 

  1. b) Verb‚Äô plus ‚Äėnoun then add ‚Äės‚Äô at the end

Examples:

singularplural
pick pocketpick pockets
paint brushpaint brushes

C verb plus adverb then add‚Äės‚Äô at the end

Examples

singularplural
breakdownbreakdowns
fly-overfly-overs
drive indrive-ins

 

  1. Noun plus a noun forming a plural in both parts

Examples

singularplural
woman-servantwomen servants

 

  1. e) Noun plus ful then add ‚Äės‚Äô

Examples

singularplural
handfulhandfuls
cupfulcupfuls
lorryfullorryfuls
spoonfulspoonfuls

 

  1. Adjective plus noun then add‚Äės‚Äô

Examples:-

singularplural
up landuplands
lady-driverlady-drivers
male-studentmale-students

 

  1. Irregular Formation: – (making modifications to the nouns)
  2. a) Noun +adverb t hen add‚Äės‚Äô to the noun;-examples;

Examples

singularplural
passer-bypassers-by
runner-uprunners-up
going- ongoings ‚Äďon

 

  1. b) ‚ÄėNoun‚Äô + ‚Äėadjective‚Äôthen adds ‚Äės‚Äô to the noun

     Examples:-

Singular                                        Plural

Court-martial                              Courts-martial

Attorney-general¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† attorneys ‚Äď general

Notary ‚Äď public¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† notaries- public

 

¬†¬†¬†¬† (c) ‚ÄėNoun‚Äô + ‚ÄėPrepositional phrase‚Äô then add ‚Äės‚Äô to the noun

            Examples:-

Singular

Brother ‚Äď in-law

Justice-of-peace

Secretary- of- state

Compound nouns without a hyphen.

Examples:-

Singular                                            Plural

Armchair                                          armchairs

Payment                                          payments

Blackboard                                       blackboards

Handkerchief                                              handkerchiefs

Compound nouns with ‚Äėone‚Äô hyphen

Examples.

Singular                                                        Plural

Step                                                    step- mothers

X-ray                                                  X-rays

Co-worker                                        Co-workers

Chest-nut                                          Chest-nuts

Post-Office                                       Post-Offices

Mouse-trap                                      mouse-traps

Head-phone                                    head-phones

Girl-guide                                         girl-guides

Tape-measure                                 tape-measures

Cob-web                                           Cob-webs

Egg-plant                                          Egg-plants

Tooth-brush                                    tooth-brushes

 

Compound nouns with two hyphens

Examples:-

Singular                                                        Plural

Sister in law

Head of state

Prefect on duty

Maid of honour

Tug of war

Officer in charge

Master of ceremonies

Member of staff

Commander in chief

Guest of honour

Plurals of nouns from other languages

Most words that have been taken from other languages retain their original plurals.

Examples:-

Singular                                                         Plural

Stadium                                            Stadia

Agendum                                          Agenda

Plasmodium                                     Plasmodia

Beau                                                   Beaus/beaux

Bandit                                                            Bandits

Hippopotamus                                            Hippopotami/ Hippopotamuses

Almuna                                             Alumuna

Basis                                                   Bases

Oasis                                                  Oases

Crisis                                                  Crises

 

Exercise.

A Form Plurals of the given common nouns

  1. Fee 11. Ferry
  2. Toe 12. Pass
  3. Ash             13. Society
  4. Avocado             14. Hair
  5. Cliff 15. Face
  6. Lilly 16. Library
  7. Half 17. Cabinet
  8. Diary 18. Plateau
  9. Ditch 19. referendum
  10. Wish 20. Volunteer
  11. Form plurals of the given compound nouns:-
  12. Ink-stand     7.  Seed-drill
  13. Horse-shoe      8.  Wage-earner
  14. Round ‚Äďabout ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†9.¬† Time – keeper
  15. Sign ‚Äď Post ¬†¬†¬†¬† 10.Woman-driver
  16.   Water-melon                 11. Country -man
  17. Business-man

 

Application of Plurals in sentences.

Use the nouns given in the brackets correctly to complete the sentences.

  1. All ………………………………………….in the library are full of book . (Shelf)
  2. Africa should not face much food…………………………………now. (crisis)
  3. …………………………………..are very cunning everywhere (pick pocket)
  4. Mrs. Okoedi has borrowed three………………………………..of sugar. (cupful)
  5. Do you have a number of …………………………………… (women-friend)
  6. These bridges have two ………………………………………. (basis)
  7. Many people have lost the ……………………………………..in accidents. (life)
  8. Britain’s former…………………………………………..have been kind to Uganda. (Secretary-of-state)
  9. Volunteers often dig wells in their………………………………………………… (communities)
  10. Her blood contains a lot of ……………………………………………………..(plasmodium)

ASSIGNMENT : Nouns MARKS : 23  DURATION : 10 hours

 
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