This unit dwells on the Industrilisation sector

Manufacturing industries

Types of industries

Manufacturing industries e.g engineering, textile, food products, chemical industries.


It has 2 branches i.e. heavy engineering and light engineering. The heavy engineering land are large qualities the steel they are also often due to the iron and manufacturing industry e.g. ship building, chemical production, railway engineering.

The light engineering industries make small goods like electric equipment and water wage of raw materials with very high quantity dp like textile industries, printing, mking of furniture.

They need small quantities of iron and steel which can be transported from one place to another. Therefore they are more scattered in the heavy engineering industries. However one only found in places where there is a lot of power supply and an abundance of skilled labour.

 Transport equipment industries

They are divided into 3

  1. Auto mobile
  2. Assembled
  • Transport vessels

They are on a large scale and include a lot of skill; most of the movement located in the major industrial areas of the world because they require a lot of skill some of them capital intensive and they are centered in the developed countries.

 Textile industries

It is the oldest industry in the world. It is one of the most widely distributed with every having at least a textile.

This is because;

  • Constant dd for clothing material
  • It doesn’t require a lot of highly trained skilled labour
  • Local raw materials especially cotton can be produced in very may cities.
  • The fiber used as raw materials are light and non perishable they are easily be imported by the non producing cities.
  • It is a basic need of an and the demand is constant
  • Synthetic raw materials have also been discovered so at cities without the natural raw materials can still produce textile.
  • Chemical industries
  • It’s very relatively new industry which is growing very fast.

There are various products which can be categorized under; heavy chemicals e.g. sulphur, acids and hydroxides. Their manufacture depends mainly on mineral deposits or industrial by products.

  • Petrol chemicals

These include plastics synthetic, explosive fertilizers. There sites locations are usually away from the major population centers because of their explosive nature. Plastics are widely used because of their great durability, attractiveness and cheapness.

Other petrol chemical products include paints and petroleum such as industries are usually located near coal mines or petroleum refiners.

  • Pharmaceuticals;

They manufacture drugs and medicine. Originally drugs are manufactured from plants and animal products but today chemical compounds have replaced them large quantities of products re produced e.g. by ICT and Mand B industries.

  • Food processing;

They are also found in all countries of the world scattered n various areas.

They are of two types there processing include;

  • Preservative industries

The percussive includes processing of grain roots, leaves or stems of plants butchering of animals such as industries include grain milling industries, sugar refineries.

The preservation industries mainly deal in canning, bathing, drying and freezing of products.

Factors determining the location existence

  1. Raw materials.

Some industries are located to the source of raw materials because they are bulky or highly perishable e.g. food processions get spilt very fast e.g. diary and meat products; meat diary, meat pokers and the fish cannoning.

Most food staffs have to be processed quickly one harvested so that they industries are found near the source of raw materials.

Industries at the use forest raw materials or minerals are also close to raw materials source e.g. some mills and pulp mills are located near forest because they are bulky to transport and once processed may weight e.g. most Canadian saw mills and pulp mills are located in the coniferous forest belt of Quebec, California and Ontario.

Secondary industries.

These rely on other industries e.g raw materials and they are often close to these industries e.g heavy engineering industries must be near the steel and central chemical industries are new oil refineries.

Fuel and power; e.g. the industries revelation charcoal and wood was the main source of fuel and water mills provided by fuel with the revolution of main source of power became coal, because of its bulky nature, industry had to be located near the coal mines e.g Ruhr region. The natural gas, petroleum and electricity have made power decisive factors determining the location of the industry. Since there can easily be transported.

However older industries had a very significant pool on the location in relation o coal electricity can be transmitted up to km for the station so industries can be located far from the near source.

Minimum smelting industry e.g kitimal, Canada, pul and pare industry in Sweden electro chemical industries in Switzerland iron and steel in the great lakes region, USA.


There’s very strong justifications for industrial development to be located near market centres at consume their finished products.

A fairly large population with a fairly high purchasing power offers a large market for most industries. Products some industries have t be located near the market e.g.

These producing fragile products.

There approximate to the market centers reduce the loss of the goods like glass and tangible goods that are easily broken while transition.

These producing perishable goods especially food stuffs like dairy products and abroad products such as industries are found near urban centers where the market is reliable i.e. market gardening in Netherlands.

Goods which are of low value or bulky goods; this increases the costs spent on to e.g. brick making industries and his manufacturing areas.


An adequate labour for is required in the initiative and continuous industry.

Types of labour differencing

Labour can be move anywhere ; it is not vey decisive factor in lotion but industries  that require highly skilled man power are mostly located in the industries countries where at labour is available.

In cackle there’s a large market manufacturing industries because of the availability of labour and the industry is labour intensive with good managerial skill and innovative abolition have got many industries.


Efficient transport and communication are necessary for growth and development industries. This enables the raid translocation of raw materials products labour from the producing areas to the market.

The transporting of raw materials is influential in the location of industries. In developing cities the inefficiency of the top facilitates leads to the location of most industries count it due to efficient cheap transport long the lake.

There are also cheap transport e.g. New York, Hamburg, Tokyo, Hudson, mohhaurk great lakes region and Ruhr industrial region.

Government policy.

Either for political or even own reason the government may encourage or discourage the development of industries in some areas which the government in England has discouraged the development of more industries in greater London by increasing the taxes related to industrial development in this area while the government of Italy.

The desire to teed a a given belt in most idealized trains require developed world has also limited the expansion of industries in those at the already developed. Open up under developed parts ie easfrom health land of the zoning of industrial areas.


Some industries require a lot of the land and so they are found in areas at how plenty of land e.g ford automobile industry at Dagenham q is task of London, Essex ibex 200 hectares of cheap non agricultural land.

The high cost of urban land, often leads to the setting up of many industries further away from the urban areas. Lack or room for expansion in the narrow valise around Pittsburg is one of the reasons why they shaft to the great lakes shore lands.


Unless an industry has financial banking.

It can be developed. Money is needed in every phase of development i.e. purchase of land, raw materials and payment of rockers. Cities with a lot of resource have utilized it to develop and expand their industrial sector.

This is costly in developed cites like UK, Japan, Germany, USA most of these cities have industries at are evenly distributed all over the city.


Countries with high levels of technology also have many industries require theses industries are k intensive producing high quality goods and in fairly large quantities.

This applies mostly to the developed countries. Countries with low levels of technology likewise have fewer industries with a number at are labour intensive.

Water supply:

Some industries require a lot of water either as raw material or as product of the processing system manufacturing processing breweries / drinks and textile and chemical industry most of these industries are found close to a major water body e.g Nile breweries near chemical industries in Liverpool.

Industrial inertia:

The existence of many industries in one area encourages the development of other industries in the same area in order to tap the adders at are already existing like top, market etc. this has helped some industrial areas to become industrial conations e.g. the Ruhr and New York.

Examples of such industries are the biscuit industry in London, jute industry.



  It was a cradle land of the industrial revolution. The main industry areas extend from the west to the east and it has a greatest industrial lop with a large sector of people employed within the industrial sector.


It’s one of the most industrialized countries of Europe with also some of the oldest industries.

The major industrial areas include; Yorkshire, midland; it’s centered t Birmingham and its Britain’s largest industrial centers.

Its early growth was due to the presence of coal fields but its central population has been the most influential factor. This has resulted in the development of a dense road network or railways.

This industrial area produces nearly everything but specializes in smaller metal goods and they manufacture are high quality items. Some of the industries use iron equipment, textile etc.


It’s the center of heavy industries in Britain. It’s centered on the north lumber coal field. One of the main industrial cities is Newcastle is important for ship building.

Other important industries in the region re iron and steel and its related industries e.g. manes, mechanical and construction engineering.

Yorkshire region

It’s the centre of industries based on the manufacture of the textile e.g woolen, clothe, the textile mills are highly mechanized use imported wool from Australia and New Zealand.

It has developed as a result of proximity to an iron and steel industry; coal availability and the presence of skilled labour.

Other industrial areas have harsh ire, great London south Wales and central Scotland.

Generally the Western Europe is more developed an the estri side of Europe. Other industrial areas of the west are

  • The French Belgium coal Sweden
  • Swiss plateau
  • Ruhr region


  • The presence of huge resources of fuel and power inform of other coal or .
  • An abundant supply of iron ore has favoured the development of iron and steel industries and many other related industries.
  • Availability of k q is injected in industrial development.
  • Efficient transport and common system of roads, rail, and air as well apron to the sea of most industrial areas q makes transport cheaper and easier. These have shorter distance.
  • The people have the capability to invest as well as acquire skills for industrial development. The German Swiss but investment genius are responsible for the innovation of various applied.
  • The big and rich population provides already market.
  • Government policies that are hinged on greater industrial development.
  • Political stability which creates a conducive environment for industrial development. This is portrayed mainly in Switzerland.
  • High levels of technology. A lot of industries k intensive which increases efficiency quality.
  • The presence of highly skilled man power.
  • Availability of water from rivers e.g Ruhr area.

Factors hindering industrial development in western Europe

  • There is limited supply of most industrial mineral ores since most of them have been exhausted.
  • Lack of most agricultural raw materials like coal, cotton and rubber.
  • Limited reserves of oil and natural gas are used as power.
  • Most of the industrial building and equipment are getting old fashioned e.g. New York has enter building industry in London.
  • Little economic and political unity among the European cities through currently solved by EEC.


It’s the largest industrial complex in Europe. It has developed in the recent past to the leading iron and steel producer, coal producer chemical centre and engineering centre. It’s an industrial connubial with about turn’s e.g. Duce berg, Essen and Dortmund.

It’s endorsed by the rivers Rhine, lipped and wupper.

Factors favoring the growth of the Ruhr industrial area

  • Presence of good quality working coat. It was easy to mine since it was exposed.
  • A good network especially on the Rhine
  • The land is generally at making the constant of roads, railway and building easy.
  • The dense population has provided skilled labour on the rich population has provided markets.
  • Availability of k. they get a lot aid from developed cities q was a good k base.
  • Political stability for the long time.
  • Government policy also focused on their level of industrial development.
  • The presence of raw materials e.g. irons ore in the loran, coal field. This was as a result to the buy part of Germany.
  • Initiative of a number of local businessmen e.g. Krupp at Essen


These are other industry centers in Germany e.g. Hamburg Bremmie with a ship building iron and seel as well as vehicle assembling.

Munich with chemical, engineering, food processing etc. frank fort and Manheim with industrial areas and engineering.



Industrialization began their air Europe but it has progressed more than Europe. USA has the most highly development and healthiest society would go to the major industrial areas.

Reasons for the growth of the industries

  • A is a very big continent. Width varrrying relief and climate so a range of agric production is possible and are availability of raw materials like cotton.
  • It has almost all the known minerals ad fuels are found in large quantities providing a good base for the development e.g. steel iron ore.
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