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It is the process of finding out how long, short, big, small, heavy or light an object is.

MassIt is the amount or quantity of matter in an object.

It is measured in grams (g), kg (kilograms).

NB: Its standard unit is kg.

Gravity:Is the force of the earth that pulls down objects.or Is the force of attraction that objects have on one another because of their masses.NB On earth the gravitational force acting on mass is 10N

The size of the force becomes smaller as the object moves further from the surface of the earth.

LengthNB: The standard units for length are

MetresInstruments used to measure lengthA line segment:Is a line between two points.ActivityLearners draw line segments of different length.

a). 4cm b) 6cm c) 8cm d) 14cm

AREAIt is the total space covered by an object.

It is measured in Square Units cm

^{2}, m^{2}, dm^{2}, km^{2}.Area of a rectangleThe width is the shorter side of a rectangle

The length is the longer side of a rectangle

Finding areaArea is calculated by multiplying the longest side (length) by the shorter side (width). Length is represented by letter L and with is represented by letter W.

Find the area of the figure below

Area = Length x width= sq units

NB: A regular rectangle has two opposite sides equal. Basic units for area are square units e.g. cm

^{2}, m^{2}, km^{2}etcActivity

Area of a squareA square has all its sides equal

Area = s x s

= S

^{2 }Area = s x s

= 4cm x 4cm

= 16cm

^{2}VolumeIt is the space occupied by an object

It is measured in cubic units (cc, cm

^{2}, mm^{3}, m^{3))}Types of shaped objectsThere are two types of shaped objects namely;

Regular objectsThey are objects with specific (definite) shapes e.g. cuboids, bricks, blocks, tins, rectangles, square etc

Finding volume of regular objectsFind the volume of the figure above.

Irregular shaped objectsThese are objects which don’t have proper or well defined shape e.g. stones, keys, needles, shoes, sweet potato tuber, cassava tuber etc

Finding volume of regular shaped objects

Displacement methodIs the method used to find the volume of irregular objects.

Instruments used to measure the volume of irregular objectsIt is called the displacement method because irregular object displaces the amount of water equal to its volume.

Using a measuring cylinderRequirements;

Water, measuring cylinder, stone or sweet potato etc

ProcedureStep IPour water into a measuring cylinder about half full and record the volume of the water.

Step IIGently lower the irregular object tied on a string into the measuring cylinder.

Step IIIRecord the final level of the water in the measuring cylinder.

Step IVSubtract the first level from the final level.

V = Final level – 1

^{st}levelV = 10cc – 5cc

V = 5cc

NB

The volume of the irregular object is equal to the volume of the displaced water.

Using an over flow can (Eureka can)Step IPour water in the can up to the level of the spout

Step IIPut the irregular object tied on a thread gently in the can.

Step IIICollect the water that pours out of the can in a measuring cylinder

10ccWeight and massWeight is the pull of an object towards the earth by the force of gravity. The weight of an object is determined by the following;

Size of the object

Material from which an object is made

The pull of the force of gravity

The basic unit for weight is Newtons (N).

Mass is the quantity of matter contained in an object. Mass is constant i.e. it doesn’t change and it doesn’t depend on the pull of gravity.

The units for mass are grammes (g) or kilogrammes (kg). weight and mass are both measured using the following instruments.

DensityDensity is mass per unit volume. The density of an object is found after knowing its mass and its volume. The fomular for finding density is;

Density (D) = mass (m) or weight D = M

Volume V

The units for density are grammes per cubic units i.e.

Grammes per cubic centimetres (g/cc)/ g/cm

^{3}Grammes per cubic mililitres g/ml

^{3}Densities of liquidsLiquids have different densities.

Density of liquids is measured by an instrument called a hydrometer.

Finding densityExample: Find the density of an object of mass 150g and volume of 30cc.

Difference between weight and massFloating objectsFloating is when an object stays on top when thrown on water.

Objects float on water because they are less dense than the density of water or objects float because there density less dense than water.

When an object floats in a fluid, two forces act on it; its own weight and upthrust force of the fluid.

Examples of floating objectsCork

Plastic

Boats

Sponge

Feather

Leaves

Soft dry wood

Paper

Petrol, paraffin

SinkingIt is when an object thrown on water goes to the bottom of the water.

Objects sink because they are more dense than water.

Examples of sinking objectsStones

Sand

Soil

Metal

Glass

Nails

Coins

Pins

Clay

Keys

NB: Any sinking objects displaces water equal to its volume while a floating object displaces water equal to its weight.

## ASSIGNMENT : MEASUREMENT p.5 assignment

MARKS : 10 DURATION : 1 week, 3 days