PHYSICAL FEATURES OF UGANDA
- These are natural landforms on the earth’s surface.
Physical features are grouped into two.
- Relief features
- Drainage features
- Relief is the general appearance of land.
Examples of relief features
(ii) Rift valley
(v) Islands. etc
LOCATING PHYSICAL FEATURES ON THE MAP OF UGANDA.
It is the height above sea level.
Name physical features which cover the largest part of Uganda
- It is the plateau.
What is a plateau
- Is a raised flat topped piece of land.
- Is a table land.
Draw a symbol of a plateau
Identify two activities carried out on a plateau
(i) Farming/Agriculture. (vi) Settlement
State any problems faced by people who live on plateaux
(i) There is soil erosion.
(iii) Crop pests and diseases.
- The highest point of Uganda is on top of mountain Rwenzori
- The lowest point is at Nimule at Uganda’s boarder with Sudan.
- The plateau of Uganda is higher to the south and lower to the north.
- Highlands or mountains are areas about 2000 metres above sea level and beyond.
- In Uganda they include Mt. Rwenzori, Moroto,Mt Mufumbiro and Mt Elgon
Types of mountains
(i) Block mountains horst.
(ii) Volcanic mountains.
(iii) Fold mountains.(Not found in Uganda)
Block or Horst mountains
How were block mountains formed?
- They were formed as a result of faulting.
What is Faulting?
- Faulting is a process where cracks develop in the rock within the earth crust as a result of tension and compression forces.
Faulting leads to formation of;
(i) Block mountains.
(ii) Rift valley.
(iii) Fault guided rivers and lakes .
Formation of Block mountains
The land on either side of the cracks sinks or is pushed up.
The land that sinks forms a rift valley while that which is pushed up forms a block mountain.
- An example of a block mountain in Uganda is Mt. Rwenzori.
- Rwenzori is a block or horst mountain.
- It has very many peaks which form ranges.
- Rwenzori is shared by two countries Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo. The highest peak on Mt. Rwenzori is Margherita. Mt. Rwenzori was named “Mountain of the Moon” by H.M. Stanley.
1.Why did Stanley name Mt. Rwenzori the mountains of the moon?
- Why is Mt. Rwenzori snow copped?
(i) Its highest peak crosses the snow line.
- Reasons why there are no plant and animals at the top of Mt. Rwenzori.
(i) It is too cold at the top of Mr. Rwenzori.
(ii) It is too cold on the top to support plants growth on which animals feed
(iii) Mt. Rwenzori top is snow copped.
- Give reasons why it is difficult to build roads and railways in Bundibugyo
(i) It is a mountainous area.
(ii)It is expensive to construct winding roads on the mountain slopes in Bundibugyo.
- Which people live on the slopes of Mt. Rwenzori?
Bakonjo and Bamba live on the slopes of Mt . Rwenzori.
Why would you advise the people of Bundibugyo to rear donkeys?
- For easy transport.
Importance of donkeys to people of Bundibugyo
(ii) It is a source of income.
(iii) Provides meat to the people.
(iv) Used for ploughing.
How are volcanic mountains formed?
- Volcanic mountains were formed as result of volcanicity.
What is vulcanicity?
- It is a process where hot rocks\ Magma comes out of the earth crust during an eruption.
- A volcanic mountain is formed when Magma comes out of the ground to the earth’s surface.
Examples of volcanic mountains in Uganda
(i) Mt. Elgon
(ii) Mt. Moroto
(iii) Mt. Mufumbiro
Materials that come out during volcanic eruption
THIS VIDEO SHOWS VOLCANIC ERUPTION
What is Magma?
- The molten material which comes out of the earth’s interior during an eruption.
- Is magma which has cooled down on the earth’s surface after eruption.
THE FEATURES OF VOLCANIC MOUNTAIN
Types of volcanic mountains
These are mountains which are likely to erupt any time e.g. Mt. Mufumbiro
A dormant volcano/sleeping volcanoes
These are mountains which can erupt but have taken a long time without erupting.
Extinct volcano/Dead volcanoes
These are mountains which cannot erupt .
On top of the extinct volcano, there is always a depression (crater) which is filled with water to form as crater lake.
- It is found at the border of Uganda and Kenya.
- Mt. Elgon was formed by volcanicity.
- It is the second highest mountain in Uganda.
- Its peak is called Wagagai
- It is locally known as Mt. Masaba
- It is a volcanic mountain.
- It receives little rainfall because of dry winds that blow over there.
- The main occupation for people who live around is pastoralism.
- People living around the mountain include Karamojong and the Jie of Kenya.
How are mountains important to the people who live near them?
(i) They help in formation of rainfall.
(ii) They are fertile soils for agriculture.
(iii) Attract tourists. It is a tourist attraction centre.
(iv) Mountains are sources of some rivers.
- It is a long narrow depression on the earth surface boardered by steep sides called escarpments.
How was a Rift Valley formed?
(i) It was formed by faulting process helped by Tensional forces.
(ii)It starts from River Jordan and ends at Beira Mozambique.
THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT THE FORMATION OF A RIFT VALLEY
What is an escarpment scarps?
- It is the steep side of Rift Valley
The rift valley has two branches namely
(i) Eastern branch passes through Kenya & Tanzania ii) Western branch passes through Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi & Tanzania.
Lakes in Western branch of the valley in Uganda.
(i) Lake Albert (iii) Lake Edward
(ii) Late Katwe (iv) Lake Mutanda
Some lakes in Ugand which are not found at rift valley include:
(i) Lake Victoria
(ii) Lake Kyoga
(iii) Lake Mburo
iv) Lake Wamala
Characteristics of Rift Valley lakes
(i) They have salty water.
(ii) They are deep.
(iii) They have inlets without outlets.
(iv) They are long and narrow.
v) They have a regular shape.
Importance of Rift Valley
(i) It is a tourist attraction centre..
(ii) Rift valley lakes have minerals e.g. salt and soda ash.
(iii)Pastoralism is carried out in Riftvalleys
- It is used for farming.
It has lakes where fishing is carried out.
Disadvantages of rift valley
(i) Poor transport system around rift valley areas.
(ii) Land slides are common.
iii) Floods are common.
Activities carried in rift valley
(i) Mining (iii) Tourism
(ii) Fishing (iv)crop Farming
FORMATION OF RIFT VALLEY
Of what importance is Lake Katwe to Uganda’s economy?
(i) It provides salt to people of Uganda.
(ii) It attracts tourists.
iii) Provides employment.