PHYSICAL FEATURES OF UGANDA

This Unit is about Physical Features in Uganda and it includes Mountains and the rift valley.

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF UGANDA

  • These are natural landforms on the earth’s surface.

Physical features are grouped into two.

  • Relief        features
  • Drainage features

Relief features

  • Relief is the general appearance of land.

Examples of relief features

(i)         highlands

(ii)        Rift valley

(iii)       Plains

(iv)       Plateau

(v)        Islands. etc

Drainage features

(i)         Lake

(ii)        Rivers

(iii)       streams

(iv) Seas

(v)Oceans

LOCATING PHYSICAL FEATURES ON THE MAP OF UGANDA.

 map

Altitude

It is the height above sea level.

Name physical features which cover the largest part of Uganda

  • It is the plateau.

What is a plateau

  • Is a raised flat topped piece of land.
  • OR
  • Is a table land.

Draw a symbol of a plateau

plateau

Identify two activities carried out on a plateau

(i)         Farming/Agriculture. (vi) Settlement

(ii)        Tourism.

(iii)       Mining.

(iv)       Industralisation.

(v)        Lumbering.

State any problems faced by people who live on plateaux

(i)         There is soil erosion.

(ii)        floods

(iii)       Crop pests and diseases.

  • The highest point of Uganda is on top of mountain Rwenzori
  • The lowest point is at Nimule at Uganda’s boarder with Sudan.
  • The plateau of Uganda is higher to the south and lower to the north.

THE HIGHLANDS/MOUNTAINS

  • Highlands or mountains are areas about 2000 metres above sea level and beyond.
  • In Uganda they include Mt. Rwenzori, Moroto,Mt Mufumbiro and Mt Elgon

Types of mountains

(i)         Block mountains horst.

(ii)        Volcanic mountains.

(iii)       Fold mountains.(Not found in Uganda)

Block or Horst mountains

How were block mountains formed?

  • They were formed as a result of faulting.

What is Faulting?

  • Faulting is a process where cracks develop in the rock within the earth crust as a result of tension and compression forces.

Faulting leads to formation of;

(i)         Block mountains.

(ii)        Rift valley.

(iii)      Fault guided rivers and lakes .

Formation of Block mountains

block mountains

The land on either side of the cracks sinks or is pushed up.

The land  that sinks forms a rift valley while that which is pushed up  forms a block mountain.

horst

  • An example of a block mountain in Uganda is Mt. Rwenzori.
  • Rwenzori is a block or horst mountain.
  • It has very many peaks which form ranges.
  • Rwenzori is shared by two countries Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo. The highest peak on Mt. Rwenzori is Margherita. Mt. Rwenzori was named “Mountain of the Moon” by H.M. Stanley.

1.Why did Stanley name Mt. Rwenzori  the mountains of the moon?

  1. Why is Mt. Rwenzori snow copped?

(i)         Its highest peak  crosses the snow line.

  1. Reasons why there are no plant and animals at the top of Mt. Rwenzori.

(i)     It is too cold at the top of Mr. Rwenzori.

(ii)    It is too cold on the top to support plants growth on which animals feed

(iii)   Mt. Rwenzori top is snow copped.

  1. Give reasons why it is difficult to build roads and railways in Bundibugyo

(i)         It is a mountainous area.

(ii)It is expensive to construct winding roads on the mountain slopes in Bundibugyo.

  1. Which people live on the slopes of Mt. Rwenzori?

Bakonjo and Bamba live on the slopes of Mt . Rwenzori.

Why would you advise the people of Bundibugyo to rear donkeys?

  • For easy transport.

Importance of donkeys to people of Bundibugyo

(ii)        It is a source of income.

(iii)       Provides meat to the people.

(iv)       Used for ploughing.

Volcanic mountains

How are volcanic mountains formed?

  • Volcanic mountains were formed as result of volcanicity.

What is vulcanicity?

  • It is a process where hot rocks\ Magma comes out of the earth crust during an eruption.
  • A volcanic mountain is formed when Magma comes out of the ground to the earth’s surface.

Examples of volcanic mountains in Uganda

(i)         Mt. Elgon

(ii)        Mt. Moroto

(iii)       Mt. Mufumbiro

Materials that come out during volcanic eruption

(i)         Magma

(ii)        Ash

(iii)       Cinders

(iv)       Gases

(v)        Rocks

THIS VIDEO SHOWS VOLCANIC ERUPTION

What is Magma?

  • The molten material which comes out of the earth’s interior during an eruption.

Lava

  • Is magma which has cooled down on the earth’s surface after eruption.

THE FEATURES OF VOLCANIC MOUNTAIN

volcano

Types of volcanic mountains

Active mountains

These are mountains which are likely to erupt any time e.g. Mt. Mufumbiro

A dormant volcano/sleeping volcanoes

These are mountains which can erupt but have taken a long time without erupting.

Extinct volcano/Dead volcanoes

These are mountains which cannot erupt .

N.B.

On top of the extinct volcano, there is always a depression (crater) which is filled with water to form as crater lake.

Mountain Elgon

  • It is found at the border of Uganda and Kenya.
  • Mt. Elgon was formed by volcanicity.
  • It is the second highest mountain in Uganda.
  • Its peak is called Wagagai
  • It is locally known as Mt. Masaba

Mountain Moroto

  • It is a volcanic mountain.
  • It receives little rainfall because of dry winds that blow over there.
  • The main occupation for people who live around is pastoralism.
  • People living around the mountain include Karamojong and the Jie of Kenya.

How are mountains important to the people who live near them?

(i)         They help in formation of rainfall.

(ii)        They are fertile soils for agriculture.

(iii)       Attract tourists.  It is a tourist attraction centre.

(iv)       Mountains are sources of some rivers.

Rift Valley

  • It is a long narrow depression on the earth surface boardered by steep sides called escarpments.

How was a Rift Valley formed?

(i)         It was formed by faulting process helped by Tensional forces.

(ii)It starts from  River Jordan and ends at Beira Mozambique.

THIS VIDEO EXPLAINS MORE ABOUT THE FORMATION OF A RIFT VALLEY

What is    an escarpment scarps?

  • It is the steep side of Rift Valley

The rift valley has two branches namely

(i)         Eastern branch passes through Kenya & Tanzania                 ii)         Western branch passes through Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi & Tanzania.

Lakes in Western branch of the valley in Uganda.

(i)         Lake Albert                             (iii)       Lake Edward

(ii)        Late Katwe                             (iv)       Lake Mutanda

Some lakes in Ugand which are not found at rift valley include:

(i)         Lake Victoria

(ii)        Lake Kyoga

(iii)       Lake Mburo

iv)         Lake Wamala

Characteristics of Rift Valley lakes

(i)         They have salty water.

(ii)        They are deep.

(iii)       They have  inlets without outlets.

(iv)       They are long and narrow.

v) They have a regular shape.

Importance of Rift Valley

(i)         It is a tourist attraction centre..

(ii)        Rift valley lakes have minerals e.g. salt and soda ash.

(iii)Pastoralism is carried out in Riftvalleys

  • It is used for farming.

It has lakes where fishing is carried out.

Disadvantages of rift valley

(i)         Poor transport system around rift valley  areas.

(ii)        Land slides are common.

iii)       Floods are common.

Activities carried in rift valley

(i)         Mining                         (iii)       Tourism

(ii)        Fishing                        (iv)crop            Farming

iv) pastaralism

FORMATION OF RIFT VALLEY

riftvalley

Of what importance is Lake Katwe to Uganda’s economy?

(i)         It provides salt to people of Uganda.

(ii)        It attracts tourists.

iii)        Provides employment.

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ASSIGNMENT : PHYSICAL FEATURES OF UGANDA P.5 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 3 days

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