The unit is about prepositions studied in Primary Six




What is a preposition?

A preposition is a word which is usually (but not always) placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and other words in a sentence.

Prepositions are used to show; place, time, agency.

Prepositions of place include; here, above, across, along, at, after, before, behind, below, beside, beyond, by, in, near, off, out, under, on, etc.

e.g.    I have put it on the box.

We met at the dance yesterday.

He went round the house.

Prepositions of Time: These include; after, at, around, before, between, beyond, in, on, by, during, from, of, since, for, until, till etc.

e.g.    He visited me on Sunday.

We slept till six o’clock

They will meet at midday



These are prepositions for saying that a person or things make something happen. e.g.

  1. He killed him with a knife.
  2. Your success has been achieved by your own effort.
  3. The house fell down due to heavy rain.

with, by and due to are prepositions.

Others include; through, owing to, by means of etc.



Some of the prepositions in pairs.

  1. into and in

into – shows motion – Pour this water into a jag.

in – shows position – That book is in the box.

  1. at and in

at – used for a smaller place. – He stays at Entebbe port.

in – used for a bigger place. – He stays in Uganda.

  1. between and among

between – for two people – The twins shared between themselves.

among – for more than two persons. – The triplet shared among themselves.

  1. by and with

by – used for person or agent. The chair was broken by John.

with – used for an instrument. – He killed him with a knife.

  1. beside and besides.

beside – means near. – the cat is sitting beside the bed.

besides – means over and above.

I have two pens besides this one.

  1. In and within

in – shows ending time. – I shall be back in time.

within – shows before ending time. – I shall be back within a week.

  1. On and upon

On – shows position – The lion sat on the table.

Upon – shows motion. – The lion jumped upon the goat.

  1. below and under.

below – means lower than – His height is below two feet.

under – means in and covered by – The snake is under the bed.

  1. on and above.

on – shows contact – The book is on the table.

above – shows position – The clouds are above our heads.

  1. till and until.

There is not difference between till and until. They are both used to refer to time e.g.

We wanted at the station till midday.

We wanted at the station until midday.

Activity 5

Fill in a correct preposition.

  1. His father is coming _____________ Sunday.
  2. I have been waiting for the bus _______ 8.00 o’clock.
  3. My father lives ________ Ben Kiwanuka road _______ Kampala.
  4. The dog jumped __________ the window.
  5. I have not made any appointment __________ him.
  6. She hit her head ___________ the wall in the dark cellar.
  7. He congratulated me _________ passing my examination.
  8. They competed ________ each other last year.
  9. Shaka ruled _________ a large kingdom.
  10. They disagreed ___________ Tom over the matter.
  11. The Mayor has presented the medals _______ the fireman.
  12. He was excluded ________ the team for being obedient.
  13. Every week, I write _____________ my father.
  14. Edgar threw a coin __________ the beggar on the pavement.
  15. Moses and Tom are related _________ each other.
  16. A friend of mine was charged ________ careless driving.
  17. We were accused ________ making noise in class.
  18. The boy apologised ___________ the teacher.
  19. Many people have died __________ malaria
  20. Most of us depend __________ our parents.




 Position of adverbs in a sentence.

Adverbs can follow the direct object of a sentence.


  • I drive the car carefully.
  • She slammed the door angrily.
  • He talked to him softly.
  • The boy fell down suddenly

Where there is no direct object, the adverb can follow the verb it refers to.


-Mary did well in the exams.

-The door opened slowly.

-The magazine is published weekly.

-She normally comes late.

Note:  Adverbs are not positioned between a verb and a direct object.  They are positioned either at the beginning, middle or at the end of a sentence.


  1. Last week, I bought a new dress

Or.  I bought a new dress last week.

  1. The head teacher seldom comes to our classroom.
  2. You are probably right
  3. How often do you wash your clothes?

Adverbs of time and duration.

These are commonly placed at the beginning of a sentence, clause or immediately after the linking word e.g

(a)  Last year, he addressed the school in vernacular.

(b)  For over five hours, he watched cartoons.

Adverbs of place.

These occasionally come at the beginning of a sentence or clause e.g

  • Here is the book you are looking for.
  • There was nobody in the classroom when I arrived.

Adverbs of frequency.

These indicate how often an event occurs e.g  always, often, usually, generally, rarely sometimes, seldom, never, ever, probably etc.


Adverbs (just and already)

 Just and already are used with the present perfect tense to talk about something that has just happened a while ago.  Read the following examples:

The teacher slapped the boy while ago.

The teacher has just slapped the boy.

Already is used with both the present and past perfect.

Read the following examples

Kabugo’s wife has gone away. —- Kabugo’s wife has already gone away..

Your niece has just eaten her food. —– Your niece has already eaten her food.



What is a participle?

A participle is a form of verb used in compound tenses and as an adjective. Past participles are used after helping verbs.

e.g.    That class is swept every morning.

The boy was murdered at night.

He has sung a very nice song.

Otto has cut her finger.

In the above examples, swept, murdered, sung, and cut are called participles. Some participles end with ed, t and others change their inside vowels.

Participles ending with –ed – . Study the examples below.

VerbPast Participle
  1. clean
  2. work
  3. slap
  4. murder
  5. talk
  6. help
  7. finish
  8. complete
  9. reach
  10. arrive
has cleanedhas workedhas slappedwas murderedhave talkedhas helped

has finished

was completed

has reached

had arrived

Use the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete the sentences below.

  1. Most pupils had _____ their exercise by the time the teacher entered the class. (finish)
  2. Their father’s room is being ________ by the maid. (clean)
  3. The thief was ________ by the police officer on duty. (Punish)
  4. Why haven’t you _____ your friend? (help)
  5. That team has ________ both tennis and football. (play)
  6. It has _________ cats and dogs. (rain)
  7. The madam has _______ two cigarettes today. (smoke)
  8. We have ________ an agreement today. (reach)
  9. He was _________ three times on her head. (knock)
  10. He is being _________ to by big men and women. (listen)
  11. Have you every _________ for that company. (work)
  12. You have _________ to your teacher for a long time. (lie)
  13. How many questions have you ________ since the lesson answered? (answer)
  14. The patient was __________ immediately he reached the hospital. (treat)
  15. He is being __________ at as the future manager of his father’s company. (look)



Some participles end with – t – and these are formed from irregular verbs. Study the examples be

VerbPast participles.
  1. sweep
  2. mean
  3. keep
  4. feel
  5. spent
  6. send
  7. leave
  8. buy
  9. burn
  10. bend
  11. deal
  12. creep
  13. catch
  14. lose
  15. lend
has swepthave meanthas kepthas felthave spenthave sent

has left

is bought

is burnt

has bent

has dealt

has crept

has caught

has lost

has lent



Past participles with letter – u

Below are some of the past participles with letter u.


VerbPast participles.
  1. sing
  2. ring
  3. drink
  4. begin
  5. dig
  6. fling
  7. hang
  8. swing
  9. swim
  10. string
  11. strike
  12. sting
  13. stick
  14. spin
has sunghas runghas drunkhas begunhave dughas flung

has hung

has swung

has swum

was stung

was struck

was stung

was stuck

was spun etc.

Form a correct past participle from verb in brackets.

  1. Have you ever _______ across a river? (swim)
  2. My father has ________ several acres of land this year. (dig)
  3. Gadaffi’s Presidential home was _____ by the NATO aeroplanes. (strike)
  4. The bees have _______ my father and has been admitted to Butabika hospital. (sting)
  5. Our house has been _________ by lightning. (strike)
  6. Who has ________ the bell? (ring)
  7. During campaigns,. Many posters were _________ on walls. (stick)
  8. He has _________ around to face me. (spin)
  9. The English Examination has already _________ (begin)
  10. The time keeper has _______ the before the actual time. (ring)
  11. Have you _________ all the clothes you washed? (hang)
  12. The clothes were _________ by my mother because the maid couldn’t do so. (wring)
  13. Everybody has ___________ to their feet top fight the demonstrators. (spring)
  14. Has the war __________ in Libya? (begin)
  15. By the time I was called, my sweater had __________ (shrink)

Fill in each space with the correct form of the verb.

  1. take
  2. give
  3. throw
  4. tread
  5. sew
  6. wind
  7. hold
  8. catch
  9. swear
  10. show
  11. bear
  12. drown
  13. sink
  14. hang
  15. hang
  16. break
  17. choose
  18. ring
  19. shake
  20. freeze















the money was __________________the book was ___________________the stone has been _______________it was __________________________ on.the show was _______________the clock was ________________

the wood was ________________

the trout was _________________

an oath was __________________

films were _________________

the pain was ________________

the sailor was ______________

the ship was _______________

the curtains were _____________

the thief was _________________

the door was _________________

the child was __________________

the bell was __________________

his body was __________________

water was _____________________



Language structure: ………..would rather……than……………

Would rather…..than….. means more less……….. would prefer to………………………..

Study the following examples

I prefer twins to triplets. ———- I would rather have twins than triplets.

It is too late to prepare supper. Let’s prepare tea.

We would rather prepare tea than supper.


Language structure: ……….too………to……………………

Activity 13

Join the following sentences using …..too……to………

  1. Your niece is very young. She can’t go to school alone.
  2. My cousin is very lazy. He can’t finish his work in time.
  3. Motomoto’s brother is very proud. He can’t accept your good ideas.
  4. My grandmother is very old. She can’t walk without a walking stick.
  5. The examination was very hard. We could not score good marks.
  6. Our father is very tall. He cannot pass through that gate.
  7. The head teacher is very wise. He cannot leave that money.
  8. The doctor was very tired. The doctor could not treat the patient.
  9. Her half sister is very stubborn. She can’t listen to anybody.
  10. The bride was very excited. She could not speak properly.


Language structure: ………so……that……../…..such……that……….

We use….such…that.. and ……so..that…. to express a degree or amount, to talk about the cause and the result.

Study the following examples

The film is very good. We can’t miss it.

It is such a good film that we can’t miss it

The film is so good that we can’t miss it.

He speaks very clearly. You cannot miss any word

He speaks so clearly that you cannot miss any word.

Use …..such…… that…..to join the following sentences.

  1. Their grandfather is a devoted man. He loves all his grand daughters.
  2. Our step mother is a very cruel lady. She mistreats us.
  3. Tom’s half sister is an intelligent girl. She will pass the mock exams.
  4. Namara is a very quiet pupil. She rarely talks in class.
  5. Musisi was a very hard working teacher. Every head teacher liked him.


The present simple tense (passive)

The present simple tense is used to:

  1. a) talk about things we do every day or regularly

I go to school every day.

He catches the bus to school

b)to talk about things which do not change

Grace lives next door to me.

Kampala is the capital city of Uganda.

Structure of the present simple tense



We           run (do not run)



she          runs(does not run)


PASSIVE: the passive of the present simple tense is formed as below;

Object+ is/are+the verb in the past participle form

Read the following examples

  • Musa cleans the compound every day.

The compound is cleaned by Musa every day.

  • The head teacher steals our money every term.
  • Our money is stolen by the head teacher every term.


Change the following sentences from active voice to passive voice

  1. The carpenter makes three chairs every day.
  2. Otto cleans the room every morning.
  3. He uses a hammer to join the tables.
  4. They use varnish to make furniture durable.
  5. My brother sells furniture to outside countries.
  6. The primary six pupils learn carpentry every year.
  7. We use glue to join planks together.
  8. Most carpenters advertise furniture on television.
  9. Farmers plant crops during the rainy season.
  10. He is called Katala.

The present continuous tense

It is used to:

  1. a) talk about an action that is going on now but which we expect to finish later e.g.

I am chopping wood for the fire.

The stars are shining brightly.

 The children are playing football now.

  1. b) talk about something that is changing

The crops are growing very fast.

Structure of the present continuous tense

I am watching (am not watching)


She    is watching (is not watching)



we       are watching(are not watching)


The passive of the present continuous tense

It is written as below:

Object +is/are+ being+ the past participle form of the verb used

Study the following examples

  • The tailor is patching my coat. —– My coat is being patched by the tailor.
  • The customers are buying furniture.—– Furniture is being bought by the customers
  • Angella is making a chair. —— A chair is being made by Angella.


The Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense connects the present with the past. It is used to:

  • Talk about something that happened but still holds true now.

I have bought some paper today.

We have known each other for years.

The teacher has marked our books.

NB: all verbs in the present perfect tense are in the past participle form.

Put the verb in brackets the present perfect tense

  1. Wako ………………………an interesting novel.(buy)
  2. Kiwanuka……………………….his homework.(do)
  3. My parents………………….to the coast.(go)
  4. We……………………………….enough water to use.(have)
  5. I…………………here since 1960.(live)
  6. Kalungi……………………hard this term.(work)
  7. Someone………………………my car.(steal)
  8. Nobody…………………………….the top of the world.(see)
  9. Sally ………………………………..an accident in her car.(have)
  10. My brothers aren’t in. They ……………………….to town.(go)

The passive of the present perfect tense

The passive is written as: object+has been/have been+ verb in the past participle form………….

Study the following sentences

  • The thief has stolen my goat…………My goat has been stolen by the thief.
  • Somebody has drunk all the water in the bottle…….All the water in the bottle has been drunk.
  • My teacher has marked all the homework book

Change the following sentences to passive.

  1. The visitor has finished all the food.
  2. We have organized a party.
  3. The carpenter has made four chairs today.
  4. That customer has bought four beds.
  5. Who has drawn that nice picture?
  6. We have sold coffee to the Americans.
  7. He has given me three hundred shillings.
  8. They have taken food and water to the prisoners.
  9. The government has increased the doctors’ salaries.
  10. Who has cleaned the blackboard?
  11. Somebody has taken my chairs.
  12. Dumba has sawn a piece of wood.
  13. Mr. Lumu has used a hammer to remove the nails.
  14. Alex has repaired the broken table.
  15. My uncle has started a carpentry workshop.



Language structure….used for……………….

Read the following sentences

  • Sand paper is used for making wood smooth.
  • A drill is used for making holes into wooden objects.
  • A chair is used for sitting on.
  • A saw is used for cutting wood.

NB: The structure can be used to tell the use of something.

Construct sentences from the table below using the structure…..used for…….

  1. plane

2.a drill




6.a hammer



9.screw driver


Fixing nails in woodSitting onMaking furnitureMaking holes into wood or metalSticking wood firmly togetherSmoothing wood

Polishing wood

Fixing screws in wood or metal

Cutting wood

turning screws in furniture


Language structure………..first……..next……then………….

Read the following sentences

  • First look left next right then left before crossing the road.
  • The carpenter makes the planks smooth using a plane, next he cuts the planks into pieces using a saw then he joins the pieces using a hammer and nails.

NB: The can be used to describe the necessary and important steps taken in doing something in the right way.

Activity 23

Use the structure…….first…….next……the……to describe how the following are made.

1.A bed………   2. A cupboard………  3. A chair……..

Now describe the steps you may take in doing the following activities using the structure….first……next…..then………………

  • Fetching water
  • Mopping the house
  • Frying chips
  • Serving food to the guests
  • Writing an examination


Language structure…besides………………………

Besides is used to mean in addition to or apart from

Read the following sentences

  • The carpenter made a chair besides a table.
  • We an order for chairs besides chairs.
  • He is a carpenter besides being a teacher.

Activity 24

Join the following sentences using ……..besides…………………..

  1. We learnt carpentry. We learnt brick laying.
  2. Malevu has a carpentry workshop. He has a saw mill.
  3. She is a carpenter. She is a farmer.
  4. The carpenter has a hammer. The carpenter has a drill.
  5. Tom’s father bought sand paper. He also bought wood glue.
  6. The carpenter eats chicken. The carpenter eats mutton.
  7. John bought a sideboard. John bought a bed.
  8. He drives a lorry. He drives a bus.



Language structure: ……….though…………………….

Read the following examples

  • Though Kato studied carpentry, he can’t make good chairs.
  • Kato can’t make good chairs though he studied carpentry.
  • Mubiru doesn’t have furniture in his house though he sells timber.

Activity 25

Join the following sentences using ……though……and it should be placed at the beginning of each sentence.

  1. He used glue. The wood did not stick firmly.
  2. Munya had a plane. He could not smooth the timber.
  3. I was with him. I did not know how he cut himself.
  4. They applied varnish to the furniture. The furniture did not shine.
  5. We had timber. It was not enough to make the benches we needed.
  6. Jemba fixed a stool with nails. It was not firm.
  7. The carpenter went to town. He did not have enough money.
  8. Teddy was very lazy but he passed the examinations.
  9. Peter was innocent but the police arrested him.
  10. The carpenter gets a lot of money. He does not have a car.


Language structure: Be careful…………………………

Read the following sentences

  • Be careful when playing such games, you may get injured.
  • You should be careful when talking to outsiders.
  • Be careful when writing your homework.

This can be used to warn someone against something that may be dangerous.


Construct sentences using the structure …..be careful…………….basing on the following activities.

  1. Be careful…………….(stitch)……………
  2. Be careful…………….(scissors)…………
  3. Be careful…………….(knit)…………..
  4. Be careful……………..(sew)…………..
  5. Be careful……………..(patch)…………
  6. Be careful…………… .(weave)………….
  7. Be careful………… .. (mend)……………….
  8. Be careful……………..(repair)………………..
  9. Be careful……………..(iron)…………………..
  10. Be careful………………(mop)……………………..


Language structure…prefer…..to…………………………………

Read the following examples

  • James prefers sewing to knitting.
  • Primary six pupils prefer making noise to revising their notes.
  • He prefers white garments to green ones.


use……prefer….to…………..in the following sentences.

  1. I like uniforms more than ordinary clothes.
  2. They like swimming more than playing football.
  3. My sister likes mending old clothes more than sewing new ones.
  4. That shopkeeper likes selling old clothes more than new ones.
  5. Marjorie likes weaving more than knitting.
  6. I like weaving more than stitching.
  7. Jane likes tailoring. She likes designing even more.
  8. My daughter likes the blue dresses better than the red ones.
  9. The lady likes mini-skirts better than the long ones.


Language structure…as soon as…………………………..

Read the following examples

  • I ironed my uniform as soon as I reached home.
  • As soon as I reached home, I ironed my uniform.
  • Immediately the seamstress finished sewing the dress, she hung it.

As soon as the seamstress finished sewing the dress, she hung it.

The seamstress hung the dress as soon as she finished sewing it.

NB: as soon as, immediately and no sooner carry a similar meaning; therefore it is very wrong to use any two of them in one sentence.


Join the following sentences using……….as soon as……in the middle of a sentence.

  1. The tailor sewed the shirt. He hung it on the nail.
  2. John received his salary. He bought a new sewing machine.
  3. The seamstress looked for the tape measure immediately she got a customer.
  4. Musa’s uniform got torn. He patched it there and then.
  5. The needle pierced her. She started bleeding.
  6. The seamstress reached her place of work. She started mending the old clothes.
  7. I learnt how to use a sewing machine. I started mending my own clothes.
  8. He lost three buttons from his shirt. He stitched new ones on.
  9. We bought threads. We started knitting sweaters.
  10. His pair of trousers got torn. He patched it.

Language structure…immediately………….

Rewrite the above sentences using immediately at the beginning of each sentence


Language structure…but…………………….

Read the following examples

  • He had a thimble on his thimble but he cut his finger.
  • Henry had a sewing machine but he did not know how to use it.
  • She had a tape measure but she took wrong measurements.

But is used to introduce a word or phrase that contrasts with what was said before.


Use ………but……………… in the following sentences

  1. The tailor wanted ten thousand shilling. We did not have it.
  2. I bought a cloth. I did not get a receipt.
  3. The trouser had a zip. It was still loose.
  4. The old man wanted to stitch his coat. He did not have enough threads.
  5. Mukasa put the buttons on his shirt. The buttons could not go through the holes.
  6. She took her cloth to the tailor. The tailor did not sew the cloth.
  7. Belinda was sick. She went to town.
  8. Masaba is not a trained tailor. He makes good designs.
  9. The old man had a pair of scissors. He refused to it to me.
  10. She is poor. She a happy woman.


Language structure…………and………………………….

Read the following examples

  • You are a tailor. I am a tailor.

You and I are tailors

  • Sarah made a good dress. Cynthia made a good dress.

Sarah and Cynthia made good dresses.

Join the following sentences using ……..and………………

  1. Tom has a new sewing machine. Nicholas has a new sewing machine.
  2. The old man weaves nice baskets. The old woman weaves nice baskets.
  3. Your mother is a seamstress. My mother is a stress.
  4. Babirye likes knitting sweaters. Nakato likes knitting sweaters.
  5. He made a dress. He sold it to a Chinese.
  6. The tailor borrowed some money. He bought a zip.
  7. Betty cut a piece of cloth. Betty stitched it.
  8. The customer was very hungry. The tailor was very hungry.
  9. Rukundo is a business man. Kibuule is a business man.
  10. You will attend the concert. I will also attend the concert.



What is a noun?

A noun is a naming word.

Nouns are names given to people, e.g. Sarah, Namusobya, Luswata.

Places: – Mityana, Kampala, Kabaale, Lugazi.

Animals:- goat, lion, dog, etc.

Ideas:- advice, stupidity, carelessness etc.

Other things like; tables, chairs, boxes etc.


Identify nouns in the following sentences.

  1. Musofa will be our next president.
  2. Sunday is the first day of the week.
  3. There are twelve months in a year.
  4. Kampala is the capital city of Uganda.
  5. Egyptians are known to be hardworking people.
  6. Primary six has five streams.
  7. Christians go for prayers on Sunday.
  8. Rwenzori has attracted many tourists to Uganda.
  9. A bird has wings.
  10. A hero is a very important person.
  11. A bitch does not feed its puppy very well.
  12. An egg is oval.
  13. The governor shut down the banks last week.
  14. An orange is round.
  15. A bird makes a nest.
  16. I read three newspapers yesterday.
  17. The Crested Towers is the tallest building in Kampala.
  18. Uganda got her independence on 9th October 1962.
  19. Julia Roberts acted a film called Pretty woman.
  20. Greenhill Academy is located along Mbogo Road


Nouns are formed from verbs, adjectives, adverbs and other words. Suffixes are used to form nouns. The commonest suffixes include – ness, ion, -ly, sm, nee, th, ty, tion, nce, ble, ment, er, al, etc.

Study the examples below.

Verbnoun formed
  1. appear
  2. form
  3. employ
  4. retire
  5. arrive
  6. obey
  7. think
  8. choose
  9. beautify
  10. widen





Other nouns are formed from adjectives. Study the examples below.

Adjectivenoun formed
  1. happy
  2. wise
  3. wide
  4. long
  5. large
  6. ugly
  7. strong
  8. obedient
  9. clever
  10. honest








 What are collective nouns?

These are nouns which stand for a group or collection of people, animals, birds, insects or any other things e.g.

A team of players

A class of students

A choir of singers

A company of actors.

Study the list of collective nouns below.

NounCollective nounNounCollective noun
  1. actors
  2. aeroplanes
  3. angles
  4. arrows
  5. bananas
  6. bees
  7. bells
  8. bishops
  9. boos
  10. bread
  11. chicks
  12. clothes
  13. cotton
  14. kittens
  15. thieves
  16. stamps
  17. steps
  18. tools
  19. whales
  20. wolves
  21. worshippers
companysquadronhostquiverbunch / handswarm
















  1. dancers
  2. diamonds
  3. directors
  4. drawers
  5. eggs
  6. elephants
  7. fish
  8. flowers
  9. friends
  10. furniture
  11. grapes
  12. grass
  13. lay
  14. horses
  15. teachers
  16. sticks
  17. stories
  18. ships
  19. pups
  20. oxen
  21. servants
  22. stars












fleet / flotilla





Fill in the blank spaces correctly.

NounCollective noun
  1. trees
  2. thieves
  3. teachers
  4. sailors
  5. puppies
  6. spectators
  7. servants
  8. sticks
  9. worshippers
  10. tools





Give a single word for the underlined group of words.

  1. A group of actresses was attacked thieves on stage.
  2. The collection of books at our school is one of the best in the country.
  3. When Jesus was born, a collection of angles sang for him.
  4. The two men who were fighting were being cheered by so many people on the street.
  5. All the men stood and stared at the group of beautiful ladies.
  6. Go and pick one book from that group of books.
  7. He was attacked by a group of bees.
  8. The group of dancers was paid one million shillings for the job well done.
  9. The villagers got very excited when they saw a group of horses in their area.
  10. A dog was chasing a group of monkeys.


Conditional sentences.

There are three types of conditional sentences

IF1,  IF2 and IF3

Conditional sentences type one (IF1)

  • It is used when we want to say that something is going to happen if a certain condition is fulfilled.


(a)  If uncle pays schools, I will go to school next term.

(b)  The table will collapse if you stand on it.

(c)  I will punish you if you misbehave.

  • We use the future simple tense in the main clause and a present tense (simple, continuous, perfect) in the ‘If’ clause.
  • We do not use a future tense after ‘if’
  • When the ‘IF’ clause comes first, it is followed by a comma e.g
  • If I tell my father, he will be happy.
  • If you come late, you will miss the exams.
  • But when the ‘IF’ clause comes last, no comma is required.


  • The teacher will punish you if you make noise.
  • We will be happy if we get the front seat.

Oral Practice

Complete the following sentences correctly.

  1. If I get money, I will ——————————————.
  2. Mother will punish us if we ————
  3. If Juma comes, we shall —————-
  4. If you uproot a plant, ———————
  5. The rebel will shoot at me if ————-

Complete the following sentences correctly.

  1. If it rains heavily, farmers ———————-plant their crops.(to be)
  2. If she gets married this year, she————a higher salary. (need)
  3. The captain —————travel in the referee’s car if there ——————–no free seat in the bus. (to be)
  4. There —————-a shortage of water next month if it doesn’t rain. (be)
  5. The work ——————–if he gives us an example.
  6. If the gardener does not water the flowers, they———.(die)
  7. The students ———————–if they don’t bring back the library books. (expel)
  8. If he ———————the examinations, he will be promoted.(to pass)
  9. If he realizes that his mother is ill, he ————————home at once. (to go)
  10. The secretary General ——————–to the scene of the conflict if he thinks his presence will help. (to travel)

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

  1. If I see him, I ———————(give) him a lift.
  2. If he ——————–(eat) all that food, he will be ill.
  3. If I find your passport, I ——————–(telephone) you at once.
  4. if he ————————(read) in bad light, he will ruin his eyes.
  5. Someone —————————(steal) your car if you leave it unlocked.


  1. It is used to imagine what might happen if the impossible came true.


(a)  If he was a river, he would be too lazy to reach the sea.

(b)  I would be a millionaire if I were a king.

  1. To show that the condition is impossible and we are only imagining the result and not expecting it to come true, we use the past simple tense in the ‘if’ clause and  a ‘would’ tense in the main clause.


(a)  What would you do if you found a burglar in your house?

(b)  If he were a snake, he would bite all sinners.

(c)  If I had a gun, I would shoot at all thieves.

Oral Practice.

Complete the following sentences  correctly.

  1. If I were an angel, —————————–
  2. She would tell me if ————————
  3. She would get a first grade if —————–
  4. If the sun rose from the West, —————–
  5. If I were my father, ——————–

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

  1. If someone —————–(give) you a helicopter, what would you do with it?
  2. If he worked more slowly, he —————–(not make) so many mistakes.
  3. I shouldn’t drink that wine if —————–(be) you.
  4. What would you do if the lift —————–(get) stuck between two floors?
  5. If you ————–(paint) the walls white, the room would be much brighter.
  6. I ——————-(keep) a horse if I could afford it.
  7. The whole machine would fall to pieces if you ———–(remove) that screw.
  8. If we had more rain, our crops ——————–(grow) faster.
  9. If she ———————-(do) her hair differently, she would look quite nice.
  10. I would get a job easily if I ——————-(have) a degree.

Rewrite the following sentences in If 2.

  1. If he goes to London, I will go with him.
  2. If she writes to me, I will be very happy.
  3. The girls will sweep the classroom if the teacher tells them.
  4. If the young man wants to see me, he will come to my office.
  5. If the train is on time, they will catch the boat easily.


Language structure; You should …/ You should not………

Read the following examples

  • You should always take care of those animals
  • You should the sheep daily.
  • You should milk the cows regularly.

This kind of structure can be used to express obligation or responsibility


Rewrite the following sentences using the structure: You should…………………….

  1. You ought to treat those goats properly.
  2. We ought to look after those animals.
  3. The boys must clean the kraal.
  4. We ought to the cows every morning and evening.
  5. The butcher must slaughter only healthy animals.

You should not…………………………………………………………….

Read the following examples

  • We ought not to mistreat those animals

We should not mistreat those animals.

  • You ought not to milk sick cows.

You should not milk sick cows.

Rewrite the following sentences using the structure: You should not……….

  1. The boy mustn’t under that cow.
  2. You ought not to share a house with animals.
  3. You ought not to punish innocent animals.
  4. They mustn’t over stay in town.
  5. Moses ought not to scare those goats.



Language structure Not only…………but also……………

Read the following examples

  • Not only should we know the animal behaviour but also the sound they make.
  • Not only does a cow give us milk but also meat.
  • Not only should the herdsman graze the cows but also milk them.

Join the following sentences using the structure; Not only………but also………….

  1. Tom slaughtered a goat. He sold the meat.
  2. The cows ate grass. The cows drank a lot of water.
  3. The sheep like banana peels. They also like potatoes leaves.
  4. You should dock the sheep. You should also treat it.
  5. The bulls are used for ploughing. They are also used for pulling carts.
  6. A veterinarian treats sick animals. He also advises farmers on how to care for animals.
  7. Byamukama keeps local breeds. He also keeps exotic breeds.
  8. A dog guards our home. A dog guards our domestic animals.
  9. Cows give us milk. Cows give us meat.
  10. The butcher sells beef. The butcher sells goat meat.

Language structure…need not…………………..

Read the following examples

  • We need not be cruel to animals because they are our friends.
  • We need not dock animals because it hurts them.

Rewrite the following sentences using ……..need not………………..

  1. We shouldn’t starve the animals because they a right to food.
  2. You shouldn’t think grazing animals is a punishment.
  3. We shouldn’t beat the animals because we hurt them.
  4. You shouldn’t give little milk to the calf because it needs to grow.
  5. You shouldn’t keep many dogs because it is hard to maintain them.
  6. The herds man ought not to starve the animals.

Language structure: If……..would………………………..

Read the following examples

  • If animals were people, they would complain about being tortured.
  • If the butcher came here, we would not be surprised.
  • If animals had wings, they would fly to all countries.
  • If you grazed those animals properly, you would earn a lot of money from them.

NB: the structure can be used with conditional (ii)

Rewrite the following sentences using the structure If………would……….

  1. If the visitor comes, we shall dive him food.
  2. If the goat is mistreated, it will not grow fat.
  3. If the doctor comes today, he will treat all the animals
  4. If that goat sleeps in the house, the house will smell.
  5. If the farmer is very careful, all his animals will die of foot and mouth disease,


ASSIGNMENT : PREPOSITIONS p.6 assignment MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

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