this helps understand what relative pronouns are and how they are used in english grammar.

These are words which are used to show the relationship between a noun or pronoun with the rest of the sentence already talked about e.g. the teacher has a lot of pain in the shoulder. The teacher caned us heavily. The teacher who caned us heavily has a lot of pain in the shoulder

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that begins a subordinate clause and relates to an idea in the sentence.

Examples of relative pronoun are:

-who, whose, whom (specifically used to talk about people)

– That, which (specifically used to refer to objects)


  1. Using “who”

It is used for people.


  1. That is the boy. The boy hit me.

That is the boy who hit me.

  1. Mary is the girl. She caused the accident.

Mary is the girl who caused the accident.


Join using…..who…….

  1. The man was taken to the hospital. The man was seriously injured.
  2. The house girl was taken away. The house girl was a fool.
  3. The sweepers will re-sweep today. The sweeper swept yesterday.
  4. The lazy boy will do the punishment alone. The lazy boy is lame.
  5. The lady was carrying a beautiful bag. The lady was ugly.
  6. The beggar is poor. The beggar is dressed in rags.
  7. The pupil was ashamed. The pupil gassed in the class.
  8. I saw the man. The man saved the girl from the lion.
  9. That is the teacher. The teacher teaches us mathematics.
  10. Those are the men. They snatched my bag yesterday.

Using …….whose……..

“Whose” refers to people or things it shows possession.


  1. He married a girl. Her father was rich.

He married a girl whose father was rich.

  1. They gave her a horse. Its legs were very short.

They gave her a horse whose legs were very short.

  1. We saw a house. Its windows were all broken.

We saw a house whose windows were all broken.



Join using ………whose………

  1. That is the man. His cat was stolen.
  2. That is the car. The car’s tyre was stolen.
  3. I met a Dutch. The Dutch’s name was Adams.
  4. Jane is the girl. Her book was stolen yesterday.
  5. The cow died. The cow’s tail was cut off.
  6. Doreen is the girl. Her leg got broken.
  7. Those are the desks. Their legs broke off during our play.
  8. Joel is the pupils. His money has been stolen.
  9. Those are David’s shoes. Their soles are worn out.
  10. She is the girl. Her father died in the accident.

Using “whom”

When a pronoun is the object of the clause, you can use whom, instead of who. Whom is used after a preposition for people.


  1. You spoke to the man. The man is the manager.

The man to whom you spoke is the manager.

  1. The person will be back soon. You have an appointment with him.

The person with whom you have an appointment will be back soon.


J0in using……whom……………………

  1. My Cousin is a candidate already. I beat him by age.
  2. The land was favoured by most of the men. The judge wanted to remand her for 2 years.
  3. That is the librarian. I got reading books from him.
  4. The man was about seven years old. The policemen were moving with her.
  5. The child was bout seven years old. The policemen were moving with her.
  6. The rich man said it was no good. The butcher took the meat to him.
  7. The Zairwa gave him some water to drink. The Rwandan was begging from him.
  8. The thief was arrested by the passerby. The defense forces were looking for it.
  9. The officer bought him a pancake. Robert delivered the message to him.
  10. The disease was a scourge. The minister died of it.
  11. The two girls didn’t like him. Tom used to sit between them.

Use of “which” or “that”

Which and that are used for things and animals


  1. The dog was killed. The madman was chasing it.

The dog which the madman was chasing was killed.

The dog that the madman was chasing was killed.


  1. That is the tree. The tree fell over the house last week.

That is the tree which fell over the house last week.

That is the tree that fell over the house last week.


Join suing ………”which”   ……..and …..”that” ……………..

  1. The rabbit was later trapped. The rabbit had run.
  2. The money was stolen.   The money was in the bank.
  3. The puff- adder was running down the river. The puff adder was killed.
  4. The mat was not very strong. The mat was mad of banana leaves.
  5. The book has a poor cover. The book has good material.
  6. The tree had very good timber. The carpenter cut it.
  7. The house was really weak. The thieves broke into it.
  8. The buffalo later killed all of them. The hunters were chasing it.
  9. The hospital was a long way. The patient went to it.
  10. The stone has to cut off my nose. The stone was thrown at me.



Complete the following sentences with the correct word.

  1. That is the teacher ……………………………………teaches us Mathematics.
  2. This is the cow …………………we bought from Kenya.
  3. …………………………car was it.
  4. I injured my leg ………………………got broken last week.
  5. Denis is the boy to …………………..l lent my notebook.


Re-write the given sentences as instructed in the brackets

  1. The dove quickly flew into the air. The boy was aiming his stone – sling at it. (Join using……at which ….)
  2. Mr. Rwomushana was elected as the constituent assembly delegate.
  3. Mr. Rwomushasa displayed good leadership at the university. (Join using…….who……)
  4. The snake was a cobra. The witch was playing with it. (Join using…..which…..)
  5. The textbook is misplaced. The teacher lent it to me yesterday. (Join using…..that…..)
  6. The bigboy failed primary six. They laughed at him. (Join using…….whom…..)
  7. Mr. Musoke is the man. His son graduated yesterday. (Join suing…..whose…..)
  8. This is the house. Musa lives in this house. (Join using……where…..)
  9. Friday is the day. We go for prayers on Friday. (Join using……when………..)


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