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VIELEZI (Adverbs)

Vielezi ni maneno ambayo huongezea taarifa kuhusu vitenzi, vivumishi, wakati, pahali, hali, tarakimu ama jinsi jambo hutendeka. (Adverbs are words that give more information about verbs, adjectives, time, place, situation, numbers or how something is done).

Kwa mfano

  • Mvua ilinyesha sana huu msimu (Rain has been too much th is season)
  • Mtaa huu utapata huduma za umeme mwaka ujao. (This street will get electricity services next year).
  • Jua hutua (The sun sets to the west)
  • Walitembea (They walked slowly)
  • Majivu haya ni meusi (This ash is very black.

Maneno yaliyopigiwa msitari hapo juu ni vielezi. (The underlined words above are adverbs) Vielezi hujibu maswali yafuatayo. (Adverbs answer the following questions.

 

  • Vipi? (how)

Yeye huandika vizuri. (She/he writes well).

Sisi tulilia sana. (We cried so much)

Wao watatembea polepole. (They will walk slowly)

Mwizi alienda harakaharaka sokoni. (The thief went quickly in the market).

 

  • Lini? (when?)

Tume hiyo ilibuniwa mwezi wa Agosti huu mwaka. (The commission was created in August this year).

Alan alifika hapa jana. (Alan came here yesterday).

Mwalimu atakuja kesho. (The teaher will come tomorrow).

Baba yake alilima Jumamosi wiki iliopita. (His/her father dug on Saturday last week).

Ng’ombe wetu aliibwa juzi usiku. (Our cow was stolen the previous night)

 

  • Wapi? (Where?)

Ndege amepaa angani. (The bird has flown to the sky)

Mwalimu alienda nyumbani. (The teacher went at home)

Simba amelala kichakani. (The lion has lied in the bush)

Wanafunzi wako darasnai. (The students are in class)

Hakimu atatembea barabarani. (The judge will walk on the road).

 

  • Mara ngapi? (How many times)

Alitibiwa mara kwa mara huu ugonjwa. (He/she was treated every time and again/every time this disease)

Yeye huja hapa kwa nadra. (He /she comes here rarely).

Wachezaji watacheza mara dufu. (The payers will play several times).

Wageni watakula mara tatu. (The visitors will eat three times).

Watoto huimba mara mbili kila siku. (The chuidren sing twice every day)

Mimi huenda mjini mara nyingi. (I go to town severally).

NOTE

Adverbs are words that modify verbs. In Kiswahili adverbs preceed the verbs they modify. Eg.

Fanya haraka. (Do quickly)

Kula polepole (Eat slowly)

Njoo kesho/ kuja kesho (Come tomorrow)

Tembea ovyo (walk carelessly)

AINA ZA VIELEZI. (TYPES OF ADVERBS)

Vielezi vya namna. (Adverbs of manner)

Vielezi hivi huonyesha jinsi kitendo kinavyofanyika ama jinsi kivumishi/kielezi kiingine kilivyo. Vielezi hivi hujibu swali la vipi? (These adverbs show how an action is done or how adjectives/other adverbs behave. (They answer the question of how?)

Kwa mfano                                           mfano

Tu (just)                                                     haraka (quickly)

Kweli (truely/sincerely)                             salama (peacefully)

Kabisa (completely/abusulutely)                kitajiri (richly)

Upesi   (quickly                                          sawasawa (equqlly)

Ovyo (carelessly

Vizuri(well/nicely)
Ghafla (suddenly)                                  kiusomi (educationally)

Vyema/vema (well/excellently)               polepole (slowly)

Sana (very/ too much)                            bure (freely)

Vikali (terribly/mercilessly)                    taratibu (carefully)

Mno (so much/too much)                       kasi (speedly/quickly)

Kimoyomoyo (secretely)                        kiunyenyekevu (humbly)

Tena (again)                                            kihadhira (publically)

Kiunyenyekevu (humbly/politetey)     chapuchapu (quickly)

Kiusomi (educationally)                           vibaya (badly)

Pendeza (lovely/nicely)                            pupa (hurriedly)

Makini (critically)                                     kighafula (unexpectedly)

Kishairi (poetically)                                  kisirisiri (secretely)

Kitofauti (separately)                               kivoloya (lazily)

Kirafiki (friendly)                                    kiwakati (timely)

Kiwakati (timely)

Sentensi

  1. Daraja hilo lilijengwa vizuri. (That brigde was built well)
  2. Amefanya kazi kwa pupa. (He/she has done the work hurriedly)
  3. Mwalim au hutembea upesi. (The teacher walks quickly)
  4. Ukipanda ovyo, utavuna ovyo. (If u plant carelessly, you harvest carelessly)
  5. Karani alitembea chapuchapu (The secretary walked quickly).
  6. Mwizi alingonga mlango harakaharaka. (The thief knocked at the door quickly).

Vielezi vya wakati. (Adverbs of time)

Vielezi hivi huonyesha wakati ambao kitendo kilitendeka. Hujibu swali la lini? (These adverbs show the time when the action was done. They asnswer the question of when?

Kwa mfano                                                                        mchana (afternoon)

Sasa (now)                                                                           kabla (before)

Jana (yesterday)                                                                   usiku (night)

Kesho (tomorrow)                                                               bado (not yet)

Keshokutwa (tomorrow but one)                                        kwa hivyo (therefore)

Juzi (yesterday but one/recently)                                         baadaye (afterwards)

Zamani (long ago)                                                                sasa hivi (just now/at this time

Mapema (early)                                                                    hivi punde (very soon)

Asubuhi (morning)                                                               kisha (then)

Sasa hivi (just now/ at this moment)                                    siku zote (all days/always)

Hivi punde (very soon)                                                        milele (forever)

Kisha (then)                                                                         dima (forever)

Pengine (sometimes)                                                            mwaka huu (this year)

Adhuhuri (afternoon)                                                          mwaka uliopita (last year)

Mwaka ujao (next year)                                                       mwezi huu (this month)

Wiki hii (this week)                                                             mwezi uliopita (last month)

Mwezi ujao (next month)                                                    muhula huu (this month)

Wiki iliopita (last week)                                                       muhula uliopita (last month)

Wiki ijayo (next month)                                                       muhula ujao (next month)

Muhula huu (this term)                                                        karne (centuary)

Muhula ujao (next month)                                                   mwongo (a decade)

Muhula uliopita (last term)

Siku zote za wiki (All days of the week i.e Jumapili, Jumatatu)

Miezi yote ya mwaka yote. (All months of the year)

Majira yote (all seasons)

Sentensi

  1. Mwalimu atalima kesho shambani. (The teacher will dig tomorrow in the gargen)
  2. Sherehe hiyo itamalizika jioni. (That party will end in the evening)
  3. Maandamano yataanza adhuhuri. (The matching will start afternoon).
  4. Baba yangu alikuja jana asubuhi. (My father came yesterday morning)
  5. Sisi tutaishi milele. (We shall live forever)
  6. Mama yetu atakuja saa tatu usiku. (My mother will come at 9:00pm)
  7. Mwalimu mkuu ataenda mjini Jumamosi. (The headteacher will go to town on Saturday)
  8. Mwalimu wetu alitutolea hotuba alipowasili shuleni. (Our teacher gave us a speech when he arrived at school.
  9. Mhadhiri alikuja chuoni kisha akaondoka. (The lecturer came at the university then left)
  10. Alienda kwa soko kabla ya kuenda shambani. (He/she went to the market before he went to the garden).
  11. Mimi nilizaliwa katika karne ya ishirini na moja. ( was borne in the 21st cenuary).

Vielezi vya pahali (Adverbs of places)

Haya ni maneno ambayo huonyesha mahali ambapo kitendo kilitendeka/kilifanyika/kitatendeka. Hujibu swali la wapi? (These are words that show where the action/verb took place/was done/will take place. They answer the question of where?)

Kwa mfano.                                                 Pembezoni (corner)

Nyuma (hehind)                                           shule/shuleni (school)

Mbele (infront)                                             soko/sokoni (market)

Nje (outside)                                                nyumbani (home)

Ndani (inside)                                              ughaibuni (abroard)

Karibu (near)                                                pango/pangoni (cave)

Mbali (far)                                                    mji/mjini (town)

Ng’ambo (opposite side of the lake or river/ abroad)

Pembeni (at the side)

Barabara/barbarani (road)                                        shamba/shambani (garden)

Darasa/darasani (class)                                                 ziwa/ziwani (lake)

Chumba/chumbani (room)                                            mto/mtoni (river)

Mbinguni (heaven)                                                       bahari/baharini sea/ocean)

Mahakama/mahakamani (court)                                   mkutano/mkutanoni (meeting)

Bunge /bungeni (parliament)                                        mashariki (east)

Ofisi/afisini (office)                                                      magharibi (west)

Kiwanda/kiwandani (factory/industry)                        kusini (south)

Mto/mtoni (river)                                                          kaskani (north)

Kulia (right hand)                                                         arusi/arusini (party/ceremony)

Arusi/arusini (party/ceremony)                                     kushoto (left hand)

Nchi zote (all countries): Uganda, Merikani kusini, Kenya, Tanzania, Uhabeshi, Misiri, Kongo, Afrika kusini.

Mabara yote (all continents): Bara la Afrika, Bara la Asia, Bara la Ulaya, bara la Merikani/Amerika, Bara la Australia.

Majiji yote (all cities): Jiji la kampala, jiji la Nairobi, jijila Dodoma, jiji la Kigali, Paris, Berlin,Sofia, Ujumbura.

Miji yote (all towns): Mji wa Mbarara, mji wa Mbale, mji wa Jinja, mji wa Arua. mji wa Kapchorwa, mji wa Gulu.

Wilaya zote (all districts): Wilaya ya Kasese, wilaya ya Mukono, wilaya ya Bushenyi, wilaya ya Kiboga, wilaya ya Kabale.

NOTE

When suffix “-ni” is added to an adverb of place, it also suggests an adverbial sense for the word concerned. This suffix therefore means in/on/at.

Kwa mfano

Shule (school)                 shuleni (at/in/to school)

Soko (market)                 sokoni (in/to market)

Shamba (garden)             shambani (in garden/to garden)

Kiwanda (factory)           kiwanani (in/to industry)

Wilaya (district)              wilayani (in district)

Darasa (class)                  darasani (in/to class)

Barabara (road)                baranarani (on road)

Kabati (cupboard)            kabatini (in the cupboard)

Kichwa (head)                  kichwani (on the head)

Kivuli (shadow/shade)      kivulini (in shadow/shade)

Chumba (room)               chumbani (in room)

Pango (cave)                     pangoni (in cave)

Kitanda (bed)                    kitandani (in bed)

Mkutano (meeting)           mkutanoni (in meeting)

Mti (tree)                           mtini (in tree)

Tumbo (stomach)              tumboni (in stomach)

Mkono (hand)                   mkononi (in/at hand)

Kinywa (mouth)                kinywani (in mouth)

Jicho (eye)                         jichoni (in the eye)

Kwapa (armpit)                  kwapani (in the armpit)

Sentensi

  1. Mwali ataenda bungeni (the teacher will go the the parliament tomorrow)
  2. Tutalima shambani wiki ijayo (we shall dig in the garden next month)
  3. Mama yangu huenda sokoni jumapili. (My mother goes to the market on Sunday)
  4. Wanafunzi wanasoma darasani (the students are reading in class)
  5. Shule yetu itaenda Nairobi mwaka ujao. (Our school will go to Nairobi next year)
  6. Wao wataenda mahakamani kesho. (They will go to the court tomorrow)
  7. Mgonjwa aliketi kivulini. (The patient sat in the shade)

NOTE

  1. Remember, earlier we said that to/in/at mean “kwa”. We have just said that suffix “-ni” also means in/on/at. So when suffix “-ni” is added to an adverb, we therefore do not use “kwa” in the same sentence and vice versa.
  2. We either use “-ni” or “kwa” but not both in the same sentence to avoid repetition since both serve the same purpose)

Kwa mfano.

Mwalimu ataenda bungeni. This sentence has the same meaning as “Mwalimu ataenda kwa bunge”. (Not Mwalimu ataenda kwa bungeni)

Mama yangu huenda sokoni jumapili. Sentensi hii ni sawa na,

Mama yangu huenda kwa soko jumapili Not Mama yangu huenda kwa sokoni Jumapili)

Tutalima shambani wiki ijayo, ni sawa na, Tutalima kwa shamba wiki ijayo. Pasi na kusema Tutalima kwa shambani.

  1. One sentence can have more than one type of adverbs as below.
  2. Mama yangu huenda sokoni (Place vs time)
  3. Mwalimu alienda shuleni jana usiku. (Place vs time)
  4. Baba yangu alikuwa Ulaya wiki iliyopita. (Place vs time)
  5. Tuliendesha gari polepole jana (Manner vs time vs place)

All the italisized words in the above sentences are different types of adverbs. Its incampent upon you to identify the type of adverb in the sentence as elucidated above.

Vielezi vya idadi (adverbs of numbers)

Vielezi hivi huonyesha idadi ya kutendesha kitenzi. Kuna idadi aina mbili yaani, idadi kamili/kadirifu na idadi isiyo kamili.

  • Idadi kamili/kadirifu.

Vielezi hivi huwa na uwezo wa kupimika.idadi hii hupimika kwa mfano

  1. Mwalimu alikuja shuleni mara mbili.
  2. Mwanafnzi aliruka mara nne
  3. Mimi nilikula chakula mara kumi.
  4. Shule yetu itachaeza mara moja.
  • Idadi isiyo kamili.

Vielezi hivi hutumia maneno kama maradufu (severally) sana (a lot), kwanadra (rerelly), kidogo (little) haba (little), mara nyingi (many times)

  1. Mwalimu alimpigia mara dufu
  2. Sisi tutacheza sana
  3. Baba yangu huja nyumbani kwanadra
  4. Shangazi yake ataleta pesa kidogo
  5. Kaka yetu ataimba mara nyingi.

Zoezi

  1. Tambua vielezi vilivyotumiwa katika sentensi zilizo hapa chini kwa kuvipigia msitari. Identify the adverbs in the following sentences by underlining them.
  2. Mwanafunzi alienda Nairobi leo.
  3. Mungu alikuja zamani.
  4. Nilienda Merikani mwaka jana.
  5. Nitacheza kandanda jioni.
  6. Wao watenda mashariki mwa Uganda kesho saa mbili za usiku.
  7. Askari polisi walishika mwizi wakampeleka gerezani.
  8. Baba yetu huwa dukani asubuhi.

 

  1. Ainisha vielezi vifuatavyo (classify the following adverbs)
  2. Uganda, Kenya, Misiri, kanisani, Nairobi.
  3. Polepole, harakaharaka, nyumbani shuleni.
  4. Saa tano, mashariki, adhuhuri, pangoni.
  5. Sana , mara kwa mara, kwanadra, mbarara.

 

  1. Jaza mapengo yaliyo hapa chini kwa kuweka kielezi sahihi kati ya maneno yaliyo katika mabano. (fill the blank apaces bellow with the right adverb from the words in brackets)
  2. Mwalimu alienda…….(pole. Polepole)
  3. Sisi tumenunua kamba……( leo, jana, kesho)
  4. Mlevi alilala …… ( kitabuni, kitandani, mtoni)
  5. Kasisi alihubiri injili…….. (kichakani. Kanisani. Chooni)
  6. Tuliogelea…….juzi. ( bahari, baharini, mto)
  7. Walichezea kwa …….(darasani, darasa)
  8. Mnyama alipanda kwa …….mwaka uliopita. ( mtini, mti)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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