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PIG PRODUCTION Terms used Sow; This is a female pig, which has already farrowed Boar; It’s a male mature pig. …

PIG PRODUCTION Terms used Sow; This is a female pig, which has already farrowed Boar; It’s a male mature pig. Gilt; A young female pig, which has not yet farrowed. Piglet The young of a pig [newly born pigs] Farrowing; The act of giving birth in pigs. Runt; The last born among piglets. Farrowing pen; This is a special place where pigs farrow from Pigsty; This is a house where pigs stay Pork; Fresh meat from pigs Bacon; This is meat taken from sides and back of the pig and cured in the factory.   SYSTEMS OF PIG REARING Intensive system; This is where the pigs are confined in houses through out their life Semi-intensive system; This is where the pigs are confined in houses at most period of the day and allowed out for a short time Extensive system; Pigs are allowed roam the place in search for water and feeds   Question; explain the merits and demerits of each system   Advantages of rearing pigs compared to other animals
  • Pigs require a small area since they can be confined under the intensive system of management and do not require a large area of grazing as ruminants do.
  • Little initial capital is required as compared to dairying and fish farming.
  • They consume most of the food remains reducing wastage of feeds on the farm and lowering feed costs.
  • Pigs grow very fast which enables the farmer to get income in a short time when sold.
  • It is adapted to specialized and diversified farming system
  • They produce high quality manure which can be used in the gardens.
  • Pig rearing creates extra employment for the family and the population especially in places with established pig industries.
  • Pigs produce hard fat that can be used in the manufacture of soap.
  • Pork is easily marketable
  • Pigs are highly prolific which increases profits faster
  Factors to consider before starting a pig enterprise Type of breed The breed chosen should be the one needed in the market and one adopted with the environment Food supply A constant supply of feeds is necessary since pigs quickly respond to inadequate feeding. Capital This is needed for purchasing the breeding stock, constructing pig houses, buying feeds etc. Labour Skilled Labour is required for proper carrying out of management practices like feeding pregnancy diagnosis and gilt, removing chick. Housing Good housing improves pig production hence it should be put into consideration. Transport facilities There must be reliable transport in the area from breeding centers to the market Market There must be ready market for the animals and their product to reduce losses. Economy of production Large scale production requires high initial capital therefore a farmer must be ready to meet it. Pest and diseases The history of pests and diseases in a particular place should be considered since some diseases like swine fever can cause a lot of losses.   PROBLEMS FACING THE PIG INDUSTRY
  • Diseases serious diseases like swine fever / hog cholera has caused serious losses to farmers in the pig industry.
  • Pigs are non ruminant hence complete with man for the little food available.
  • Social beliefs. A number of societies in Uganda look down at a pig as a an unclean animal therefore they cannot rare or eat products from the animal.
  • Have a vice of uprooting plants and destroying farm structures which makes their raring expensive.
  • Pig production requires a special kind of fence which may be expensive for most farmers.
  • Inadequate organized market. Most of the pork / pig butchers are located in restricted places which makes marketing difficult.
  • Poor breeds of pigs. Most of the breeds being kept are of poor quality and hence they are of low production.
  • Poor management Most of the farmers have little knowledge about pig management. This reduces growth rates hence a low level of production.
  PIG BREEDS IN UGANDA
  1. Large black
  2. Large white / Yorkshire
  3. Land race
  4. Saddle back.
  SELECTION OF BREEDING PIGS
  • Boars
  • It should be vigorous and healthy
  • It should have well developed feet
  • It should be free from defects that can be transmitted to off springs.
  • Should have a long, deep and strong body.
  • It should be easy to handle i.e. should have good temperament.
  • They should be able to weigh about 100kg at six months of age.
  • The appearance and condition of the pig /boar should confirm the breed type.
  • It should be able to mature sexually early.
  • It should be able to produce large quantities of viable sperm
 
  • GILT /SOW
  • Should have well developed feet to enable her feed the litter even when standing.
  • It should have god mothering quality i.e. a low temperament.
  • It should be healthy and having a vigorous build
  • The appearance should be in conformity with the breed
  • It should have at least 12 functional teats to enable her raise a large number of litter.
  • It should be able to farrow without any problem
  • Should have a high ability to utilize feeds efficiently.
  • Should be able to produce at least 8 piglets per farrow
  • Should produce piglets with a high growth rate.
  CARE FOR A PREGNANT PIG
  • Feeding the sow or gilt should be given a feeds/ sow and weaner meal which are 2% of its weight per day.
  • Individual feeding troughs should be encouraged to reduce competition between the pregnant animals.
  • In the 1st month of pregnancy give about 2.4 – 3.5 kg of sow and weaner meal per day.
  • Do not over feed the animal during pregnancy to avoid over feeding and stocking of the udder which causes mastitis.
  • During the second and 3rd month sow and weaner feeds should be reduced to about 1.5 per saw per day.
  • Bulky feeds like sweet potatoes and cassava should be given to make a balanced diet and improve digestion.
  • Clean fresh water must be made available at all times which can be mixed with feeds or given after eating.
  • The pregnant animal should be dewormed before farrowing to control internal worms e.g. tape worm.
  • Minerals and vitamins should be given in correct amounts e.g. some vitamins which are important in embryo development.
  • A sow should be taken in a clean farrowing pen two weeks to farrowing.
  • Supply 10-15kgs of dry grass to the farrowing pen which can be used by a pregnant animal uses a nest.
  • Administer an iron injection to the pregnant animal to control anemia in the piglets about to be born.
  • The gilt also should be washed especially the udder with clean water and soap a few minutes to farrowing to remove dirt and worm eggs.
  SIGNS OF FARROWING:
  • The sow/ gilt becomes restless
  • Presence of milk with in teats 12 – 24 hrs before farrowing
  • Enlarged teats of the gilt or sow
  • The vulva becomes swollen and enlarged.
  • Muscles on either side of the tail slacken
  • The sow prepares a nest from the dry grass.
  • Arching of the sow’s back.
Preparation for farrowing
  • Clean and disinfect the farrowing pen
  • Wash and disinfect the pregnant animal
  • Treat the animal against internal parasites
  • Move the animal to the farrowing pen
  • Secure the animals feed a day before farrowing
  • Provide heat in the farrowing creep area
  • Provide clean beddings
  MANAGEMENT OF PIGLETS FROM BIRTH TO WEANING Feeding
  • Piglets should be left with the mother to ensure that they take colostrum which is important to their bodies.
  • They should be provided with feeds rich in proteins and carbohydrates [creep feed] in a special place only accessible by piglets [creep]
  • Clean water should be provided to the piglets at all times.
Control of piglet’s anemia Piglets should be given an ion injection or anthill soil rich in ion. Identification Two main methods are used in the identification i.e. ear notching and ear tattooing. Teeth clipping/ removal of cheek teeth The sharp canines should be removed since they become dangerous at a later stage to the managers Deworming The piglets are more prone to internal worms like liver-fluke, tape warms and round worms. They should be dewormed early to ensure fast growth. Castration The male piglets that are not going to participate in breeding should be castrated at about 2 weeks of age Vaccination The piglets can be vaccinated against killer diseases like foot and mouth etc. Weaning The piglets are weaned at about six weeks after delivery and thereafter they should be fed normally on concentrate feeds   Management of gilts from weaning to farrowing
  • Feed the gilt on At least 3kg of sow and weaner meal every day
  • Provide clean water without any restriction
  • Vaccinate the gilts against killer disease regularly
  • Control external parasites like lice by spraying or washing using pesticides
  • Sick gilts should be treated immediately o avoid loss
  • The gilt should be mated at about 12 month after attaining 45 kg.
  • Flush the animal 3-4 weeks before mating to increase rate of ovulation and successful fertilization
  • Keep the pen clean to reduce disease out breaks by regular washing
  • Once ready, the gilt should be taken to the boar and left there for 12 hours
  • Observe the gilt to ensure that it has conceived if not, take it back for service
  • Steaming up should be done 1 month to farrowing
  • Wash the gilt prior to calving to remove worm eggs from the teats
  METHODS OF FEEDING PIGS
  • Ad-lib
This is where pigs are allowed to eat as much as they want since feeds are always available.
  • Semi adlib feeding
This involves feeding pigs 3 times a day by hand as much as each would eat in 20 – 30 minutes
  • Restricted feeding
Pigs are fed once or twice a day.   SYSTEMS OF FEEDING PIGS Automatic feeders This is where feeds are provided to pigs in their stores by a computerized system Trough feeding Here feeds are given in troughs. On floor feeding Here feeds are poured on the floor more especially the dry feeds for pigs to eat.   ADVANTAGES OF FEEDING PASTURES TO PIGS
  1. Improve functioning of the digestive system
  2. They are the cheapest source of animal feeds
  3. They are a good source of minerals and vitamins for grazing animals
  4. They easily satisfy the animal’s appetite since they are abundant and taken in large quantities.
  5. They protect and restore fertility in the soil.

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